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chandeliers, all in a single piece, and weighing nearly 3000 pounds. Close by is an odd-looking church, constantly thronged with devotees; a humble structure, said to be the oldest Christian church in Moscow. It was built in the desert, before Moscow was thought of, and its walls are strong enough to last till the gorgeous city shall become a desert again.
The tower of Ivan Veliki, or John the Great, the first of the Czars, is 270 feet high, and contains thirty-three bells, the smallest weighing 7000, and the largest more than 124,000 pounds English. From its top there is, perhaps, the finest panoramic view in the world.
Another well-known object is the great bell, the largest, and the wonder of the world. Its perpendicular height is twentyone feet four inches, and the extreme thickness of the metal, twenty-three inches. The length of the clapper is fourteen feet, the greatest circumference sixty feet four inches, its weight 400,000 pounds English, and its cost has been estimated at more than £365,000 sterling.
Besides the great bell, there is another noisy musical instrument, Lamely, the great gun, like the bell, the largest in the world, being a 4,320 pounder. It is sixteen feet long, and the diameter of its calibre nearly three feet.
The treasury contains the heirlooms of the Russians. On the first floor are the ancient imperial carriages. The bel étage is a gallery of five parts, in the first of which are the portraits of all the emperors and czars, and their wives, in the exact costume of the times in which they lived; in another, is a model of a palace projected by the empress Catherine to unite the whole Kremlin under one roof, having a circumference of two miles, and make of it one magnificent palace; if it had been completed according to the plan, this palace would probably have surpassed the temple of Solomon, or any of the seven wonders of the world. In the armoury are specimens of ancient armour, the work manship of every age and nation; coats of mail, sabres adorned with jewels, swords, batons, crosses in armour, imperial robes, ermines in abundance, and finally the clothes in which Peter the Great worked at Saardam, including his old boots, from which it appears he had a considerable foot.-Stephens' Incidents of Travel.
PHOTOGENIC DRAWINGS AND THE DAGUERO
In our last Number we drew the attention of our readers to the very curious discovery of M. Daguerre, which he has entitled the Daguerotype or Dagueroscope; but since that paper was written, a communication has been made to the Royal Society, by H. Fox Talbot, Esq., F. R. S., by which it appears that a very similar discovery, if not precisely the same, had already been made by him, when M. Daguerre first made his invention public. The secret, which consists in a process by which the substance which is most easily affected by light can afterwards be made almost insensible to its effects, has not of course been hitherto disclosed by either of the inventors; but Mr. Talbot has exhibited incontestable proofs of his success in several drawings, which have been executed four years, and have been repeatedly exposed to the sunshine, without any apparent damage. These drawings were exhibited at the Royal Institution, on the 25th January, by Mr. Faraday, and we trust that this distinguished chemist will shortly lecture on this extremely curious and useful invention. Mr. Talbot, in producing his designs, which he has named Photogenic Drawings, uses prepared paper, a medium much preferable to the metal plates of M. Daguerre. Another peculiarity in Mr. Talbot's drawings is, that whilst the image obtained is white, the ground is coloured, and blue, yellow, rose-colour, or black, may be obtained at pleasure.
That the same discovery should have been made simultaneously in France and England, is one of those strange coincidences which frequently occur, and sometimes deprive the original inventor of the advantage he ought to derive from his ingenuity. In the present instance there appears no reason for doubt as to the fair claim of both M. Daguerre and Mr. Talbot to originality. M. Daguerre never yet disclosed his secret, and has only made his discovery known a few weeks since. Mr. Talbot commenced his experiments in 1834, and the drawings he has exhibited are all from three to four years old. We hope that an early opportunity will be afforded to the public generally for the inspection of Photogenic Drawings, and the mode of their production.
