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THE HABITS OF A MAN OF BUSINESS.-A sacred regard to the principles of justice forms the basis of every transaction, and regulates the conduct of the upright man of business. He is strict in keeping his engagements, does nothing carelessly or in a hurry, employs nobody to do what he can easily do himself, keeps everything in its proper place, leaves nothing undone that ought to be done, and which circumstances permitted him to do;-keeps his designs and business from the view of others, is prompt and decisive with his customers, and does not OVER-TRADE with his capital;-prefers short credits to long ones, and cash to credit at all times, when they can be advantageously made, either in buying or selling, and small profits in credit-cases with little risk, to the chance of better gains with more hazard. He is clear and explicit in all his bargains; leaves nothing of consequence to memory, which he can and ought to commit to writing; keeps copies of all his important letters which he sends away, and has every letter, invoice, &c. belonging to his business titled, classed, and put away; never suffers his desk to be confused with many papers lying upon it; is always at the head of his business, well knowing that, if he leave it, it will leave him; holds it as a maxim, that he whose credit is suspected is not safe to be trusted; is constantly examining his books, and sees through all his affairs as far as care and attention enable him; balances regularly at stated times, and then makes out and transmits all his accounts current to his customers, both at home and abroad; avoids, as much as possible, all sorts of accommodation in money matters and law-suits, where there is the least hazard; is economical in his expenditure, always living within his income; keeps a memorandum-book, with a pencil, in his pocket, in which he notes every little particular relative to appointments, addresses, and petty-cash matters; is cautious how he becomes security for any person, and is generous only when urged by motives of humanity.


OCCASIONALLY, cases have occurred where members of Courtsmartial have been subjected to heavy penalties, for exercising an arbitrary or unjust authority; and these have been produced by appeal to the higher courts of law at Westminster, which take precedence of Court-martial law, and sometimes reverse or annul the proceedings of these inquests. We shall relate one instance, where the dignity and supremacy of the Court of Common Pleas was established, and a question which, up to that time, appears to have been involved in doubt, set at rest for ever by the firm conduct of Chief Justice Willes. It is a very remarkable case, and has been alluded to by Sir John Barrow in his recently published life of Lord Anson, for it occurred during the time that his lordship held a seat at the Board of Admiralty.

The matter was this. In the year 1743, Captain Harry Powlett, commanding the Orford, 50, in the West Indies, brought his lieutenant of marines, George Fry, to trial, on charges of disobedience of orders, &c. Sir Chaloner Ogle was president of the Court-martial, which adjudged Fry to fifteen years' imprisonment! to be dismissed the corps, and rendered incapable of ever serving his Majesty in any future capacity. It appears, that not only was Mr. Fry kept fourteen months in close arrest, but that the evidence against him was not oral, being made up of the depositions of persons whom he had never seen or heard of, reduced to writing several days before the Court assembled; and that altogether the proceedings, as well as the sentence, were illegal.

On the case being represented to the Privy Council, the king was pleased to remit the punishment, and order Mr. Fry to be released; but that gentleman forthwith instituted proceedings in the Common Pleas against the president of the Court-martial, and recovered £1000 damages: the judge moreover informing him, that he was at liberty to bring a separate action against every member of the Court.

Acting upon this advice, Mr. Fry took occasion, while a Courtmartial was sitting at Deptford upon Admirals Matthews and Lestock in 1746, to sue out a writ of capias against Rearadmiral Mayne, and Captain Rentone, two members of the Court who had formerly tried him, and, both being arrested, the other members were highly incensed at this insult to their authority, and, having met twice in consultation, drew up resolutions on each occasion, expressing themselves with some degree of acri

mony against Chief Justice Willes. They forwarded their resolutions to the Admiralty, requesting they might be laid before the king, and demanded "satisfaction for the high insult on their president (Mayne) from all persons how high soever in office, who had set on foot this arrest, or in any degree advised or proorder, discipline, and government, of his Majesty's armies by sea moted it," and remonstrating, that, by the said arrest, "the was dissolved."

The Lords of the Admiralty, participating in the feelings of the Court, instantly laid the resolutions before the king, who, being remarkably tenacious respecting military discipline, espoused the cause of the officers, and commanded the Duke of Newcastle, his principal secretary of state, to inform the Lords of the Admiralty, to the Court-martial, by which the military discipline of the Navy "that his Majesty expressed great displeasure at the insult offered is so much affected; and the king highly disapproves of the behaviour of Lieutenant Fry on the occasion," &c.

