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that which is an original energy can not be explained by its environment, because it is independent. Nor is it strictly speaking correlated to the body, although it uses it in sense-perception and in volition as an instrument of communication with the outer world.

This work of Professor Baldwin is intended by its author expressly for elementary classes. It seeks to aid them, by many happy devices, in making an inventory of the mental processes and in arranging the items methodically. It aims to familiarize those commencing the study with the technical nomenclature and useful discriminations used by writers of our day in treating this theme. Above all, it expects to teach the pupil how to attain the second order of observation; how to pass from the attitude of mind, which observes external things, to that attitude of mind which observes internal activities. To make this transition is to acquire a most important power of thought. To think things and environments is to think the phenomenal, the transient, and variable; to think self-activity is to think the noumenal, the true individuality, and what is divine in human nature.

Although the author has purposely omitted from this work the subtle and profound discussions which arise in advanced psychology, he has done it in the interest of the beginners for whom the book is made. The author is well assured that, once drawn into the study of mind and well disciplined in the habit of internal observation, it is only a matter of time with the pupil when he shall arrive at all the precious arcana of psychology.

W. T. HARRIS.

CONCORD, August, 1887.

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

SUBJECT-LESSONS, or mind-lessons, are as necessary as object-lessons. Object-lessons give a direct knowledge of the matter-world, while subject-lessons give a direct knowledge of the mind-world. A knowledge of self is more important than a knowledge of things.

Youth is the time for subject-lessons. A youth who can learn algebra and physiology and rhetoric is ready for Elementary Psychology. The third year of the high-school course and the second year of the normal-school course are considered pre-eminently fitting periods for subject-lessons.

A subject-lesson text-book is needed. Our literature is rich in psychologies adapted to colleges and to senior classes in our normal schools, but is destitute of a textbook suitable for our high-schools and for the lower classes in our normal schools. The want of such a textbook is widely felt. The author has given the best years of his life to the effort to prepare such a textbook, and thus meet this want. mitted has been given scores of with highly satisfactory results. subject-lessons, like object-lessons, must be largely oral, yet a suitable text-book is deemed indispensable.

Each lesson here subtimes to large classes, While it is true that

An Elementary Psychology deals with the plain

facts of mind. The advanced student wishes to know what Locke and Reid thought, what Kant and Hamilton taught, and what McCosh and Wundt said; but the discussion of these conflicting views, which constitutes so large a part of our text-books on psychology, only confuses and discourages beginners. An incomparably better plan, it is thought, is to lead the learner to look into his own mind, to analyze his own mental acts, to discover for himself the capabilities of the soul. The subject-lessons are thus made the counterpart of objectlessons. The author believes that the time has come when we can make our text-books for beginners in mental science just as we make our elementary arithmetics and chemistries, without reference to the history of the science or the peculiar views of authors.

A simple and exhaustive nomenclature is a desideratum in mental science. The time has come, it is believed, to reject the pedantic and misleading terms of a crude and antiquated psychology. Fortunately, few unfamiliar terms are now necessary. Every one has some knowledge of mind. However illiterate, each man has his own crude psychology. So far as correct, the language of the people is best. By using the language of literature and life, Sully, Hopkins, Porter, McCosh, and others have done much to popularize mental science. It seems fitting in an elementary work to still further popularize the subject.

The constant effort has been to present each point with sunlight clearness. Short sentences, in plain Anglo-Saxon, is the rule. Object-lessons, bold type, outlines, study-hints, examples to work out, original analyses, original definitions, original applications, and helpful

illustrations are called into constant requisition. Mental science, it is claimed, may be as fully illustrated as physical science. The student is taught to observe and analyze the operations of his own mind; to look within and describe what he sees going on. Thus he becomes an observer, an original investigator. He brings to the study of the soul the same methods that Agassiz applied with such wonderful effect to the study of the natural sciences. When this is done the student is interested, and the study of Psychology becomes as easy and fascinating as that of Botany or Zoölogy.

Leading the learner to build on his own experience is the fundamental idea in this work. He is led to observe the workings of his own mind, to analyze his own mental acts, and to compare the recorded or observed mental acts of others with his own. Thus he is enabled to make definitions, to discover laws, and to apply principles.

The facts of mind are our common heritage. The ways of presenting these facts are individual. It gives the author special pleasure to acknowledge his indebtedness to the many excellent works on mental science and education. Wherever possible, acknowledgment is made in the body of the work; but, in numerous cases, this has been impracticable. For a third of a century the matter of the volume has been presented in lectures to normal classes and normal institutes. The endeavor to completely adapt the matter and the method to the wants of beginners, has led to many changes in the language, so that authors, even in direct quotations, must not be held strictly responsible for the form in which their thoughts here appear.

Applied Psychology and teaching. The original purpose was to combine Elementary and Applied Psychology, but it is now thought best to present Applied Psychology in a separate volume. Two reasons led to this change: 1. The combined volume would have been inconveniently large. Brief outlines are excellent for reviews, but are useless for beginners. 2. Many students will wish to study Elementary Psychology who will not care to study Applied Psychology. Then, in normal schools, Elementary Psychology is studied during the second year, while Applied Psychology is not taken up before the third or fourth years. Besides, it became evident that the latter subject could be treated far more satisfactorily in a separate volume.

The best, rather than the original, has been the aim. Each true workman builds on the achievements of the race, and merely adds his mite. A science is the product of innumerable minds. The plan of these lessons, however, may be claimed as in some degree original; in fact, a new departure, both in plan and execution, was found to be a necessity in order to adapt psychology to the wants of beginners.

Subject-lessons prepare the student for advanced work. As object-lessons are needful to prepare the learner to study natural science, so subject-lessons are necessary to prepare the student to understand advanced psychologies, and to read with profit advanced educational works. As an introductory work, this volume is submitted. The author earnestly hopes that these lessons will prove a real help to many teachers, and an inspiration to many young people.

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