TRAVELS OF SIR JOHN MANDEVILE, 1322-1356. THE "Travels of Sir John Mandevile," is a singularly curious book. Independently of its author being the first of English travellers, and, as is supposed, his publication the earliest prose work in the English tongue-the book is highly interesting, and well worthy a perusal. Sir John Mandevile, according to Bale, "was borne in the towne of St. Albans, was so well given to the study of learning from his childhood, that he seemed to plant a good part of his felicitie in the same: for he supposed that the honour of his birth would nothing avail him, except he could render the same more honourable by his knowledge in good letters. Having therefore well grounded himself in religion, by reading the Scriptures, he applied his studies to the art of physicke, a profession worthy a noble wit: but amongst other things, he was ravished with a desire to see the greater parts of the world, as Asia and Africa. Having therefore provided all things for his journey, he departed from his countrye in the yeare of Christe 1322, and as another Ulysses, returned home after the lapse of thirty-four yeares, and was then known to a very fewe. In the time of his travaile he was in Scythia, the greater and less Armenia, Egypt, both Lybias, Arabia, Syria, Media, Mesopotamia, Persia, Chaldea, Greece, Illyrium, Tartary, and divers other kingdoms of the world; and having gotten by this means the knowledge of the languages, lest so many and great varieties, whereof himself had been an eye-witness, should perish in oblivion, he committed his whole travel of thirty-four years to writing in three diverse tongues, English, French, and Latin. Being arrived again in England, and having seen the wickedness of that age, he gave out this speech: In our time,' said he, 'it may be spoken more truly than of olde, that virtue is gone, the Churche is under foote, the clergy is in errour, the devill raigneth, and Simonie beareth the sway.' He died 17th November, 1371, at Liege, and was buried in the abbey of the order of the Gulielmites." Abr. Ortelius in Itinerarium Belge has printed his epitaph (in Latin), which he found in the abbey at Liege, and on the stone is engraven a man in armour, with a forked beard, treading upon a lion; and at the head of him, a hand of one blessing him, and words to the effect, Ye that pass over me, for the love of God pray for me.' The churchmen then showed also his knives, the furniture of his horse, and the spurs which he used in his travels. There was a belief in St. Albans, that his body was removed and deposited in the abbey, and the following epitaph hung upon one of the pillars :"All ye that passe, on this pillar cast eye, This epitaph read, if you can:
'Twill tell you a tombe once stood in this room,
Of a brave, spirited man,
"John Mandeville by name, a knight of great fame,
Before him was none, that ever was knowne
For travaile of so high renown
"As the knightes in the temple, cross-legged in marble
In armour with sword and with shield;
So was this knight grac't, which time hath defac't
That nothing but ruins doth yeelde.
"His travels being donne, he shines like the sunne
To which blessed place, the Lord of his grace,
Sir John Mandevile's book is disfigured by a fault common to all the ancient travellers; every wondrous tale that was related to, or read by the writer, was chronicled with all the care due only to ascertained facts. On its first publication it was eagerly devoured by the credulous readers of the time, and his "Traveller's Tales" were devoutly believed; but this very credulity was not without its good effects. The wonders related by Mandevile and Marco Polo, who had gone over much of the same country a century before, excited curiosity and inquiry; other travellers increased the store of geographical knowledge, and pioneered the way for our merchants, and hence the belief in
"Anthropophagi, and men whese heads
may be considered as a link in the eternal chain of events "work- they go to plough, for he hath long nails upon his feet as great ing together for good."
The excessive popularity of the author was not, however, of long duration. Reason asserted her empire: theology became too pure to tolerate the admixture of Christian and Pagan wonders. Classical authority began to be consulted, and compared with modern researches. Men sought in the works of travellers for geographic and scientific information, not for the rehearsal of fables; and when so great a portion of a work like this appeared to be founded on a credulous echo of what was acknowledged falsehood, a general cry of wilful fraud was raised against our author and his contemporaries of the same stamp. The accusation was unjust, and founded on a total misconception of the principles and motives of the writer. It is certainly much to be regretted by the modern reader, that our elder travellers were so credulous, since, although their marvels may excite a smile, they diminish the interest of the narrative; but when we examine the relations of Mandevile, we find that he has, with an honourable scrupulosity, to which it would be well if all travellers adhered, carefully distinguished all that he knew of his own knowledge from what he has obtained from reading or the reports of others. When he tells the most improbable stories, he prefaces them with "Thei seyn," or men seyn, but I have not sene it."