But the Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas was nothing daunted by these manifestations. No sooner was he apprised of the resolutions of the Court-martial, than he caused each individual member to be taken into custody, and he was proceeding forthwith to punish them for contempt of Court, and assert the dignity and authority of his office, when he was induced to stay his proceedings by the following apology, signed by the president and all the members of the Court :

"As nothing is more becoming a gentleman than to acknowledge himself to be in the wrong, so soon as he is sensible he is so, and to make satisfaction to any person he has injured; we therefore, whose names are underwritten, being thoroughly convinced that we were entirely mistaken in the opinion we had conceived of Lord Chief Justice Willes, think ourselves obliged in honour, as well as justice, to make him satisfaction as far as it is in our power. And, as the injury we did him was of a public nature, we do, in this public manner declare, that we are now satisfied the reflections cast upon him in our resolutions of the 16th and 21st of May last, were unjust, unwarrantable, and without any foundation whatsoever: and we do ask pardon of his lordship, and of the Court of Common Pleas, for the indignity offered both to him and the Court."

The apology was signed by Rear-admirals Mayne and John Bing, and fourteen captains, and it was ordered to be registered in the Remembrance Office: "a memorial," as the Lord Chief Justice observed, "to the present and future ages, that whoever set themselves up in opposition to the laws, or think themselves above the law, will in the end find themselves mistaken." The apology, and Judge Willes's acceptation, were also inserted in the London Gazette of the 15th November, 1746.

In commenting on this remarkable affair, Sir John Barrow expresses a doubt whether any Chief Justice of the present day would, for such an offence, have exacted such an apology; or, whether if he did, any body of naval officers assembled on such a public duty, would have submitted to make one of so humiliating a nature? We know not how this may be; but, with the above case on record, we imagine it would be difficult to find any body of naval officers so ignorant, or so wilful, as to bring about the necessity for such a step, by treating the authority of the superior Courts with contempt.


THE natives were well acquainted with the effect of a musket, although not the least alarıned at having one fired off near them. Everything they saw excited their admiration, particularly the carpenter's tools and our clothes; but what appeared to surprise them above all other things was the effect produced upon the flesh by a burning-glass, and of its causing the explosion of a train of gunpowder. They perfectly understood that it was from the sun that the fire was produced; for, on one occasion, when Jack requested me to watch two or three strangers whom he had brought to visit us, I explained to him that it could not be done whilst the sun was clouded. He then waited patiently for five minutes, until the sunshine reappeared, when he instantly reminded me of the removal of the obstacle. He was a good deal surprised at my collecting the rays of the sun upon my own hand, supposing that I was callous to the pain, from which he had himself before shrunk; but, as I held the glass within the focus distance, no painful sensation was produced: after which, he presented me his own arm, and allowed me to burn it, so long as I chose to hold the glass, without flinching in the least; which, with greater reason, equally astonished us in our turn.-Major Mitchell,


The Chippewayan Indians believe "that at first the globe was one vast and entire ocean, inhabited by no creature, except a mighty bird, whose eyes were fire and whose glances were lightning, and the clapping of whose wings was thunder. On his descent to the ocean, and on his approaching it, the earth instantly rose up and remained on the surface of the water."Mackenzie's Travels.


Boswell says that Dr. Johnson could not bear being teased with questions. "I was once present," he says, "when a gentleman (the gentleman is supposed to have been Boswell himself) asked so many, as What did you do, sir?' 'What did you say, sir?' that he at last grew enraged, and said, 'I will not be put to the question. Don't you consider, sir, that these are not the manners of a gentleman? I will not be baited with what and why: what is this? what is that? why is a cow's tail long? why is a fox's tail bushy?' The gentleman, who was a good deal out of countenance, said, Why, sir, you are so good, that I ventured to trouble you.' To which he answered, 'Sir, my being so good is no reason why you should be so ill !'"


Thus it is, that God wills man to be great-that God wills man to be happy. Effort is the condition-Effort the means, Effort the vehicle and the hope of all that he is ever to be. Effort over nature-effort over the world -effort, especially, over Himself!"—Rev. G. Armstrong.


The present moment is important chiefly as it affects those which are future; begins, or strengthens an evil or virtuous habit, depraves or amends the soul, hardens or softens the heart, and contributes in this way to advance us towards heaven, or towards hell. There is no man who is not better or worse to-day, by means of what he thought, designed, or did yesterday. The present day, therefore, is not only important in itself, as a season for which we must give an account, but because of the influence which it will have on the events of the morrow.-Rev. T. Dwight.


