Billeder på siden


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58. P, p.-When initial, and in the body of words, p is besiktas referent BOODĀS, DEzer usually sounded; and then it has the sound of p in Englè When final, it is generally sint. Exceptions will best be 1. Like the Expat ke k = the following wardsfound out by consulting a French dictionary.

59. Q, q.-Q is pronounced like the English k

60. R, r.-The sound of this letter is somewhat peculiar, having a rolling or jarring sound produced by vibrating the tip cf the tongue against the roof of the mouth near the upper front teeth. It is never sounded in the French words mesneurs and monsieur.

Its sound in other respects is that of English. It is often dropped, or nearly so, in the body of a word but especially in the last syllable, in common conversation, namely:—


as if printed NZ.

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But in solemn and dignified reading or speaking it is sounded very distinctly (when at all, with the rolling sound.

61. S, s.-S has two distinct sounds, which are determined by its position, viz:-the sharp, hissing sound of s in the English words disserer and his, and the sift son of s in the English word nose, equivalent to the English letter 1. the sharp and hissing sound whenever it is i it his

It has the soft wund whenever it occurs between two roWE'S namely:

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Baptiser Ba-tee-zay To baptise.

Beer Bab-zay


I: base apos.
Sh'wah-zeer Is choses.

Descrire Day-zeri Daorle.

Desobeir Day-ro-bay- Is datry.


Mason May-romh Abc.
Is sast.

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There are, however, a few exceptions to the above rule. 8 final, before another word commenting with a vowel or & mate, has the sound of the English r. and is connected with the following word in pronunciation, as if it were its first letter, namely:-) Apres arcir dizé Apray zavoir diná

Dis à mon de venir

Pas excusable

as if printed


In za men frere le venir.
Pa zexcusable.

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8 final, under other circumstances, is usually silent, namely:

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Zhu da

In a few words s final is sounded. these.

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Refer to the dictionary for

in the body of a word, is
Sometimes, however, both

62. T, t.-T, when initial, or usually pronounced like English t. in the body and in the last syllable of words, it has the sound of English in the word see, namely :


If is silent in many words, except proper names.

I full, when carried to the next word in pronunciation, bas the sound of English 1, namely:

Aur Lommes as if printed
Duar et

Jakar et

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Aur hommes.

Don et.

Jalonz et.

Voir ca.

66. Z, Z.-Z is usually sounded like English 1.

Z final, before a word commencing with a consonant, is cent carried to the next word in pronunciation, as if it were its i Zjinal, before a word commencing with a vowel or à mata s letter, namely:

Essayez en
Laissez un

Songez a

as if printed Essaye-zen.
Songe-za, ete.

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COMPOSITION (concluded).


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Pase anhe


Brosse, f., brush.



Brouette, f., wheelbarrow,







In a few other words, the t in the last syllable of tie and tier has the common sound of English t. Refer to the French dictionary for their pronunciation.

T final is usually silent, and is seldom carried to the next word in pronunciation.

63. V, v.-In all situations, v has the sound of English v. 64. W, W.-W is not properly a French letter. It is not found in the French alphabet, though it is sometimes used in foreign words, names of persons, places, and things. thus used it has the sound of English v. Newton, however, is printed in French Neuton; and, with the

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Cachet, m.,

Carabine, f., ride.
Charrue, f., plough.
Chevalet, m.,

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Cire, f., oaz.
Colle, f., glue.
Cognée, £, hatchet.

Compas, m., compasses.
Echafaudage, m., scaffolding.
Echelle, f., ladder.
Enclume, f., anvil.
Etan, m., vice.
Faucille, f., sickle.
Fleau, m., flail.
Faux, f., scythe.

Fusil, m., gun.

Hache, f., aze.

Hameçon, m., fishhook.

Herse, f., harrow.

Houe, f., hoe.

Ligne, L., Une.

Lime, f., file.

Meule, f., grindstone.

Pelle, f., shovel.

Pince, f., crowbar.

Pinceau, m., brush, pencias

Poulie, f., pulley.

Rabot, m., plane.

Rouleau, m., roller.

Sablière, f., sandbar.

