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quite knew what he wanted to do. Full of blind trust, he thought overything easy, and so allowed himself to be drawn into a complicated undertaking, without reflecting that he was incapable of managing a numerous staff, and without remarking that the truth accepted by all his coadjutors was taking a different development with each of them, because they were all free to work in their own way and follow their own individuality. When Pestalozzi perceived this, he thought it better to shut his eyes to it, and his negligence in this respect lasted for many years, in fact, till confusion and anarchy were threatening the success of his work. Then at last he felt the need of ruling, and, in his weakness, looking about for help, he presently found a sure support. In this way he came into collision with his collaborators, who all felt that their own particular views were the only true ones.

Pestalozzi recognizes that he is himself the cause of this evil, and blames nobody; at the same time it seems to him that his friends might rise above this divergence of ideas, and work together for an object which is both great, just, and holy. He has, to-day, surmounted many obstacles, and is at last in possession of the means for realizing the projects which have occupied his life, but he still needs capable and devoted men at his side to support him.

He continues thus:

"I turn first to you, Niederer and Krusi. Now that I am laying the foundations of a work that our grandchildren will bless, it is to you I call; become once more my sons and help me in this undertaking. Some day, when our human sorrows have been long forgotten, and our flesh long hidden in the tomb, numbers of happy poor, profiting from our labours, and blessing all who took part in the work, will bless you also as members of this holy association. And you are, indeed, associated with this work for the salvation of the poor, Niederer and Krusi; for you have spent a great part of your lives in endeavouring to make it possible. I have not, it is true, succeeded as I could have wished, nor you either; but without you nothing would have been possible, and the service is great that your lives have rendered to my undertakings. It is the Lord's hand that has guided you towards my aim, my aim which is also yours. Forget, then, what is behind you, and march forward with me to our common aim. Embrace to-day

the cause of our foundation, and let us unite once more in purity and hope.

"Niederer, I am laying to-day the first stone of an edifice which, small at first, may some day become the great temple of education as you yourself conceive it, and which, with God's blessing, is likely to realize your highest aspirations. Niederer, I am incapable, from the very nature of my mind, of teaching men the truth as I feel it, and so I approach my end by the heart only. But this is not enough, and I need the help of men like you, who have the power of seeing truth as a connected whole, a power I do not possess. Have we not all different talents, Niederer? Recognizing yours, we feel that we need it to make our truth into a science, and show the thinkers and teachers of the world that it is in perfect harmony with faith in Jesus Christ. We recognize, too, that by your efforts in this direction you are satisfying the highest need of our time, and rendering a true service to humanity. And, Niederer, we honour you for striving, in your teaching, to free the human will from the power of the flesh, an aim which must always remain the essential aim of education. We have witnessed the success of your efforts upon a great number of the noblest of our children, and at this solemn hour, in thanking you for what you have done, we entreat you not to deprive our establishment of your precious influence, either now or after my death,

"And you, too, dear Krusi, think, I implore you, of the old days, and believe that my friendship is unchanged. We still prize your goodness and kindness, and are most anxious that your heart should once more be ours. Think of the vast amount of good to result from the means at present in our hands. We once more ask your help in our common work and for our common happiness. At the moment of setting my house in order, Krusi, to go in peace to that place where all the passions of life are ended, and all its difficulties and illusions lost in God's soft light, at this solemn moment I beg you to bring your whole energy back to the aid of this holy and all-important work.

"I address myself to you, too, my dear Lange; you brought me help at a time when I was in urgent need, and when my enterprise was struggling between life and death.

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Such hours of salvation are sacred, and inspire the truest and deepest gratitude. Join us, then, in founding this new

association, and become one of the leaders of our institute, destined now to become far more important than it has ever been. My friend, you are rejoining my establishinent at a time when it is no longer anything but a moral personality, solemnly consecrated to the poor, and unable to offer any pecuniary advantage to those who work for it.

"And you, too, Schmidt! You have renounced your rights and interests not only for the present but for the future. But I will not say any more about you now, for on several points where I should but be expressing my inmost convictions, I might not be believed. Continue only to do what you have done hitherto, and, though you have been misunderstood, still labour for me and my house with the strength you have already devoted to the work. All opinions, no matter how obstinately adhered to, will finally be overcome by persevering action.

"I now address myself to you, my colleagues, and to all whom it shall please God to send to us. I implore you all to continue to take an active, affectionate and increasing interest in this my life-work, for which to-day God is giving me such help as may prove to be a fruitful source of blessing for our country and humanity. Let us earnestly look to the duties thus imposed upon us by Providence.