That lovely bird of Paradise, Christian contentment, can sit and sing in a cage of affliction and confinement, or fly at liberty through the vast expanse, with almost equal satisfaction; while "Even so, Father, for so it seemeth good in thy sight," is the chief note of its celestial song!-Swain.


Why there is pain and death in the world, it has not yet pleased the Father to declare; but since his goodness is abundant, and his wisdom and power have no bounds, we cannot doubt but that the reasons, when they shall be made known, will attest some hidden wisdom, which Man is not yet able to comprehend. All that we yet know is, that everything exists by God's absolute decree: that evil exists; and therefore that evil exists by God's absolute decree. Why plagues and earthquakes have desolated the earth, why pain and guilt have troubled mankind, we may hope to learn hercafter; and till then we may wait patiently, since we see how beauty rises up out of the dust, how peace issues from woe, and how purity is wrought out of repentance.-Martineau's Essays.


It may have been observed of children who are well treated, and in tolerably happy circumstances, there is a certain air of composure and confidence which we could call an air of authority in men, and which arises from their ignorance of fear, and their habit of finding themselves deferred to in many of their desires. These, blind with the consciousness of weakness, with the simplicity natural to their age, and the imperfect expansion of their mental powers, produce an expression of a most exquisite nature, but which though commonly seen, is most difficult to seize; this is what the older Italian painters have given, not perfectly, but in a very surprising degree. Some of the groups of angels hanging in festoons from clouds, will be found to present an astonishing variety of this sort of beauty-Judges of three years old, Soldiers of four, Philosophers of two. But who shall paint this expression, equal to the remembrance of it, in the bosoms of those who have been most interested to observe it? Who that has closely and quietly observed the progress of an infant's mind, its development, by attaching itself like a woodbine to the old supports of the family; putting forth to-day a tendril; to-morrow, a bud; next day, a flower; who shall think of seeing it perfect in painting? In a child's face, curiosity and love stand like cherubs ready to fly from his eyes: his mind is ever active, and ever making new discoveries; ever rewarding its own activity, and ever seeking the assistance of others: it is the only agreeable view of existence; and to be melancholy in regarding a child, it is necessary to think of him when he shall be one no longer.-John Scott.


Controversy, indeed, is unfavourable to piety, and to every Christian feeling it is too commonly the food of malevolence, rancour, and obstinacy; but the examination and comparison of the different parts of the Scripture,

and the attention to the revealed counsels of God, which religious inquiry induces, are favourable to the growth of vital religion, and the impression of faith upon the heart; far more.favourable, if we judge from experience, than a settled calm.-Sumner's Apostolical Preaching.


If length of days be thy portion, make it not thy expectation; reckon not upon long life, but live always beyond thy account. He that so often surviveth his expectation lives many lives, and will hardly complain of the shortness of his days. Time past is gone like a shadow: make times to come present; conceive that near which may be far off; approximate thy past times by present apprehensions of them; live like a neighbour unto death, and think there is but little to come. And since there is something in us that must still live on, join both lives together; unite them in thy thoughts and actions, and live in one but for the other. He who thus ordereth the purposes of his life will never be far from the next, and is in some manner already in it, by a happy conformity, and close apprehension of it.-Sir Thomas Browne's Posthumous Works.


Whoever is open, loyal, and true, whoever is of humane and affable demeanour; whoever is honourable in himself, and in his judgment of others, and requires no law but his word to make him fulfil an engagement; such a man is a gentleman; and such a man may be found amongst the tillers of the ground.-De Vere.


Death but supplies the oil for the inextinguishable lamp of life.Omniana.


In the rich houses, two tables are laid out in the drawing-room by the priests; one is covered with holy images, on the other is placed an enormous silver basin, filled with water, surrounded by small wax tapers. The chief priest begins by consecrating the font, and plunging a silver cross repeatedly in the water; he then takes the child, and, after reciting certain prayers, undresses it completely. The process of immersion takes place twice, and so rigorously that the head must disappear under the water; the infant is then restored to its nurse, and the sacrament is finally administered. In former times, when a child had the misfortune to be born in winter, it was plunged without pity under the ice, or into water of the same temperature. In the present day, that rigour has been relaxed by permission of the church, and warm water substituted for the other; but the common people still adhere scrupulously to the ancient practice in all seasons. On these occasions numbers of the children are baptised at the same time on the ice, and the cold often proves fatal to them. It sometimes happens, also, that a child slips through the hands of the priest, and is lost, in which case he only exclaims, "God has been pleased to take this infant to himself: hand me another;" and the poor people submit to their loss without a murmur, as the dispensation of Heaven.-City of the Czar, by Thos. Raikes, Esq.


