Billeder på siden
PDF
ePub

mand over his tenants, and perhaps to sacrifice the produce of a considerable portion of his land in order to encourage more game, and to indulge, with more effect and less interruption, in the pleasures of the chase. Thirty or forty proprietors, with incomes answering to between one thousand and five thousand a year, would create a much more effective demand for wheaten bread, good meat, and manufactured products, than a single proprietor possessing a hundred thousand a year.

It is physically possible, indeed, for a nation, with a comparatively small body of very rich proprietors, and a large body of very poor workmen, to push both the produce of the land and manufactures to the greatest extent that the resources and ingenuity of the country would admit. Perhaps under such a division of property the powers of production might be rendered the greatest possible; but, in order to call them forth, we must suppose a passion among the rich for the consumption of manufactures, and the results of productive labour, much more excessive than has ever been witnessed in human society. The consequence is, that no instance has ever been known of a country which has pushed its natural resources to a great extent, with a small proportionate body of persons of property, however rich and luxurious they might be. Practically it has always been found, that the ex

[blocks in formation]

cessive wealth of the few is in no respect equivalent, with regard to effective demand, to the more moderate wealth of the many. A large body of manufacturers and merchants can only find a market for their commodities among a numerous class of consumers above the rank of mere workmen and labourers; and experience shows us that manufacturing wealth is at once the consequence of a better distribution of property, and the cause of further improvements in such distribution, by an increase in the proportion of the middle classes of society, which the growth of manufacturing and mercantile capital cannot fail to create.

But though it be true that the division of landed property, and the diffusion of manufacturing and mercantile capital, to a certain extent, are of the utmost importance to the increase of wealth; yet it is equally true that, beyond a certain extent, they would impede the progress of wealth as much as they had before accelerated it. There is a certain elevation at which the projectile will go the farthest; but if it be directed either higher or lower, it will fall short. With a comparatively small proportion of rich proprietors, who would prefer menial service and territorial influence to an excessive quantity of manufactured and mercantile products, the power of supplying the results of productive labour would be much greater than the will to consume them, and the progress of wealth would be checked by the want of effective demand.

With an excessive proportion of small proprietors both of land and capital, all great improvements on the land, all great enterprises in commerce and manufactures, and all the wonders described by Adam Smith, as resulting from the division of labour, would be at an end; and the progress of wealth would be checked by a failure in the powers of supply.

From what has been quoted in the present chapter from a high authority, it appears that, in a civilised and wealthy community, emigration or colonisation can be encouraged to a great extent; but that such a lopping off from redundant numbers can only alleviate for a time the pressure of an over-populated country. The only permanent method of preventing an excessive pauper-population must be the inculcation of knowledge and moral principle. Knowledge would, in most cases, be followed by prudence; and prudence would enforce on young men who have only their manual exertions to depend on, the necessity of putting by their earnings, and not settling in life till they should, in the savingsbanks or elsewhere, have accumulated a sum adequate to the purpose of providing for future increased wants, and the support of a family. This accumulation could not reasonably be expected before they had reached thirty years at least.

Until the lower classes are educated; until this principle is implanted in their minds, and they are satisfied of its truth, and of its influence on their

happiness, all the colonisation or emigration that any government can afford, will not remedy the evil of excessive pauperism. The utmost wealth of this empire, were it ten times more ample than it is, would be insufficient to prevent the spread of human misery arising from over-population.

END OF THE FIRST VOLUME.

AUG 13 1919

LONDON:
Printed by A. SPOTTISWOODE,
New-Street-Square.

[blocks in formation]

CLASSIFIED INDEX.

Pages

Agriculture and Rural Affairs. Robinson's Artof Curing,Pickling&c.26 Dahlmann's English Revolution

Bayldon On valuing Rents, &c.
Crocker's Land-Surveying
Davy's Agricultural Chemistry
Greenwood's (Col.) Tree-Lifter
Hannam on Waste Manures

Pages.

Johnson's Farmer's Encyclopædia 15
Loudon's Encyclop. of Agriculture 18
Self-Instruction for Far-

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Short Whist

Thomson On the Sick Room -
Thomson's Interest Tables

Botany and Gardening.