The author, according to the humour of the times of ignorance in which he lived, has put into his history abundance of miracles and strange things. He was ambitious of saying all he could of the places he treats of, and has therefore taken monsters out of Pliny, miracles out of legends, and strange stories out of what would now be called romance, and he says:-"The which hystory I have bygonne, after the veray and true cronycles, and many other bokes that I have sought and overrede, for to accomplyshe hit." And certainly he appears to have been very successful in his search, for the wonders he relates have no parallel in any single volume, save the renowned history of the immortal Baron Munchausen. But with all this ultra-extravagance, if it so pleases the reader to designate it, there is yet a poetic interest in these Travels. This and other works had a great influence in fixing, if not forming, much of the genius of the romantic poetry of the age, by reviving and giving the weight of living testimony to the materials for many of these fables. A few extracts, showing our author's genius in that line, are subjoined:
"Cross a river of fresh water, four miles wide, to the land of Pigmie, where there are men but three spans long. The men and women are fair, and are married when they are half-a-year old. They live but eight years. These small men are the best workmen of silk and cotton, and all manner of things, that are in the world. They scorn great men as we do giants, and have them to travel for them, and to till their land.
"There is another island, called Pitan; the men of this land till no ground, for they eat nothing; and they are small, but not so small as the Pigmies. These men live with the smell of wild apples, and when they go far out of the country, they bear apples with them; for as soon as they lose the savour of apples, they die. They are not reasonable, but as wild as beasts. And there is another isle where the people are feathered, all but their faces and the palms of their hands: these men go about the sea as on the land, and they eat flesh and fish all raw."
"From this land, men shall go to the land of Bactrie, where are many wicked and cruel men. In this land are trees that bear wool as it were sheep, of which they make cloth. In this land are Ypotains, that dwell sometimes on land, and sometimes on water, and are half man, half horses, and feed on men when they can get them. In this land are many griffins, more than in other places, and some say they have the body before as an eagle, and behind as a lion; and it is true, for they are made so: but the griffin hath a body bigger than eight lions, and stronger than one hundred eagles, for certainly he will bear to his nest flying, a horse and man upon his back, or two oxen yoked together as
as horns of oxen, and of those they make cups there to drink with, and of his ribs they do make bows to shoot with."
Then in other places we hear of islands where men have but one eye in their front, and eat flesh and fish all raw. Others, where they have no heads, having their eyes in their shoulders, and their mouths in their breasts. In another, where they have neither head nor eyes, and have their mouths in their shoulders. Where they have flat faces without noses and without eyes; but they have two small round holes instead of eyes, and they have flat mouths without lips and in this isle there are some also that have their faces flat, without eyes, mouth, or nose, but eyes and mouth behind on their shoulders. In another, men have lips about their mouths so great, that when they sleep in the sun they cover their faces with their lips. In another, are men as little as dwarfs, who have no mouth but a little round hole, and through that hole they eat their meat with a pipe; and they have no tongue, neither do they speak, but blow and do whistle, and do make signs one to another. Where there are men with feet like a horse, and pursue wild beasts, and eat them. Where they go on their hands and feet, and run about like cats or apes.
Mandevile's book, "with all its faults," is, in several points of view, a peculiarly interesting work; every spot was to him truly "holy ground." Around him on every hand were the living footsteps of the Divine Presence. The very rocks seemed to lament over the spirits whose martyrdom they had witnessed. Here were the infant scenes of the human race, the dwellingplace of primæval innocence, the abodes of the patriarchs, the prophets, and the kings of Israel! The whole face of the country; the wild desert, with its green spots thinly scattered, like islands, for the repose of the weary traveller; the Dead Sea; the sacred plains of Egypt; the Nile; the rivers of Paradise; the wild romantic mode of life of the tribes that scoured over the face of the country; all combined to awaken associations of the deepest and most reverential order. The voice which echoes to us from such scenes as these, viewed with feelings which agitated the bosom of a traveller like Mandevile, is calculated even yet to awaken some of the most powerful emotions of the heart, and make us cease to wonder that we sometimes find the imagination getting the better of the understanding.