The machinery of the world could scarcely go on without tar; yet we seldom inquire how it is made. Fir-trees (pinus silvestris), which are stunted, or from situation not adapted to the saw-mill, are peeled of the bark a fathom or two up the stem. This is done by degrees, so that the tree should not decay and dry up at once, but for five or six years should remain in a vegetating state, alive but not growing. The sap thus checked makes the wood richer in tar; and at the end of six years the tree is cut down, and is found almost entirely converted into the substance from which tar is distilled. The roots, rotten stubs, and scorched trunks of the trees felled for clearing land, are all used for making tar. In the burning or distilling, the state of the weather, rain, or wind, in packing the kiln, will make a difference of 15 or 20 per cent. in the produce of tar. The labour of transporting the tar out of the forest to the river-side is very great. The barrels containing tar are always very thick and strong, because on the way to market they have often to be committed to the stream to carry them down the rapids and falls.-Laing's Sweden.


At the defile of Annanour, a quarantine station, we met a poor peasant, overwhelmed with grief, prostrated before the commandant, and exclaiming, " My wife and parents are lying dead of the plague in the next village, I am afraid to bury them." The Russian instantly despatched a party of soldiers to set fire to all the neighbouring hamlets; and turning to me, said smilingly, "Tis my vocation." I gave the unfortunate sufferer a few roubles, which the commandant noticing, he laughed, and ridiculed the concern I expressed for the miserable Ossatinian. I subsequently mentioned the circumstance to Field-Marshal Count Paskewitsch at Tiflis, who also laughed, and said, "You Englishmen are always inclined to regard with seriousness the veriest trifles!"—Captain Mignan's Journey.

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LET it not be imagined that we set up any pretensions to teach animal magnetism. Our purpose is to acquaint the general reader with what we know on the subject, in order to assist him, so far as we are able, in forming an idea of what animal magnetism really is. The investigation of anything we may communicate, and the application of any reality it may possess, we leave to those eminent philosophers who have hitherto been deterred from submitting Mesmerism to serious consideration, on account of the absurdities so interwoven as to appear identical with it, but who perhaps will give it their attention when it is presented to them divested of all miraculous agency.

In stating our convictions to the public, we feel bound to show that they overtook us amid the strongest anti-magnetic prepossessions entertained from early life, and confirmed by finding, from actual experiment, the reputed miracles of animal magnetism to be wholly false, and its pretended pyschological sympathies to be nothing more than illusions raised in the over-excited imaginations of weak and credulous individuals. Could we effect this without bringing our personal doings to the reader's notice, we would certainly avoid any such intrusion upon his attention; but as we cannot avoid talking of ourselves, we most earnestly deprecate being taxed with egotism.

Not many years after the close of the long continental war, which ended with the re-establishment of the French monarchy in the person of Louis XVIII., we visited the capital of France. The extraordinary vagaries of animal magnetism were then exciting great interest. The controversies of the magnetists and the anti-magnetists were as animated as those of the Gluckists and the Piccinists* in times past. Disbelieving every wonder

* Gluck and Piccini (pronounced Pitchini) may be ranked among the founders of the modern musical drama or opera. During the last century they settled in France, where they exercised their art as rivals. Gluck, being a German, brought with him the poetic energy peculiar to his country. By means of new orchestral combinations, he gave to a powerfully dramatic and heart-searching music a truth of colouring till then unknown. He was the first to break through the rigid rules established by the old contrapuntists, which, being wholly arbitrary and originally applied to the infancy of art, were unfit for its adolescence, because they frequently marred poetic expression. This violation of established academic rule, though so great an improvement that it has been followed by all Gluck's successors, and is adopted by every modern composer, led to the assertion by Handel, who was jealous of every appearance of genius in another, that Gluck was ignorant of counterpoint. But the operas of Handel are forgotten, because they are devoid of colouring and dramatic effect, being only a stern and rigid, though admirable outline, in a style not adapted to the effects of the drama, but peculiar to the music of the church, and therefore appreciated by persons only of musical learning. The operas of Gluck have remained, because, though learned, they are powerfully dramatic, and are therefore understood by the multitude.