Callcott's Scripture Herbal

Pages

7

De Sismondi's Fall of Roman Empire 8
Italian Republics
8

Dunham's Hist. of Spain & Portugal 8
History of Europe dur-

"

9

ing the Middle Ages -
Hist. of the German Emp. 9
History of Denmark,
Sweden, and Norway
History of Poland

Dunlop's History of Fiction -
Eccleston's English Antiquities
Fergus's History of United States
Grant's (Mrs.) Memoir and Corre-
spondence -

66666 99

· 27

4

30

7

- 30

8

11

12

Tomlins's Law Dictionary
Webster's Domestic Economy

- 30

32

"

"

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

9

[ocr errors]

9

9

17

-

9

19

Conversations on Botany

9

18

Drummond's First Steps to Botany
Glendinning On the Pine Apple

[blocks in formation]

"

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

Greenwood's (Col.) Tree-Lifter
Henslow's Botany -

11

10

Grimblot's William
12

III. and

32

Hoare On Cultivation of the Vine -

12

Louis XIV.

[ocr errors]

On the Roots of Vines
Hooker's British Flora

12

-

13

Guicciardini's Historical Maxims -
Halsted's Life of Richard III.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small]

and Taylor's Muscologia
Britannica -

Haydon On Painting and Design -

13

Historical Picturesof the Middle Ages12

Jackson's Pictorial Flora

15

[ocr errors]

Lindley's Theory of Horticulture -
Guide to the Orchard and
Kitchen Garden -

17

Jeffrey's (Lord) Contributions to

Horsley's (Bp.) Biblical Criticism- 13

[ocr errors]

11

11

11

12

[blocks in formation]

11

"

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

3679DI2223

Grattan's History of Netherlands

Low's Elements of Agriculture

Breeds of the Domesticated
Animals of Great Britain -
On Landed Property

Whitley's Agricultural Geology

Arts and Manufactures.

Brande's Dictionary of Science, &c.
Budge's Miner's Guide

De Burtin on the Knowledge ofPictures 8
Eastlake's History of Oil Painting 9
Gruner's Decorations of the Queen's 11
Pavilion

Gwilt's Encyclop. of Architecture
Haydon On Painting and Design -
Holland's Manufactures in Metal 13
Loudon's Encycl. of Rural Architect. 18
Maitland's Church in the Catacombs 20
Porter's Manufacture of Silk-
25
Porcelain & Glass 25
Reid (Dr.) On Ventilation

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small]

-

25

Steam Engine, by the Artisan Club 28
Ure's Dictionary of Arts, &c.

[ocr errors]

Supplement to Ditto

Biography.

Aikin's Life of Addison -

Introduction to Botany

17

Synopsis of British Flora 17
Loudon's Hortus Britannicus
18
66 Lignosis Londinensis 18
Self-Instruction for Gar-
deners, &c. -
Encyclop.of Trees & Shrubs 18
Gardening 17
Plants
Suburban Gardener
Repton's Landscape Gardening
Rivers's Rose Amateur's Guide
Rogers's Vegetable Cultivator
Schleiden's Scientific Botany
Smith's Introduction to Botany
English Flora -

"

"

- 31

"

31

3

4

[ocr errors]

8

"

9

Bell's Lives of eminent British Poets
Dover's Life of the King of Prussia
Dunham's Early Writers of Great
Britain
Lives of British Dramatists 9
Forster's Statesmen of the Com-
monwealth of England
(Rev. C.) Life of Bp. Jebb 10
Gleig's British Military Commanders 10
Grant's (Mrs.) Memoir and Corre-

spondence

-

James's Life of the Black Prince -
Foreign Statesmen

Leslie's Life of Constable

9

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][subsumed]

18

18

25

Moore's History of Ireland

Mignet's Antonio Perez and Philip II.21
Milner's Church History

- 21

26

26

Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History 22
Müller's Mythology

26

- 28
- 27

Compendium of Eng. Flora 27

Chronology.