The views he takes of society and religion are marked by a liberal and enlightened tone, which we are surprised to find in one living in so bigoted and superstitious an age. But Mandevile was a gentleman and a scholar, and travel had extended his views of humanity. The following tale, though in itself rather apocryphal, leads him to make reflections which do honour to
the christian traveller.
"There is another isle called Synople, wherein are good people of good faith, and they go all naked. Into that island came king Alexander, and when he saw their truth and good belief he said he would do them no harm, and bid them ask of him riches, or any thing else, and they should have it.' And they answered, that they had riches enough when they had meat and drink to sustain their bodies;' and they said also,' that the riches of this world are naught worth; but if it were so, that he might grant them that they should never die, that would they pray him.' And Alexander said, that he might not do, for he was mortal, and should die as they should.' Then, said they, Why art thou so proud, and win all the world and keep it in subjection, as it were a God, and hast no term of thy life; and thou wilt have all the riches of the world which shall forsake thee, and thou shalt bear nothing with thee, but it shall remain to others; but as thou wert born naked, so shalt thou be done in earth!' And Alexander was greatly astonished at this speech. And they have not the articles of our faith; nevertheless, I believe that God liketh their service as he did of Job, that was a Painim, the which he held for his true servant, and many others. I believe, verily, that God loveth all those that love him, and serve him meekly and truly, and that despise the vain-glory of the world;
and these men do, and Job did; and therefore, said the Lord, 'I shall put laws to them in many manners.' And the Gospel
saith, 'I have other sheep that are not of this fold.' And there agreeth the vision St. Peter saw at Joppa, how the angel came from heaven, and brought with him all manner of beasts, as serpents, and divers fowls, saying to St. Peter, 'Take and eat.' And St. Peter answered, 'I never eat of any unclean beast.' And the angel said unto him, 'Call thou not those things unclean which God hath cleansed.' This was done in token that men should not have any man in disdain for their divers laws; for we know not whom God loveth or whom he hateth."
There are four printed copies, in English, of Mandevile's Travels, in the library of the British Museum, of as many various editions; the two most ancient are in black letter, the first of which is a typographical curiosity. It is embellished with a profusion of woodcuts representing the various marvels described: the very rudeness of their execution has something interesting about it. The book contains about 200 pages, small 4to. The title runs thus :-"The Voiage and Travayle of Syr John Mandevile, Knight, which treateth of the Way to Hierusalem, and of Marvayles of Inde, with other Islands and Countryes. Imprinted at London, in Bread-streat, at the nether ende, by Thomas East, An. 1568. the 6 day of October." After the Table of Contents is the following:
"Here beginneth a lyttle treatise or boke, named John Maundevile, Knight, born in England, in the towne of Sainte Albone, and speaketh of the wayes to Hierusalem, to Inde, and to the and also to Prestor John's Land, and to many other Countreys; also of many marvailes that are in the Holy Lande." The orthography of this copy is very ancient, and is somewhat difficult to be read. The other black letter edition, of 1684, has the orthography somewhat modernised. There is also a small 18mo copy, in roman print, without date, "Printed for T. Hedges, opposite to St. Magnus Church, and Sold by J. Harriss, at the Looking-glass and Bible, on London Bridge, price One Shilling." This is also still further modernized and abridged. The most complete edition is that of 1725, an 8vo volume of nearly 400 pages, which is from a MS. in the Cottonian collection, then upwards of four hundred years old, collated with seven others, some nearly as old as the author's time. In this copy the old orthography is restored.
The versions and editions of Mandevile's book are very various, and unequal in execution. It has been printed in all countries as a popular book; and of course many of such editions are inaccurate and mutilated.
In the following extract, the original is preserved as a specimen of the orthography :
"Egypt is a long contree; but it is streyt, that is to seye, harow: for thei may not enlargen it toward the desert, for defaute of watre. And the contree is sett along upon the ryvere of Nyle; becomes as that ryvere may serve hal be flodes or otherwise, that whaune it floweth it may spreden abrood thorghe the contree; so is the contree large of lengthe. For theyre it reynethe not but litylle in the contree; but the eyr is always pure and cleer, therefore in that contree ben the gode astronomyeres; for the fynde there no clouds to letten hem. Aso the cyttee of Cayre is righte gret, and more huge than that of Babylone the lesse. And it sytt aboven toward the desert of Syrye a lytille aboven the ryvere aboveseyd. In Egypt there ben two parties; the heghte, that is toward Ethiope; and the loweness that is towardes Arabye."