Piccini was a native of Italy. He introduced the beautiful and flowing melodies of his country; but he had neither the power of expression and colouring, nor the mechanical skill in instrumentation, belonging to Gluck. The respective styles of these two celebrated men may be considered to illustrate the difference of character which Madame de Staël distinguishes between the poetry of the north and that of the south: the latter depicting sunshine and flowers, shady groves and gentle dalliance, interspersed with VOL. I.


imputed to animal magnetism, and even the very existence of any such principle, we were as much surprised as amused by the earnest, and even angry tone, of those who gave faith to the miracles wrought by the magnetisers and their somnambulists. We could almost fancy ourselves carried back to the days of Faust, or to those of Michael Scott; with the only difference, that the sorceries of animal magnetism were not imputed to the agency of Satan.

A singular inconsistency was shown by certain of the magnetists who professed materialism: these persons, believing matter to be eternal, motion to be the life of matter, and also eternal, and animal and vegetable life to be a mere condition of matter inseparable from organisation, nevertheless maintained, by their arguments and writings, the psychological or spiritual attributes of animal magnetism. The greater number of the magnetists were, however, rigid catholics, who not unfrequently, in their impious fanaticism, coupled the juggling of the somnambulists with the name of divine inspiration.

Though nothing could shake our opinion of these monstrous absurdities, and our total disbelief in animal magnetism, we resolved personally to put to the test the powers of the somnambulists. We have done so, and we most earnestly declare that we have witnessed no one case in which any individual of common sense, and in possession of a very ordinary degree of mental firmness, might not detect the imposture. The first of these scenes which we witnessed has made some impression upon our memory, because we were ourselves the patient, and we immediately committed to paper all that passed: we therefore give it to the reader as the best specimen we are able to adduce of the magnetic doings which we witnessed in somnambulism, and which gave to our anti-magnetic prepossessions the force of adamant.

We were acquainted with an Italian, a mad-brained and enthusiastic votary of the muses and of animal magnetism. We were amused by his eccentricities, and he was our frequent guest. With his bold and startling asseverations of the miracles effected by the Mesmerism of Puységur, he always coupled an energetic proposal of "ocular demonstration." We resolved at last to accept his "demonstration." We were then suffering from disease of the liver, upon which was a tumour sensible to the external touch. This led to a disturbance of the stomach, and we laboured under some of the most unpleasant symptoms of dyspepsia. Our Italian friend, though aware that our health was disordered, knew not the cause; and the more easily to get at the truth, we felt justified in employing a ruse. From the disturbed state of the stomach, we were often troubled with intermittent pulsation—that is to say, at every four or five beats the pulse would stop during one beat. This was a purely nervous action. Bidding our friend feel our pulse, and making him observe the intermission, we passionate bursts of love and jealousy; the former representing stormy passions, inflexible sternness of mind, mists, tempests, crags, precipices, and mountain torrents. The rival merits of these composers gave rise to a violent controversy between their respective admirers, who were thereforo distinguished as Gluckists and Piccinists.


Bradbury and Evans, Printers, Whitefriars.

informed him that we had a disease of the heart, and had resolved to take his advice and ascertain the exact nature of the disorder and the means of cure, by consulting a somnambulist whom he recommended, the magnetiser being his friend. Accordingly a day was fixed, and, at the time appointed, we got into a cabriolet with the Italian, and were driven to the Rue du Helder.

Ascending to the troisième au-dessus de l'entresol, which, in plain English, means the fourth floor, we rang a bell, and were ushered by a servant into a very nicely furnished salon. Here we were presently joined by the magnetiser, accompanied by a tall and remarkably handsome, dark-eyed girl. This last was the somnambulist; and we may safely aver that no creature of more exquisitely lovely person, or more elegant and graceful manners, ever exercised that vocation. The usual courtesies having passed, the somnambulist seated herself upon a sofa; the operator sat upon a fauteuil facing her. Their feet and their knees met. The magnetiser having jerked his hands about towards her face during about a minute and a half, her eyes gradually closed, and her head at length fell upon the cushion. Her master then placed her feet upon the sofa, on which she reclined upon her back at full length. She now slept the sleep of magnetic somnambulism. Placing his hand upon her white, lofty, and well-shaped forehead, the magnetiser commenced the following dialogue, which I here record word for word as it was spoken.

MAGNETISER. Art thou asleep, child? (Dors-tu, mon enfant?)| SOMNAMBULIST. Yes, father! (Oui, mon père !)

MAG. Dost thou, this day, possess the magnetic vision of the somnambulist? (La vue magnétique du somnambule?) Soм. I do, father.

MAG. Look at me then, and state the appearance which I present to thy sight.

