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church Mary, Queen of Scots, was married to Francis II., and speaks of her having been beheaded by the amiable Queen Elizabeth; he also remarks how many of their late sovereigns have died on English ground. He tells us of a woman who during the Commune mounted a pulpit here, with a petroleum torch in one hand and a knife dropping blood in the other, expressing a wish to kill all the priests; how she had been apprehended and condemned to death ;but, as we do not like to execute women here, how she was sent to New Caledonia to compare its climate with that of France. We must not expect perfect accuracy from guides. This speech gave me an impression that the climate of this penal colony in the Pacific is severe; but, looking upon the map, I find it to be within the tropics, although not near to the equator. As to the bodies of the kings, I have seen a statement that in August, 1792, the French Convention passed decrees which sent the populace of Paris trooping to St. Denis to destroy the tombs of the kings and to bury their remains in the common pit or ditch. About two months later they forced their way into the vaults of the Bourbon kings, and even the body of the great Henry was cast into the yawning trench.

On the outside of Notre Dame there are statues in great abundance, and within there are marble monuments; but my attention was particularly attracted by a funny row of colored figures, dark or mulatto color, in one of the large divisions of the church, I think beyond the rows of great chairs for church dignitaries. There are, indeed, two rows of these figures, but I only saw one, for the other side seemed to be locked. These figures are below life-size. The first represents Christ, resurgens, appearing to Mary Magdalen, then to the holy women, afterwards in the garden at Emmaus. One peculiarity of these is the jolly

appearance of Christ,-I think in that one where Thomas examines his side, and the rest of the disciples are seen standing crowded in two little buildings, one on each side; you see them through the open windows. These are not, I have supposed, the quickly torn down and soon reconstructed statues of which the guide spoke. They look like vestiges of an infantile time of art. Did Mary Stuart look upon them when she was queen of beautiful France?

I have before spoken of the printed litany of St. Anne which I saw at Notre Dame. There was also displayed an indulgence offered to those who shall pray for the union of Christian princes, the extirpation of heresy, and the glory or prosperity of the Church.

To-day I call upon a Philadelphia lady, married to Dr. P., a German; she has been living here about three years. She speaks of the general ignorance of French women; she judges from what she hears that the idols of the upper class are the Church and the fashion,-not but that some of them are cultivated, but the real Parisians are extremely conventional, and if your appearance is not fashionable they despise you, or, rather, look down upon you, as not knowing what is what. As for the working-women, she judges that they are fully absorbed in their business and families, and are not so much interested in politics as our women are. (Perhaps Mrs. P. is speaking of shopkeepers, for I have before been told of the working-women's taking many republican papers.) Mrs. P. adds that these women are more under the influence of the Church than their husbands, and induce them to yield to things which they otherwise would not. (For myself, I believe I have before ventured a suggestion that one of the things that would

most elevate Frenchwomen would be the study of anatomy and physiology.)

While I am here Dr. P. comes in, and in conversation remarks that the great benefit of the late war to the French people was that the idea of glory-of gloire-was thoroughly knocked out of their heads. I tell the doctor of the difficulty which I had in getting chloroform; and he says, “What a fear these people have, who make it their business to kill, that some one will be killed!" I have before said that he is German.

On arriving at our apartments, we have at dinner Mr. Leroux, a person of scientific taste. As is almost always the case, the subject of religion comes up, and I speak about the great crucifix which I saw upon the shore, before landing at Dieppe. Mr. Leroux says that there are many of these in the country, and that a plate is put upon the structure telling who has erected it. He says that it is common to speak of them as "the good God."

I tell Victor the remark just made by Dr. P., that the great benefit of the war to the French was that the idea of gloire was thoroughly driven out of them. Victor agrees, saying that he would shake hands with Dr. P.

June 26th and 27th.-Now that the weather is warmer we are drinking eau de seltz, a sort of artificial mineral water, from glass bottles called siphons. On Sunday I go to the wine-shop over the way to get some for the family, and find a party of four, seated at a table, drinking from the little glass what I suppose to be spirits. One of the party is a woman with a red face. One of the men is talking in an animated manner; his subject appears to be what constitutes a Catholic. Victor, madame, and I this day

are very near disagreeing upon the subject of ice. We have wine twice a day with eau de seltz, but madame especially opposes ice-water: "That must make the character cold,—that must chill the heart." However, the expression refroidit le cœur is a euphemism, the heart being used for the stomach. Perhaps the additional expense of ice is an objection. The next day, however, when I get a little at the creamery, they are willing to partake, and seem to enjoy it. Victor said lately that after the 1st of July it will be much cheaper, on account of the removal of the duty. At the restaurants I see struck bottles-carafes frappées-so filled with ice that it must necessarily have been formed in them; and at the Exposition I visit a building where ice is being formed by a chemical process.

I make a short call upon Madame Simon, the dressmaker; but we have little opportunity to talk. In reply to a question, she says that the prefect of the Seine and the prefect of police are pachas. The municipal councils of Paris have not the right to say we will, they can only say we desire. The Commune wanted to establish the same independence for Paris that the other communes have. She states that the cannon from Versailles set fire to buildings at Paris; but Victor afterwards says that it is no use to deny that the Communists destroyed things. "Sometimes," he adds, "there were private hatreds, as when a man had been turned out by his landlord, and these private hatreds were then revenged." One of Victor's aunts was killed during the Commune. She saw some of the destruction that was going on, and said, "I will denounce you when the Versaillists come in." "We won't wait for that," was the answer, and she was shot at once.


Madame Simon spoke of the other communes. we call the Commune at Paris, the French often call the civil war. The commune in France may be said to correspond with our township. Beginning with the commune, they have one more division than we: first, the commune; second, the canton; third, the arrondissement; fourth, the department; and, fifth, France. We have, first, the township; second, the county; third, the state; fourth, the United States; but our system of federated republics is very different from theirs. Madame the dressmaker added that the party called the Commune wished to prevent the overthrow of the republic.

In my walks I visit another laundry, the Lavoir Sainte Marie, being permitted to enter and see it for myself. The woman-cashier, whose business seems to be general superintendence, kindly gives me permission. She tells me that the clothes received are made up into bundles and ticketed, and I see the round metallic tickets hanging. They are then put into an immense tub or boiler made of wood and lined with copper: put into cold water with potash. (I understand that eau de Javel is also used here.) Steam is introduced, and they are boiled or steamed during the night, and in the morning are ready to be taken out. At this laundry they do not use one great vessel for rinsing, but have separate tubs. I go up-stairs, and see how the drying space is divided into separate small rooms (with sides made of slats), in which the clothes are hung, each door being furnished with a lock. One of the women at work below says that they receive three francs a day, working from seven in the morning until seven in the evening. I observe that some of them are eating; doubtless they

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