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unchangeable, which we find but in Thee alone, and which we cannot reach save by living in Thee."
Thus Pestalozzi began the year 1811, which was still further to increase the apparent external prosperity of the institute, but without retarding the progress of its internal decay.
Polemics occupied most of the time and strength of Niederer; in answer to certain violent attacks, he had just published a pamphlet, entitled, Pestalozzi's Educational Establishment Considered in its Relations to the Needs of our Time. Pestalozzi refers to this pamphlet in a letter to Knusert, of the canton of Appenzell, who had been one of his pupils in 1801, one of his assistant masters in 1805, and who in 1807 had entered the French army as lieutenant, and was now, after serving in the Spanish war, at Barcelona. The letter is as follows:
"Yverdun, April, 1811.
"My dear Switzer !
"When you return, you will find many changes. The principal work continues to progress in a most satisfactory manner, but, like you in Spain, we have guerillas about us who are ever on the look out to strike us on our weak side. Some even slip in under our roof, and will eat and drink with us so long as we ask them to stay. There are also mighty lords of the Junta, who have not been satisfied merely to spy out our weaknesses, but who have taken their part in the firing at us. Fortunately, many of our enemies are bad marksmen; but their shooting, though wide of the mark, makes a great noise. Most of these shots are directed against the general of our engineers, your countryman; not he of Gais, but he of Wolfhalden. But the general is a deuce of a fellow, who, whilst the enemy are firing at him from all sides, continues to cast cannon of the heaviest calibre, with gun-carriages that, like the tower of Babel, reach nearly to the skies. You will think I am speaking a strange language; but our circumstances are so peculiar that, as schoolmasters, we cannot express all we feel any more than you, in your position, can always say what you would.
1 i.e., not Krusi, but Niederer.
"I am very well in health, thank God; and yet my strength is failing me. The good old times are gone by. I have an inexpressible longing for rest, even though it should be in the grave.
"Take care of yourself, my dear Knusert, and let us hear from you soon.
"Your friend, PESTALOZZI."
Since the installation of the institute at Yverdun there had been numerous and important changes in the teaching body.
Pestalozzi had lost many of the best of his former helpers: Tobler, Buss, Knusert, then Steiner, Muralt, Mieg, and Hoffmann. Most of these left him to make the principles of his method more widely known. Later on Schmidt had left, harbouring a bitter feeling of resentment against his colleagues, who would neither adopt his ideas, nor submit to his overbearing manner; on leaving, he had gone to Vienna, where he published a pamphlet against the institute, calling it "a disgrace to humanity." The establishment had also lost several other masters of less note.
Those who had left had been gradually replaced by a much larger number of teachers, many of whom were men of far higher attainments than their predecessors. Amongst the most distinguished were:
Ramsauer, whom we know already, and who had become an excellent master in arithmetic, elementary geometry, and especially drawing.
Göldi, from canton Saint Gallen, who, first a pupil of Pestalozzi, then an assistant-master, was zealous and earnest in his work, and taught mathematics with clearness and success; he had quite mastered the spirit of the method, and never gave it up. Later on, he became professor of mathematics and physics at the College of Saint Gallen; he also published a treatise on geometry.
Weilenmann, of Eglisau, canton Zurich, was a tall, strong man, but had lost one arm. He took charge of the elementary class, which was very numerous; and with his one hand, which often shook with fatigue, he set copies, ruled copy-books, and made and mended pens for all the children. He was everywhere and always with his pupils, not only in their games and walks, but in the dormitories, where he
often sat up part of the night, and was always the first to rise. Everybody loved him. He attended to the little ones and to those who were ailing like a mother; in this respect, indeed, he was like Krusi. Those of his old pupils living to-day are still grateful for all the trouble this excellent man took for them.
Baumgartner was a handsome young man from canton Glarus, quick and intelligent, but gentle and modest; he had a decided talent for teaching beginners mathematics, knowing how to put things clearly and inspire a taste for the subject. He left Yverdun to join the institute founded by Hoffmann at Naples, where he died of fever very shortly after.
Leuenzinger, of Glarus, was a short, thick-set man, with a dark complexion and large head. His heavy body prevented him from joining in the games of the pupils. He had a remarkable taste for mathematics. His great happiness was to attack complicated problems, after solving which he would walk about the room rubbing his hands and talking to himself. He was full of rustic simplicity.