SOM. (Without moving from her posture, and with her eyes firmly closed.) Your face is encircled with a halo (une auréole) of brilliant light, a bright stream of which issues from the extremity of each finger placed upon my forehead.

MAG. What sensation does this appearance cause in you?
SOM. Veneration, respect, and submission.

MAG. Very well, child (Bien, mon enfant). Now tell me who holds thee by the hand. (So saying, he placed her hand in ours.)

SOм. A stranger.

MAG. Who and what is he?

SOM. An Englishman in ill health, come to submit to the magnetic influences (se soumettre aux influences magnétiques), to which he refers for the discovery and cure of his disease.

The magnetiser here informed us, that we might ask her any questions, through him, whether relating or not to our health. Before entering upon this last topic, he was anxious, he said, to give us the most convincing evidence of the marvellous faculty possessed by the somnambulist before us. We accordingly began our interrogatory thus:

WE. What do my pockets contain?

SOM. It is not becoming to search the pockets of gentlemen (Il est inconvenant de fouiller dans les poches des messieurs), Nevertheless, I will look into yours. One pocket of your coat contains a green silk handkerchief, the other is empty. In your right waistcoat pocket you have a watch, in your left an English penknife (un canif anglais). The left pocket of your trousers (de votre pantalon) holds a purse of red silk, with a gilt clasp; the other has a bunch of keys.

She was right; but her being so is easily explained. We had taken out the purse and opened it, so that its contents might easily be seen, soon after our arrival, in order to send his fare to the cabriolet driver. The watch was visible enough. The penknife had served, prior to the magnetic sleep, to cut the string that bound a paper containing acidulated lozenges. Finally, the bunch of keys had rattled; and we had used the handkerchief. WE. What hour does my watch indicate?

SOM. Twenty minutes to noon (Midi moins vingt).

who might purchase the watch for re-sale. In this instance, there-
fore, we gave the lady the full "benefit of the doubt."
WE. What coins are contained in my purse?
SOM. Three napoléons and two five-franc pieces.
WE. Belle dormeuse, you mistake, there are four napoléons.
SOM. (Hesitating) True! I had overlooked one: two had stuck
together (deux s'étaient collés ensemble).

WE. How many keys does my bunch contain?
SOM. (After a tolerably long pause) Four.

WE. (Exhibiting the bunch, which contained six.) That is not the number.

The magnetiser observed that Mademoiselle had probably overlooked the two little ones. This of course gave her the cue; the magnetiser repeated the question, informing her that she was in


SOM. C'est vrai. Two smaller keys on the bunch were concealed by the ring. There are six altogether.

This alleged concealment by the ring of the two small keys implied an admission that to the eyes of magnetic somnambulism all opaque bodies do not become transparent, We, however, made no remark to the magnetiser

The Italian now wrote something upon a square piece of paper, which he put into our left hand, our right being occupied in holding the small white, and beautifully-formed hand, of Mademoiselle Félicie, the fair somnambulist. In compliance with his direction, we placed this paper, with the writing downward, upon the person of the sleeper, a little below her waist.

MAG. Read the writing upon thy abdomen (sur ton ventre). SOм. (In a tone of voice as if reading) JE DESIRE QUE VOUS GUERISSIEZ MON AMI (I wish that you may cure my friend).

We turned up the paper: it bore, in pretty large characters, the very words she had pronounced. Whether or not the Italian was in league with the girl, or with the magnetiser, or with both, we never could come at any direct evidence to show, but we have no moral doubt that one or other was the case. Suddenly relinquishing the hand we held, and running to the table, we rapidly seized a pen, pretended to dip it into the ink, and appeared to write something. Approaching the sleeping girl, and resuming her hand, we placed our pretended writing upon the same spot as the paper given to us by the Italian, and directed the magnetiser to demand the contents.

SOM. The Englishman writes so bad a hand that I cannot well make it out (Monsieur l'Anglais a une écriture si difficile que j'ai beaucoup de peine à la déchiffrer). I perceive an i, and an m, and an s, but all appears so confused that it will take too long a time to make it out.

We now turned up the paper, and showed that it bore no writing at all. The magnetiser and the Italian both exclaimed that this was unfair; that the somnambulist could not be expected to give a correct reply, because, by relinquishing her hand, we had ourselves broken the magnetic connexion between us, and this could be renewed by the magnetiser only-a fact which neither had mentioned before the failure of the experiment.