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"Friends, the essential aim and first duty of our association is not a new method of education, in spite of the fact that the latter, by means of faith and love, is to bring about a realization of the spirit of Christianity; no, the chief aim and first duty of our association is to take the most conscientious care of the children entrusted to us, that we may both carry out what we have promised and justify the hopes we have raised. I have now more courage than ever, for I know that I shall not die till I have done all that is necessary to ensure my children being at every moment of the day under the eyes of men working for their own salvation in fear and trembling, and working for the children's as for their own. Friends, I thank you for all you are doing in our midst for art and science, and for the help you are to me in the management of the establishment. But what I particularly want to ask of you—and this is our holiest and highest obligation-is that you will earnestly watch over our children, praying both with them and for them. Friends and brothers, in this solemn hour, when I am setting my house in

order at the entrance of the valley of death, a valley, however, which leads to resurrection, I beg of you not to judge of me by the weakness of my life, but to remember my words. You know now with what feelings I call you all to this holy alliance. Love one another, as Christ loved us. Love suffereth long, and is kind; love envieth not; love vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not its own, is not provoked, taketh not account of evil; rejoiceth not in unrighteousness, but rejoiceth with the truth; beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Friends and brothers, do good to those who hate you; bless those who curse you; heap coals of fire on the head of your enemies. Let not the sun go down upon your wrath. When you bring an offering to the altar, first be reconciled with your brother and then bring your offering. Let there be no hardness among you, even towards those who do us wrong. Let all human hardness disappear before the holiness of our Christian faith. Let none of you excuse hardness towards those who have done wrong. Let no one say that Jesus did not love the unjust and the wrongdoers. He loved them with a Divine love; it was for them that He died. It was not the just, but sinners that He called to repentance. He did not find the sinner humble and faithful, but made him so by His own faith and humility. It was, indeed, by His Divine service in His most lowly position that He overcame the pride of the sinner, and inspired him with the Divine faith and love with which His own soul overflowed. Friends and brothers, if we do likewise, and love each other as Christ loved us, we shall then be able to surmount every obstacle that separates us from the aim of our life, and found the happiness of our house on the eternal rock on which God Himself founded the happiness of humanity in Jesus Christ."

This discourse is interesting and instructive in many ways: full of Pestalozzi himself, it yet bears traces here and there of Schmidt's influence. We should like to have given it in full, but in its first edition, it filled no less than a hundred and thirteen pages. In Cotta's edition, however, there were many long and important omissions, omissions which can only be attributed to Schmidt. It no longer contains, for instance, the urgent appeal to Niederer and Krusi, which, as we shall see, remained without effect. As a general rule,

Pestalozzi's real thoughts must be looked for in the first edition of his works, which, unfortunately, is no longer to be found. Seyffarth's edition, however, gives the original text, together with most of the subsequent alterations.

Fellenberg relates, in his book already referred to, that on the 12th of January, 1818, immediately after the old man had finished his discourse, Schmidt announced that, though he did not approve of Pestalozzi's gift, he was anxious to associate himself unreservedly with his founda. tion, and would therefore make over to him his whole fortune, consisting of about two hundred and forty pounds. Fellenberg asserts that Schmidt did not really mean this; that it was, moreover, merely for the purpose of increasing the subscriptions that he had induced Pestalozzi to announce his plans for a new foundation; and that two years later, when Gottlieb became his brother-in-law, it was also he who compelled the old man to declare that he was not in a position to carry out the engagements into which he had entered; but as it is known that Fellenberg greatly disliked Schmidt, and judged him very harshly, such a statement must be received with the extremest caution.

The poor-school, however, remained Pestalozzi's favourite project; he was always coming back to the idea, and forgot, in this dream of his youth, the far greater plans which he had only lately conceived. He was very anxious to at last take some practical steps in this direction; but Schmidt, who felt that there was enough to be done already, offered a strenuous opposition. The old man insisted, and, in spite of Schmidt's obstinate resistance, returned incessantly to the attack. An absurd episode of the struggle has been related by an entirely reliable eye-witness-a lady who, in 1818, was living, a child of thirteen, in the Castle at Yverdun, and who in 1874 was still alive in Burgdorf. She tells how Pestalozzi one day earnestly begged Schmidt to allow him to found his poor-school; how the latter, refusing to listen, turned his back and ran away, and how the old man pursued him for some time, and at last, angry at being unable to catch him, threw his shoes at him.

And yet this time it was Pestalozzi who got the upper hand; for in this same year, 1818, the poor-school was opened at Clendy, a hamlet just outside Yverdun, in the house afterwards occupied by Daulte's boarding-school. It

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