We must now take our leave of old Sir John Mandevile; whom we have accompanied through many a strange country, beguiled by his pleasant and frequently instructive chat. We have only introduced him to our readers, but we heartily recommend them to cultivate a further acquaintance with the venera
CHARACTERISTICS OF HOOPING-COUGH.
Ir is probable that some of our readers may ask themselves or others the question, what is the utility of these articles on the diseases of childhood? The usual symptoms attending them are stated; but why is not the proper treatment also given? To such we reply, that it never was our intention to enter into the details of the medical treatment respecting any complaint which we may place before them, and for this simple reason-the conviction that any attempt of the kind would be rather apt to lead them astray than to enlighten.
Nature has not formed on the largest tree of the forest two leaves precisely alike—neither has she presented two cases of the same disease bearing exact resemblance. Age, constitution, or some peculiarity belonging to the individual varies them so much, as to constitute an important feature in the study and successful practice of medicine. Hence the impossibility of an universal remedy or of prescribing correctly or scientifically from the mere name of a disease. The patient must be seen, and all the circumstances attending his or her case be taken carefully into the consideration of the medical practitioner, before he can prescribe proper remedies.
These few observations may lead the reader to perceive the fallacy that must ever attend the announcement of a specific, or remedy, for the cure of any one complaint in all constitutions, and will, we trust, put them on their guard against the pretensions of those who profess to cure all the ills to which the human frame is subject, by one remedy. The utility of these articles we have reason to believe is very generally understood; but lest there should be even one who does not comprehend our intention, we shall briefly say, that our object is to give a plain statement of the usual symptoms attending those diseases of childhood, with such directions to the young mother as will
keep her from committing any error from inexperience, and encourage her to resist the too frequent interference of friends
or neighbours, in the management of her children, when affected with those diseases which call forth such abundance of maternal solicitude.
In directing the attention of our readers to the ordinary symptoms of Hooping-cough, we would observe, that in its mild form, and during warm and temperate weather, it sometimes runs its the sufferer. Cases of so mild a nature occasionally occur, course without exciting alarm to the parent, or greatly distressing children will continue playful, and apparently in as good health immediately before and after the paroxysm or fit of coughing, as during their ordinary state of health. But this favourable form with us, who inhabit a variable and cold climate, is not of very frequent occurrence; on the contrary, there are few complaints incident to childhood, which require greater care to ensure the well being of those attacked by it; and when in a severe form, the paroxysm of coughing is so distressing, even to the beholder, as to call forth the keenest sympathy for the sufferer.
Hooping-cough commences with the symptoms of a common cold, such as watery eyes, nose discharging a thin mucus, with
cough which may, even in the early periods, be observed to be in fits, and of longer duration than what usually attends common cold. These symptoms may continue from ten days to three weeks, or longer, before the whooping commences.
It is this "whooping" noise which has given rise to its peculiar name; but it is also known by a variety of appellations, such as chin-cough-kink-cough-and kink-hoast. For the sake of clearness we will divide it into two stages; the first, exhibiting the symptoms of common cold, which may proceed with so little fever or suffering, that even the experienced parent will only consider it an obstinate cold. But at the end of a period, varying from one to two or three weeks, the second stage commences, and is distinguished by the peculiar convulsive cough. In this cough a number of expirations are made with
such violence, and repeated in such quick succession, that the external application, which might have been used as an adjunct, patient seems to be almost in danger of suffocation.
"The face and neck are swollen and livid, the eyes protruded, and full of tears; at length, one or two inspirations are made with similar violence, and by them the peculiar whooping sound is produced: a little rest probably follows, and is succeeded by another fit of coughing and another whoop; until, after a succession of these actions, the paroxysm is terminated by vomiting, or a discharge of mucus or phlegm from the lungs, or perhaps by both. Sometimes, when the kink is unusually severe, blood is forced from the nose, ears, and even from the eye-lids; and occasionally it ends, without producing any discharge, in complete exhaustion of the patient.
