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On this my last day, Mrs. L. is kind enough to tell me how their great washings are done. Every week a bundle. is washed of common things,-kitchen aprons, the boys' colored shirts, their blouses, etc. But every six months. lye is made and a great washing done, she says nearly as follows: "I put a pair of sheets on the beds once a month, and my sons put on white shirts on Sundays, but we only wash these things twice a year, about the first of May and the last of October. I put all these white things into an enormous tub of water, a tub holding about a hundred gallons, and I allow them to soak the first day. There is a hole in this tub, and on the second day I draw off a little water from the bottom, and on top of the tub I put a great sheet to hold ashes. Into it I put about a bushel of ashes, and pour boiling water upon them to take out the strength. Before the clothes were first put into the tub the men's shirts were soaped, and then the water drawn off in the morning was taken to pour over the ashes, and all day long we are drawing water from the bottom of the tub and heating it—at first not very hot, but afterwards boiling—and pouring it back upon the linen or the ashes." This manner of washing, she says, saves soap. It requires a good supply of clothing. She says that she had fifty chemises when she was married. "On the third day," she continues, "the men take the ashes from the top of the tub and empty it upon the manure-heap, and three extra hired women come to wash the clothes. They put them into a bag, and the men take them to the piece of water near the house, and there the women wash all day. Washerwomen receive twenty-five sous a day and their food." Mrs. L. further tells me that she got a woman to iron one day last spring, who starched and ironed thirty-five shirts, and she paid her twenty-five sous and her board; but there are some who ask forty.

I find that Pierre's ideas concerning the image of God do not agree with those of the little history in use in their communal school, which is a course of history, containing sacred history, divided into eight epochs, the history of France, and some ideas about ancient and modern nations, by F. P. B. Why the initials only I cannot tell. The author asks, “In what respect is man made in the image of God?" and the reply says, "Not with relation to his body, but to his soul, which is immortal and capable of knowing God."

Here are another question and answer, which I commend to observation: "What did God create on the fifth day? The birds and the fishes." Then this remark follows in finer print: "It does not seem natural to us that God should have made the birds come out of the water, but who can explain the thoughts of the Almighty? Let us believe and adore."

About ninety pages of this little volume are give to sacred history, two hundred and forty-six to France, and fifty-five, in fine print, to other nations. The Egyptians, Scythians, etc., are mentioned, but our own continent is not described. I also see a little geography, which Henri tells me is now in use, by the same F. P. B. It gives seventy-three pages to France, about two to Great Britain, over nine to Italy, and one to the United States. There is also a little description of the characters of different nations. After mentioning the people of Soudan, the author tells us that the aborigines of the northern countries of America have preserved almost all the usages which they had before the invasion of Europeans; the Iroquois, the Hurons, the Illinois, the Canadians, etc., are intrepid, agile, and great hunters; they worship God under the name of the "Great Spirit." Then he speaks

of the Esquimaux. The next mentioned are the Mexicans, who are said to be tawny, handy, laborious, mild, loving the sciences, and, above all, the arts. Then we come to the Orinocos, and the Chilians are mentioned; but what I have just given is all that there is about the people of the United States. No wonder that a senator from France during our Exposition wanted to see some of our Indians! This little book was approved for the use of primary schools in 1836; and "primary" means such schools as that of which Henri passed the examination, corresponding with our grammar or district schools.

The want of wood may be considered one of the weak points of beautiful France. The granger, or farmer, of Mrs. L. has bought a bit of ground upon the hill with oak saplings on it. And the family assign him ground upon which to cut genets, or broom,-a plant with which he can heat the oven, light the fire, and cook potatoes for the hogs. These potatoes are boiled, and then mashed.

Saturday, July 13th.-This morning I bid Mrs. Deschavannes and her family farewell. Toinette, the servant, takes my box over to the village, and when we part at the stage puts up one cheek for me to kiss, and then the other. So I am a little troubled at my manner of parting with madame; I took both her hands, but ought I not to have offered my cheek in the French manner?

I have just called Toinette the servant, but I never heard the word used in France, that I remember. Toinette called herself a bonne, or good girl, which expression may be said to belong to the same class as the New Eng

land "help." A word much used in France is domestic, and my American friend speaks of her woman's husband as being a valet in another family.

At Romilies I breakfast at the same hotel as before, taking the mid-day breakfast, and an afternoon train for Paris, where I arrive at about four in the morning. On my way I observe that all the hay is not yet in. We ride through a delightful country, so that I again recall the line,

"How has kind Heaven adorned the happy land!"




Saturday, July 27th.—It was not a part of my original plan to visit two of the farming districts of France, but Mr. Carpentier, of Paris, to whom I am indebted for kind attentions (I would like to give his true name), suggested my also visiting the north, where he said that farming is dif ferent, and Victor Leblanc writes to an old friend of his, who consents to take me. I am to travel by rail to Cambray, and thence by private conveyance. I am to pay fifty francs for ten days' board, and a certain sum for taking me from the station at Cambray and for my return hither. Indeed, I have already paid, for the whole sum had to be transmitted in advance.

Victor insisted upon my leaving on an early train, which proves to be a very slow one; and there are several changes of cars. Mine is a third-class car, divided into five compartments, but open above, so that we can see all the people. Beside me sits a young woman, and facing us two ecclesiastics, old and young, her companions. How handsomely the robe of the elder is made! but they have not shaved this morning. The clergy are somewhat communicative in talking about my route, and then take out their prayer-books. Men are smoking in the car,-what an abomination!—but I forgot to look for a car for women only.


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