"But," said the magnetiser, "Monsieur must be very difficult of belief, and very unreasonable in his demands (bien exigeant), if he be not now convinced of the powers conferred by magnetic somnambulism upon Mademoiselle; we had therefore better lose no more time, but proceed at once to the business for which we are assembled."

Having assented, the magnetiser, again placing in ours the hand of the beautiful Félicie, which we found by no means disagreeable, the magnetic connexion between us was renewed, and we resumed our interrogatory through the medium of the magnetiser as before.

WE. I am, as you have stated, in ill health, and require your assistance. I wish you to examine the interior of my body, and acquaint me with the disease that afflicts me, together with the means of cure.

This was a very near guess it wanted twenty-two minutes magnetiser made us a sign not to speak.) I have carefully ex

of noon.

WE. Read the maker's name inside the watch. SOM. I cannot distinguish the letters upon the metal; they seem all of a jumble.

There happened to be no maker's name. We had received the watch upon trial from M. Guidon, a wholesale manufacturer, residing in Rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau, on the condition that, if it suited, he would put his name upon it. Of course, if we returned it, the name engraved would be that of any watchmaker

SOM. (after a pause of twenty minutes, during which the amined the internal structure of the stranger's body. All its mechanism is in proper order except the main-spring of its action (le grand ressort de son mouvement), the heart. The action of the left ventricle is impeded, a short stoppage of the pulse is the consequence, and the blood is retarded in its course (dans son cours). I see this take place every instant. The heart is in a swollen and irritated condition. All this disturbance arises from a large red pimple (un gros bouton rouge) just under the left ventricle, and close to its junction with the aorta. This pimple is as

large as a small boil (un petit clou). When it shall be removed the disorder will cease, and the patient be cured (le malale sera guéri). To effect such removal, he must, this evening, apply twenty-five leeches to the epigastrium, and, the moment they have fallen, cover their bites with a linseed-meal poultice having laudanum upon it (un cataplasme opiacé de farine de grain de lin). A ptisan must be made in the following manner: into a new pipkin (une marmite neuve de terre) must be put four large poppy heads, a quarter of a pound of coquelicot flowers, a handful of maidenhair (capillaire), one of marsh-mallows (guimauve), three ounces of liquorice root, and upon these, three litres of river water must be poured; the marmite must be covered and its contents boiled gently until the liquid is reduced to two litres; it must then be strained and the following ingredients added,-three grains of kermes,† three of acetate of morphine, and an ounce of gumarabic, the latter being first pounded, afterwards rubbed up in a mortar with some of the ptisan, and, when quite dissolved, mixed with the whole. The patient must drink a small cupfull of this ptisan every hour (d'heure en heure). In a month he will be restored to health.

WE. Are my stomach and liver in good order?

SOM. The stomach of the malade is a little out of order (un peu dérange) by the disorder; but his liver is in a perfect condition (le foie est parfait).

Perfectly satisfied with the specimen we have described of the intuitive attainments in anatomy, physiology, and medicine of the fair Félicie, we requested that her magnetic slumber might " cease and determine." Accordingly, a few flourishes of the magnetiser's fingers close to her head made her open her large, almond-shaped, and certainly most lustrous and expressive eyes. She immediately rose from the sofa. In reply to a question we asked, she assured us that she had not the slightest recollection or knowledge of what had passed during her "somnambulism." Having given a fee of fifteen francs to the magnetiser, and one of ten to his fair pupil, we shook the former by the hand, gallantly kissed that of the latter, to which ceremony she submitted with a very good grace, and departed accompanied by the Italian, who, as we paced the street towards the Boulevart, thus broke forth.

"Well, what do you think of magnetism at last? I hope you are now convinced. You will of course commence, without loss of time, the treatment prescribed ?"

"I shall do no such thing," we replied. "What has just occurred is a most absurd piece of mummery, which would rather strengthen my anti-magnetic opinions, could they be strengthened. The fact is, there is nothing the matter with my heart. For the sake of getting at the truth, I imposed upon you, for which I beg your pardon."

"But I felt the disturbance in your pulse consequent upon a derangement of the functions of the heart."

We explained to him the nature of our disorder, which we may here state yielded in due time to proper medical treatment. The Italian seemed confounded, and we verily believe his own faith in animal magnetism was shaken.

We have used no exaggeration in describing this scene; we might, without any deviation from truth, have given much stronger tints to the picture. We may add, that every subsequent trial of magnetic somnambulism proved even a more signal failure than the one we have described.