"The number of paroxysms occurring during a day varies much in different cases, according to the severity of the disease; and the violence of each is diminished in proportion to the freeness of the expectoration.
"After the disease has continued at its height for two or three weeks, it begins naturally to decline; the fits become less frequent and violent, the expectoration increases, the cough soon loses its peculiar characteristics, and finally wears away, leaving the patient in perfect health. It is to be observed, however, that occasionally, several weeks after the cough has entirely subsided, it may return; and for a long time, if the patient accidentally catch cold, the cough will often likewise assume the spasmodic character, and be accompanied by "the whoop."
Such are the symptoms attending the simple and uncomplicated hooping-cough; but, unhappily, it too often becomes complicated with other affections, which greatly add to the suffering and danger of the patient-such as inflammation of the lungs or respiratory organs, convulsions, water on the brain, and remitting fever.
The symptoms by which inflammation of the lungs will be recognized are,increased frequency of breathing; the fits of coughing more frequent and distressing; the pulse beats much quicker; the extremities have a tendency to become cold; there is a panting after a paroxysm of coughing, which is dreaded and struggled against; the nostrils contract and dilate in each respiration, and the lips acquire a livid hue. Here the most prompt and decisive treatment becomes necessary, as the patient's safety depends on the early removal of these unfavourable symptoms.
By relating the following melancholy case, we hope to make a deeper impression on the minds of those mothers, disposed to be influenced by the interference of neighbours and friends, on medical treatment, than we could expect to effect by our
A fine boy, an only child, about four years old, had the hooping-cough, and was proceeding favourably, when the weather became suddenly cold and frosty, with an easterly wind; he was removed from up-stairs to a room below, when the change of atmosphere, in passing down stairs, gave rise to such symptoms as have been just described. His medical attendant ordered leeches to be applied, and other proper remedies. Unfortunately the mother had a female friend, who in her own imagination, possessed a cure for all complaints; and in her way was certainly an enthusiast. It required a stronger mind than the poor boy's mother had, to resist the importunity and assurance of her friend. That if she was only allowed to rub a certain celebrated embrocation on the sufferer's back, that night and the following morning, she was as satisfied as she lived, that the dear little fellow would be quite well, without the application of the nasty leeches, which would only weaken him so much that he would never be able to go through the complaint.
Her enthusiasm and eloquence unhappily prevailed; the "nasty leeches," and other means prescribed by a medical man, who had passed some twenty-five years of his life in the minute and close observation of discase, were disregarded; time, which could not be regained, was lost in applying and trusting to stimulating
but which never could control or cure the symptoms under which the patient was labouring. The result may be told in a few words: a fond and doating father was left childless by the weakness of his wife; and the enthusiastic friend, from her ignorance and uncalled for interference, brought the weak and over-fond mother to be one of the most unhappy of her sex.
Hooping-cough is frequently complicated with convulsions, especially at the period of teething; but when convulsions take place, they will be readily recognized by the most inexperienced. Sometimes the child exhibits no indication to lead the mother to fear such an attack; but after a fit of coughing of greater severity than usual, the child is thrown into a violent convulsion from which it generally recovers. However, it more frequently happens that certain symptoms precede, and indicate the approach of convulsions. If during the period of teething we observe the fits of coughing become greatly increased in violence, and the child, instead of "whooping," becomes livid, if the fingers and toes appear to be spasmodically contracted, and the thumbs drawn into the palms of the hands, we may expect, and most probably will have, convulsions, unless suitable means are employed to ward off the threatened attack. Unhappily the repetition of them but too frequently terminates in that formidable malady, water on the brain; therefore the urgent necessity to do all in our power to prevent such a train of diseased action taking possession of the system. For if this powerful and unrelenting enemy establishes a footing in the citadel, there is little chance of dislodging him before the 'fabric is reduced to ruins.