Amongst the masters who arrived after the departure of Schmidt, we must mention:
Schacht, of Brunswick, of gentlemanly bearing, and with a good influence on the character and conduct of the scholars. He had a fine face, sharp and full of animation, and talked well. He taught history, and captivated his hearers by his dramatic manner; he also lectured on chemistry. He afterwards returned to Brunswick, where he became a member of the Council of State and of the superior Council of Education. He also published a treatise on geography, according to the principles of Pestalozzi.
Blochmann, of Dresden, no less distinguished by his nobility of character than by his knowledge and talent for teaching. He came to Yverdun to know more of Pestalozzi. He only taught geography in the institute, but his influence was valuable in many ways, and he was liked by everybody. After leaving Yverdun he established an educational institute in Dresden, and became the king's trusted adviser in all educational matters.
Ackermann, a young Saxon, full of vivacity and zeal, and as eager to learn as to teach. He taught gymnastics, and was the constant companion of the children. He afterwards
became headmaster of the model school at Frankfort-onMain.
Lehmann had a scholarly knowledge of French and German; he taught the two languages. His heart was thoroughly in his work, but he was a little wanting, perhaps, in the firmness and practical skill that help to make a good master. Later on, he was employed in the public educa tional establishments at Berne; afterwards he and his wife, who was a talented woman, established at Basle a school for girls.
In the summer of 1811, a man came to Yverdun who was destined to exercise a large influence on the state of the institute for some time. This was Jullien, of Paris, a Knight of the Legion of Honour, a school-inspector, a member of several learned societies, and the author of A General Essay on Physical, Moral, and Intellectual Education, and An Essay on the Employment of Time, etc.
Jullien soon recognized the merit and importance of the practical educational reform that was taking place before his eyes, and he determined to make a thorough study of the doctrine of Pestalozzi and its various applications. Protracting his stay therefore at Yverdun, he held continual discussions with Pestalozzi and his coadjutors, and though much hampered by his own ignorance of German and the bad French of his interlocutors, persevered with admirable patience until he thought himself in possession of the requisite knowledge. The year after, he published, in the royal press at Milan, a pamphlet of some hundred pages, entitled, A Sketch of the Educational Institute of Yverdun, and two large octavo volumes on The Spirit of Pestalozzi's Educational Method.
By placing his sons with Pestalozzi, and by his own personal influence and that of his writings, Jullien was the cause of a large number of French pupils and some few French masters going to Yverdun, so that the institute was no longer so entirely German. We shall show, later on, how this affected the establishment.
The year 1811 seemed to Pestalozzi to have been a happier one; his discourse of January 1st, 1812, therefore, is full of joy and gratitude. We give the most characteristic portions:
"The year just ended has been a blessed one for us; it
has brought me nearer the aim of my life. What matters, now, that it has been a hard one? The hours of trouble have passed, and there remains nothing but the strength they have developed in us. Dangers have disappeared as completely as if they had never existed; but the courage they have aroused remain, and its foundations are now more solid than ever.
"What we want to do, what we have to do, we can now do better than ever. The road we have been looking for lies open before us. Peace reigns in our paths; great obstacles have vanished, and we feel that the strength and means necessary for reaching our goal are slowly ripening.
"Friends and brothers! Whilst I rejoice at the good fortune with which we have surmounted all dangers, I also look into the past, and think of all we might have done to make ourselves more worthy of this blessing, and to enjoy it with a purer and nobler satisfaction.
"God has allowed our work to remain in our hands. He has blessed it and strengthened it; but the joy which we feel cannot be pure and complete unless we are conscious of having worked with fidelity, zeal, and a pure heart.
"With what joy I thank God for having kept us faithful to the precious mission which unites us, for having increased your strength and zeal in the pursuit of our aim !"
Pestalozzi next addresses himself personally to his two oldest collaborators, Niederer and Krusi; to Weilenmann, Heussy, Baumgartner, Schneider and Leuenberger, who have already been with him for some years; to Schacht, Blochmann, Ackermann and Lehmann, who have joined him more recently; to the Prussian student-teachers, Kaverau, Henning, Dreist, Patzig, Krätz and Benschmidt; and lastly, to his daughter-in-law's second husband, Mr. Kuster, the steward and bursar of the institute. He then continues:
"Friends and brothers, do not forget that I am leaving you, and that you are to remain behind! What a great thing completion is! How glorious to approach the mark where the victor is crowned. I have not reached the mark, and my course is run. I can no longer strive towards it; all I could do I have done. I see that for me action is at