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THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION SERIES.-(Continued.)
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By CHARLES H. JUDD, Ph.D.
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HIS LIFE AND WORK
ROGER DE GUIMPS
AUTHORIZED TRANSLATION FROM THE SECOND FRENCH EDITION
By J. RUSSELL, B. A.
ASSISTANT MASTER IN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE SCHOOL, LONDON
WITH AN INTRODUCTION
BY REV. R. H. QUICK, M. A.
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY
THE name of Pestalozzi is forever dear to the hearts of all men. For he is the first teacher to announce convincingly the doctrine that all people should be educated -that, in fact, education is the one good gift to give to all, whether rich or poor. The fact that all human beings, whether the favorites of fortune or otherwise, rejoice in whatever good comes to man because of his nature and independent of all accidents of birth or circumstance, makes secure this affectionate regard of all men for the hero of modern pedagogy. Education shall be a real panacea for human ills. It alone goes at the root of human misery. All other giving does not help, because it more or less hinders self-help. Education, intellectual and moral, alone develops self-help. The weaklings of society-the moral weaklings who yield to temptation and become criminal, the intellectual weaklings who break down before the problems of life and become imbecile or insane, the weaklings in will-power who can not deny themselves and save a surplus of their earnings, but allow themselves to drift along on the brink of pauperism -for these weaklings education will furnish a preventive. Their children may be educated in intellect and morals and thrift. It is the paramount duty of society to
see to this education, for the sake of the rich as well as of the poor; just as society cares for good sewerage, and prevents the pestilence which will begin with the slums but end with the palace. Education is a sanitary precaution -a spiritual sanitation.
These doctrines, adopted widely by enlightened people a century ago on the appearance of Pestalozzi's Evening Hour of a Hermit (1780) and his Leonard and Gertrude (1781-'89), have received a new emphasis in more recent times from the inevitable trend of all civilization toward democracy and local self-government. If the weakling is to have a vote, he will prove a negative power in society. He will furnish a constituency for the demagogue, and corruption in politics will ever prevail in proportion to the number of illiterate, immoral, and unthrifty people that exist in the state.
Pestalozzi, like St. Francis, wedded poverty,* and with sublime self-sacrifice studied all its peculiarities in order to discover the true and only method of alleviating its miseries.
In the Philanthropina of Basedow experiments were made in the new education as propounded by Rousseau, but they were limited almost entirely to the children of rank and wealth. "Pestalozzi directed education also to the lower classes to the hitherto neglected multitude without property. There should be in future no dirty, hungry, ignorant, awkward, thankless, and will-less mass of people consigned to live a merely animal existence. We can never rid ourselves of the lower classes by contributions from the wealthy-not even were they to give
* Dante, Paradiso, xi-62.