Hooping-cough may also be complicated with remittent fever and disordered state of the bowels; but when these are present, although less to be feared than the two former combinations, yet they render the disease tedious and untractable, and can only be properly treated by the intelligent medical man.
We shall conclude with a brief exposition of the management of children labouring under hooping-cough. The child should be kept in an equal and agreeable temperature; and we would urge particular attention to be paid to this subject, as there is a very general disposition existing towards the exposure of the child to the cold and open air-vainly imagining that a change of atmosphere is beneficial. But during the first weeks of the attack, such a change is always attended with danger of increasing the violence of the cough, and bringing on some of the combinations we have before stated. The unhappy result of the case above given, will, we trust, strengthen our illustration on this point, and lead the mother to become convinced of the necessity of keeping her child in an equal and agreeable temperature during the early period of the disease. When the second stage has continued for some time, and the cough is the only distressing symptom, a change of air is desirable, and is generally productive of beneficial effects.
The diet, if the child be weaned, should consist of milk, in combination with the farinaceous preparations, such as bread, flour, sago, rice, arrow-root, &c. During cold weather the clothing should be warm. Every care should be taken to prevent the occurrence of inflammatory action. No other disease has had a greater variety of remedies recommended for its cure than hooping-cough; but as we believe it will have its course, independent of all the remedial means which have been used to shorten it, we would dissuade mothers from putting much faith in, or trying any of, the popular remedies which may be recommended to her. We cannot conclude before offering a word or two in favour of the use of the gum-lancet, when the patient is suffering from the irritation of teething-especially when there are symptoms indicating the approach of convulsions. Let not the fond mother be deterred from having the gums lanced in apprehension of pain being inflicted on her offspring, as the proper application of the gum-lancet is a more efficient soother than all the soothing syrups ever invented.
A WORD TO YOUNG MEN.
It is not now as it used to be in the days which Scott has so ably depicted, when the "apprentices" of London were able to awe a court, or to ruin a favourite; order and obedience have succeeded to that state of boisterous misrule; but what has been lost in power has been gained in respectability; and, if no longer to be feared, you are at least a class to be cared for Two paths lie before you: the hours at your disposal must either be so occupied as to raise and purify your nature, or they will be given up to idleness, and almost consequently to vice. It is not that these hours are given merely for what is called relaxation; they are taken from manual duty, to be occupied in mental improvement; and that portion of your body, who in London are now enjoying the benefit of the recent regulations respecting the closing of shops, should endeavour to lead some patriotic individuals to set on foot plans for libraries, at so cheap a rate as to render books accessible to all your class; if such efforts be not made for you, they must be made by you. Having once acquired the habit of passing your leisure hours in reading, no temptation to any morally or mentally unhealthy place of amusement will have power over you. Read useful works, make yourselves acquainted with the scientific part of your trade; every business has some portion of science connected with it: even the weaving of a bit of ribbon is guided by mathematical rules, and the scissors with which you cut it may lead you to the investigation of the mechanical powers. If your occupation lie among the productions of nature, endeavour to learn their culture, and the possibility of improving or increasing them; see and feel how the beneficent God has adapted the produce of each climate to the wants of the inhabitants; read of the hardships which those adventurous men endured, who first brought foreign luxuries to our country; admire their perseverance, but reprobate the cruelty they too often practised towards those innocent and happy "children of the soil," whose homes they invaded: let the sufferings of the slave, and the wrongs of the Hindu, awaken in your hearts gratitude to Him who has caused your "lines to fall in pleasant places ;" and remember that tyranny and ill-temper to inferiors are as culpable in you as in the slave-driver.
Does your business awaken in you a love and admiration for the works of art? Read of ancient times-of Greece-of a whole nation cultivating beauty in art. Read of the Parthenon, and admire the exquisite outline of its groups, the elaborate finish of its decorations-then reflect upon the history of the people who fostered this beauty; they were conquerors, they were tyrants, they are slaves, even though Greece has been raised to the rank of a kingdom. Or go back to ages when Greece was not. Let Belzoni or Wilkinson describe to you the ponderous but beautiful sculpture of Egypt, or the manners and customs of the old Egyptians. What are the people who now live under the shadow of the columns of Tentyra? They also are slaves, fallen in mind and body. Read in Basil Hall of the cave of Elephanta, gigantic as the genius of its architects. Read of Ellora, with its thousand caves; of Barotti; of "the ringlet on the brow of Cheetore ;" and ask, What are the people whose ancestors thus perpetuated the soul of beauty which inspired them? They are slaves. And shall we too be slaves? No.