About six or eight months after this occurrence-we were then quite free from our late disease-we were introduced to M. de Puységur, a venerable-looking man, whose hair bespoke the winter of life, whilst his brow was deeply indented with the furrows of age, perhaps with those of study also. He spoke of his own discoveries in Mesmerism, and tried to give us belief. "You do not act wisely," said he, "in suffering your mind to be biassed by the attempts of unskilful persons. Were you ever magnetised ?"

"No!" "Then allow me to magnetise you. This I can do effectually : for although faith in magnetism assist the operator, still incredulity cannot antagonise the action of the magnetic fluid. If I succeed in imparting to you magnetic sleep, will you then acknowledge the existence and influence of animal magnetism?"

"I will acknowledge its existence assuredly." To give this only surviving pupil of Mesmer the benefit of every circumstance that could assist him, we submitted, under his direction to a dietetic and medicinal preparation. On the day of the

* A litre is about equal to an imperial quart.

↑ Kermes mineral, or the hydrosulphuretted oxide of antimony.

trial we took seats facing one another, each foot and each knee in contact with those opposite to it. M. de Puységur began with sundry frictions upon the palms of our hands, and upon our shoulders and arms, frequently resting his hands one upon each side of our head. Meanwhile, his eyes were riveted upon ours in earnest gaze. We had an irresistible inclination to laugh, which we indulged now and then. The noble magnetiser bore this with the greatest good-humour. He laboured hard, for a considerable time, to produce in us sleep, "That sometimes shuts up sorrow's eye;" but it was vain labour: we slept not. From his efforts, though the weather was cold, heavy drops of perspiration ran in rapid succession from his brow. 'you

"I can no more (je n'en peux plus)," said he at length; ". are too strong for me. If I continue, I shall sleep, not you. Instead of imparting the magnetic fluid, I am receiving it. But have you really felt no unusual sensation during my exertions?" "None whatever."

"C'est inconcevable (it is inconceivable). Yours is a singular idiosyncrasy."

Having thus broken the ice, we resolved to be ourselves magnetised whenever a good opportunity offered, and in the course of a couple of months prior to our return to England, we withstood assaults of many of the celebrated magnetisers in the French capital. No one produced upon us any effect of which we were conscious. One only, M. Bertrand, attributed his failure to our want of faith; all the others imputed theirs to our being too strong,-that is to say, an overmatch for them in the quantity we naturally possessed of the magnetic fluid.

Some years after this, we again visited the French capital. The venerable Marquis de Puységur was dead; so was our Italian friend. But new magnetisers had sprung up, and the doings of the somnambulists were as marvellous as ever.

One morning, a young physician, an anti-magnetist like ourselves, called upon us to request that we would accompany him to the house of a friend who was to be magnetised that morning by an extraordinarily successful professor, lately arrived from one of the southern départemens.*

"He has a certain reputation," said the doctor, "in his own country; and we shall, no doubt, derive considerable amusement from the scene."

The magnetiser was a stout powerful man, more than six feet high, with herculean limbs and strong-knit sinews," and therefore very unlikely to find a patient "too strong" for him. He magnetised by "passes,"-that is to say, placing the extremity of the middle finger upon that of the thumb, he jerked both hands forward, spreading at the same time his fingers. This method, he said, "propelled the fluid with so powerful an impetus that its impingement upon the patient's head was strong enough to drive it like a torrent to the brain."

We have given the precise words used by the magnetiser, who explained his system to us in English, which he spoke remarkably



The young doctor and I stood close to the operator as he applied his "passes" to his patient. We were, however, on different sides. On a sudden I experienced a strange sensation of faintness; the doctor also complained of being ill, and we both passed through an open window into a balcony, where the fresh air soon relieved On returning to our respective stations near the operator, the same faintness again affected us, and we were relieved by the same means. Imputing our indisposition to the heat of the room, we stationed ourselves at a short distance from the window, where we experienced no further inconvenience. The patient, who had become very pale, at last declared that he should faint. He was now really very ill. A smelling-bottle was applied under his nose, his face was sprinkled with cold water; on a sudden he was relieved by a violent action of the bowels. The magnetising was adjourned to a future day.

The illness which the young doctor and we ourselves, as well as the patient, had experienced, made but little impression upon us at the time, and was soon forgotten. It was, however, afterwards brought to our recollection in the manner we are about to explain.

At a réunion dansante, which took place at the house of a mutual friend, we met M. de L, a French physician of extensive practice. He was a man of very remarkable appearance, and past the prime of life. Delighted with his conversation, with his professional philosophy, and with the knowledge he displayed on * France is divided into départemens, instead of provinces or counties.

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