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pays me." I offer her a trifle to get something for the child, but she refuses it. She has had such offers before, but the little girl is her own charge. When the mother's health was failing she was allowed to go to Algiers, but this did not restore her. Miss F. thinks that she may have suffered from insufficient nourishment,—a widow, the mother of five children, upon such a slender salary. Of the four brothers, the eldest is now able to support himself, and a rich priest took the three others,—the same who suggested that Miss Fleutet should take the girl. She says that he belongs to one of the most ancient families in France. He first took the three sons, and has since established an asylum for fifty orphan-boys. He has also founded an orphanage of two hundred young girls, for on the death of his father he came into his fortune.
Thursday, May 30th.-Ascension-day, and Victor has a holiday, which sets me at liberty; also the employés of the post-office have half holiday, so it is well that I mailed a certain note yesterday. I go to the omnibus-office to get conveyance to the Exposition. A little party in the office I judge to be my countrymen; for the lady, who is social with the man in charge, speaks better Massachusetts or Connecticut than French. This being a holiday, there is a crowd at the Exposition. To get into the restaurant Duval we form a queue, and after I get in the bar is shut down.
Friday, May 31st.—I have several times visited a great church in Paris, to which I will now give an assumed name,
and call it St. Christopher. In my notes I speak in this manner: "You may go into this church to see the ceremonies and to take notes, but you will probably leave with the feeling of reverence, of devotion increased." But my experience this morning is different. It was before seven when I got to the church. The "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity," cut on a great stone on each side of the entrancedoor, seems to be something incongruous. Early as I am, there is some one within the church,- —a great man in a black-velvet cap, a dark-blue frock-coat, and trousers trimmed with braid like gold. I inquire of him when this inscription was put upon the church. "Don't know,— on ne sait pas.' "Was it not at the time of this last republic?" "Yes." "And all these churches," I add, "belong to the state?" "Yes." "And does the state pay for all repairs?" "Don't know; but as to this liberty, equality, and fraternity, they are lies! I say it, and I sustain it and I maintain it!" I tell him that I am from a republic,—from the United States. He is willing to admit that that is well, but he repeats his former saying, "They are lies! I say it, and I sustain it and I maintain it!" Going away and returning, he asks: "You occupy yourself with politics?” "Yes; in my country some women do." Then I understand him to say, "But women do not serve as soldiers: women are nothing." I tell him about States in our Union where women have voted and served on juries. He says that there are no true republicans in France, although they talk about republicanism. "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity! With whom are you willing to make yourself equal? With people who suit you?" I tell him that there are Catholic republicans in Switzerland. As he goes away and returns again, I endeavor to explain something I have said; but he says,-and I think that he does not look with
favor upon my note-book,-" Madame, you occupy yourself with things that you should not. Go and see Mr. the Curé of St. Christopher's. He will tell you things; but, as for us, it is not for us to inform you. Go and see Mr. the Curé." He comes again, and says that if I wish information there is a priest who speaks English. There is now going to be mass. But this gentleman will inform me. I tell him, glad to escape, that I told the French gentleman with whom I board that I would be back to take coffee. When I am outside the door, there comes forth another splendid man (though neither is young); they are so much finer specimens than most of the soldiers. This second man has a feather-duster in his hand, and wears a woven woollen jacket, but a velvet cap like the former. Seeing the former so handsomely dressed, I did not know but he was some dignitary, but now I suspect that he is not. And as to the idea that women are nothing because they are not soldiers, what, then, are priests? When I return to our apartments, I tell Victor that when he wants to be stirred up I will tell him what I have heard; and when I have begun, he says: "Those are Savoyards; they are Swiss, who march before the priest in processions. If I had been talking to him, I should have kept my hand in my pocket for fear he would steal. They have all those apish tricks, because they are paid by the curé. And if I had heard him I should have said, 'The liar is in your skin.""
"He said that there are no republicans here," I added. "Oh, you mustn't go the church for republicans. Go to the church for hypocrites."
Walking out later in the day, I inquire the way of a lad, and also tell him that I have seen a young lady in white,
is there anything at church to-day? He answers promptly
that there is the closing of the month of Mary; the crowning of the Holy Virgin at eight o'clock in the evening.
To-day I have called upon a liberal Protestant gentleman well known in Paris. He says that at present the Catholic clergy receive ten million of dollars yearly; the Protestant worship, three hundred and sixty thousand dollars; and the Jewish, one hundred and twenty thousand dollars. For repairing the churches of all denominations the government pays three million dollars yearly. The gentleman says that it is abominable to pay those who oppose the republic, adding that the priests cannot be republicans since the syllabus of Pius IX. He gets the volume containing it, and calls my attention to a list of the opinions condemned by the church. One of those which Pius declared damnable was that every man is free to embrace and profess the religion which seems true to him by the light of reason. Another opinion which he condemns is that the civil government should prevail in case of a conflict between it and the church. Another opinion condemned by the pope is that public schools should be free from church authority and under the civil authority. The opinions censured by Pius are numerous. I give only a few of the most striking. The 55th error is that church and state should be separate. The 78th error is that the law is right by which in some Catholic
*The amount paid to Jews appears to be overstated. Since my return to our own country a Parisian gentleman informs me that the propositions for the budget of 1880 are as follows: Catholic worship, fifty-one million nine hundred and seventy-three thousand two hundred and eighteen francs; Protestant, one million seven hundred and ninety-five thousand eight hundred francs; Israelites, two hundred and seven thousand franes.
countries strangers enjoy the public exercise of their private worship. The 80th is one of the most remarkable. It is declared to be an error that the pope can and ought to be reconciled with progress, liberalism, and modern civilization.
The same gentleman-the liberal Protestant-tells me that before their great Revolution of 1789 or 1793 the clergy were not paid by the state; they had enormous estates. The Convention decreed that these estates belonged to the state, and offered to all who would take the' oath of fidelity a certain sum of money. Many of the clergy refused, and this caused the revolts in La Vendée and elsewhere, the people espousing the part of the clergy. At length the Convention decreed that the church should be entirely separated from the state,-not paid by it; and this state of things continued until 1804, when Napoleon concluded to pay the clergy, who thus, says the gentleman, became a sort of supplementary police. I mention to this liberal Protestant what one of my friends has said of the Catholic cantons of Switzerland having been republican since the time of William Tell. He replies that it was these cantons, or some of them, which caused the difficulties that existed in Switzerland some years ago.
Victor says lately, "If I had any need of religion, I would join Mr. Dide's church." Mr. Dide's own church is the liberal Protestant one of Paris from which the government support has been withdrawn. "If I had any need of religion," said Victor, "I would join Mr. Dide's church; but as I have none, I let it pass.' I let it pass." I ask, a little ironically, "You have no need of a law to which to conform