It is not probable that our country will be for ever protected from the doom of change, of decay; "the fiery Frank and furious Hun" may have become our ally in civilisation and commerce, we are not therefore the more secure; the sons of Magog may be confined within their rampart, but it is not the less certain that change will come; though whence, and by what agents, this generation cannot perceive. We should reflect that another empire will take up the ball of civilization where we drop it, and, therefore, as accountable creatures, we should endeavour to further it to the utmost of our power. And to what class must we look for an invigoration of the
mental strength of our country? Not to that class encircled by a factitious state of society and education. Not to the agricultural population,-in no class is so much appalling ignorance to be met with, as among the cultivators of the soil;—those even, who, living upon their own land, and above the pressure of the wants of life, might find leisure to cultivate their mental more profoundly ignorant in all faculties, even they are which is not a mere matter of pounds, shillings, and pence, than the mechanic; we can hardly look to these for intellectual progression. It is to the middle classes of respectable tradesmen, in easy circumstances, that we must turn, in hope and well-grounded expectation; to men whose employments lead them to scientific inquiry: and in this class those we are now addressing may be prospectively included. Some of you will one day probably be masters; endeavour to bring into that situation increased knowledge, a wider liberality, and more philosophical views. The foundation for this must be laid in your present hours of leisure; do not let those hours pass by unimproved. To each is given some peculiar talent; search your own minds and discover the bent of this talent; foster it, and it will, if directed in accordance with the injunctions of the Gospel, prove a blessing to yourselves, and to those dependent upon you. If the acquisition of languages be easy to you, look up to Sir W. Jones as your example, no matter at how great a distance; see how he, by persevering industry, pierced the veil which had hitherto hidden from the western world the treasures of oriental learning: if your mind be alive to the exquisite beauty of the starry heavens, read of Ferguson, the self-taught rustic, who, while employed in keeping sheep, marked the position of the stars with a bead and thread: if your inclination be to poetry, dismiss your reveries, and employ yourself in some task requiring undivided attention of body and mind.
History affords equal excitement and amusement blended with instruction. Rome, by rapine, injustice, and tyranny, arose to be the mistress of the western world; in her decline we can see clearly, as if written with a "pencil of light," how her first Romulus prepared the fate of her last. The carcer of Napoleon was but a feeble imitation of the victories of Rome; and a similar career to his, will probably not again astonish the world. Internal decay, not foreign conquest, is the antagonist of modern stability. Extend your researches into the general history of man, of his powers, of his affections; meditate upon the purposes of his creation, and learn from the Bible how to fulfil those purposes: fear not that such inquiries will be useless; they will strengthen your mind, and enable you to keep your virtuous resolutions through difficulty and temptation. Knowledge of any kind, however apparently remote from your every-day pursuits, can never be useless;
"Be sure that God
Ne'er dooms to waste the strength he deigns impart."
revive the office of Jester. It is by the squandering glances of If it were possible to restore dead fashions to life, we would the fool, that the wise man's folly is anatomised with least discomfort. From the professed fool he may receive the reproof without feeling the humiliation of it, and the medicine will not work the worse, but the better, for being administered under indeed, if every man who, whether in thought or in action, has the disguise of indulgence or recreation. It would be well, too much his own way, would keep a licensed jester. All coteries, literary, political, or fashionable, which enjoy the dangerous privilege of leading the tastes and opinions of the little circle which is their world, ought certainly to keep one as part of their establishment. The House of Commons, being at once the most powerful body on the earth, and the most intolerant of criticism, stands especially in need of an officer who may speak out at random, without fear of Newgate. Every philosopher who has a system, every theologian who heads a sect, every projector who gathers a company, every interest that can command a party, would do wisely to retain a privileged jester. Edinburgh Review.