Blair's Chronological Tables

4

23

Calendar (Illuminated) & Diary, 1846 14
Nicolas's Chronology of History
Riddle's Ecclesiastical Chronology 25
Tate's Horatius Restitutus

29

Nicolas's Chronology of History

[ocr errors]

Ranke's History of the Reformation 25
Roberts's Duke of Monmouth

Rome, History of -

Russell's Correspondence of the

Fourth Duke of Bedford

Scott's History of Scotland

Stebbing's History of the Church - 28
History of Reformation 28
Church History

Switzerland, History of -

Sydney Smith's Works -

Commerce & Mercantile Affairs. Thirlwall's History of Greece

[ocr errors][merged small]
[ocr errors]

15

· 15

17

Lorimer's Letters to a Young
Master Mariner -

Tooke's History of Prices

[ocr errors][merged small]

Turner's History of England

17

Life of a Travelling Physician
Mackintosh's Life of Sir T. More

17

19

Maunder's Biographical Treasury -
Mignet's Antonio Perez and Philip II.21
Roberts's Duke of Monmouth

21

26

Roscoe's Lives of British Lawyers- 26
Russell's Bedford Correspondence
Shelley's Literary Men of Italy,

4

M'Culloch's Dictionary of Com-
merce and Commer. Navigation -
Steel's Shipmaster's Assistant
Thomson's Interest Tables

Walford's Customs' Laws

Geography and Atlases.

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

Tytler's Elements of General History 31
Zumpt's Latin Grammar

28

30

"

Spain, and Portugal
Lives of French Writers -

[blocks in formation]

Southey's Lives of the Admirals

[blocks in formation]

Life of Wesley

28

Townsend's Liveso! 12EminentJudges30
Waterton's Autobiography & Essays 31

Acton's Cookery

Books of General Utility.

Black's Treatise on Brewing

[ocr errors]

De Strzelecki's New South Wales -
Forster's Hist. Geography of Arabia 10
Hall's New General Atlas

Butler's Sketch of Ancient and
Modern Geography
Atlas of Modern Geography 6
Ancient do. 7
Cooley's World Surveyed

[ocr errors]

6

6

Juvenile Books.

Boy's own Book (The)

Conscience's Flemish Sketches

Hawes's Tales of the North Ameri-

can Indians -

Howitt's (Wm.) Boy's Country Book 14
Marcet's Conversations-

On the History of England

66

On Chemistry

6

On Natural Philosophy

[ocr errors]

8

On Political Economy

On Vegetable Physiology

-

11

3

4

Supplement on Bavarian Beer 4

Collegian's Guide (The)

6

M'Culloch's Geographical Dictionary 20
Murray's Encyclop, of Geography - 23
Ordnance Maps and Publications of
the Geological Survey
Parrot's Ascent of Mount Ararat

On Land and Water

On Language -

"

23

"
"

Donovan's Domestic Economy

8

Hand-book of Taste

[ocr errors][merged small]

History and Criticism.

Hints on Etiquette

12

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

Hudson's Parent's Hand-book - 14

"6 Executor's Guide

Loudon's Self-Instruction

Maunder's Treasury of Knowledge

Biographical Treasury -

14

"

- 14

17

Adair's (Sir R.) Memoir of his Mis-
sion to Vienna
Negotiations for the Peace
of the Dardanelles-
Addison's Hist. of Knights Templars 3

3

3

Bull's Hints to Mothers -

21

[ocr errors]

21

History of the Temple Church 3
Bell's History of Russia

The Game of Grammar
Willy's Grammar
Lessons on Animals, &c.

6 Marryat's Masterman Ready-

Mission; or, Scenes in Africa21
Settlers in Canada

Maunder's Universal Class-Book -
Pycroft's (Rev. J.) English Reading 25
Medicine.

Management of Children

[ocr errors]

20

20

5

5

4

[ocr errors][merged small]

Blair's Chron, and Histor. Tables.

Copland's Dictionary of Medicine -

7

4

Elliotson's Human Physiology

9

Treasury

[merged small][ocr errors]

Treasury of History
Universal Class-Book

Parkes's Domestic Duties

Pycroft's (Rev. J.) English Reading
Riddle's Latin-Eng. Dictionaries

222333

21

Bloomfield's Edition of Thucydides 4

Holland's Medical Notes

13

21

"

Translation of do.

4

21

Bunsen's Egypt

Lefevre's Apology for the Nerves -

16

5

Pereira On Food and Diet

Cooley's History of Maritime and

24

Reece's Medical Guide -

25

25

Inland Discovery

7

Sandby On Mesmerism

26

25

Crowe's History of France

[ocr errors]

Wigan (Dr.) On Duality of the Mind 32

« ForrigeFortsæt »