Scie, f., sav.

Serrure, f., lock.

Tenailles, f. pl., pincers.

Truelle, f., trowel.

Vis, f., screw,


Acier, m., steel,


Aimant, m., loadstone, magnet.
Airain, m., brass.

Alun, m., alum.

Antimoine, m., antimony.

Argent, m., silver.

Arsenic, m., arsenic.

Brenze, m.,


haux, f., lime.

Traie, f., chalk.

Cuivre, m., copper.

Etain, m., tin.

Fer, m., iron.


Agate, f., agate.

Améthyste, f., amethyst.

Corail, m., coral,

Coraline, f., cornelian.

Fer-blanc, m., tinned iron.
Fil d'archal, m., iron wire.
Fil de laiton, m., brass wire.
Marbre, m., marble.
Mercure, m., quicksilver.
Or, m., gold.
Platine, n..latinum.
Plomb, m., lead.

Soufre, m., sulphur.

Similor, m., pi..chbeck.
Vif-argent, m., quicksilver.
Vermeil, m., silver-gilt.
Zinc, m., zinc.


Diamant, m., diamond.

Emeraude, f., emerald.

Escarboncle, f., carbuncle.

Great, m., garnet.

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1. The four classes, or conjugations, into which the French verbs are divided, are distinguished by the endings of the present, of the infinitive [§ 44]. The first conjugation ends in er, as chanter, to sing; donner, to give; parler, to speak; chercher, to seek.

The second conjugation ends in ir, as chérir, to cherish; punir, to punish; munir, to provide with; finir, to finish.

The termination of the infinitive of the regular verbs of the third conjugation is evoir, as, devoir, to owe; recevoir, to receive; that of the irregular verb is oir, as, valoir, to be worth. The fourth conjugation ends in re, as rendre, to render; fendre, to split; tendre, to stretch; vendre, to sell.

2. A verb preceded by another verb (other than the auxiliaries avoir and être), or by a preposition (other than en), is put in

the present of the infinitive:

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Avoir le courage, to have courage.

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1. Votre belle-mère a-t-elle quelque chose à faire? 2. Elle n'a rien à faire. 3. A-t-elle deux pages à écrire ? 4. Non, Monsieur, elle n'en a qu'une. 5. Avez-vous l'intention de lire 7. ce journal ? 6. Oui, Madame, j'ai l'intention de le lire. Avez-vous raison d'acheter un habit de velours? 8. J'ai raison d'en acheter un. 9. Votre petite fille a-t-elle besoin de dormir ? 10. Oui, Monsieur, elle a besoin de dormir, elle est fatiguée. 11. Avez-vous peur de tomber? 12. Je n'ai pas peur de tomber. 13. Le jardinier a-t-il le temps de travailler dans les champs ? 14. Il n'a pas envie de travailler dans les champs. 15. Vos champs sont-ils aussi grands que les miens? 16. Ils sont plus grands que les vôtres. 17. Avez-vous honte de marcher? 18. Je n'ai pas honte de marcher, mais j'ai honte de danser. 19. Quel âge a votre fils? 20. Il a seize ans. 21. Avons-nous le deux Mars ou le cinq Juin ? 22. Nous avons le vingt-huit Juillet. 23. Est-il midi? 24. Non, Monsieur, il n'est pas encore midi, il n'est que onze heures et demie. 25. Il est encore de bonne heure.


1. What has your brother-in-law to do? 2. He has letters to write. 3. Does he want to work? 4. Yes, Sir, he wants to intend to read your book, he has no time. work. 5. Does he intend to read my book? 6. He does not 7. Is your sister ashamed to walk? 8. My sister is not ashamed to walk, but to say? 10. My cousin has nothing to say, she is afraid to my brother is ashamed to dance. 9. Has your cousin anything speak. 11. Is it late? 12. No, Madam, it is not late, it is carly. 13. Have you a wish to read my sister's letter (f.)? 14. Have you the courage to go to the war? 15. I have not the dress (f.)? 17. Yes, Sir, she is right to buy one. courage to go to the war. 16. Is your sister right to buy a silk 18. Does that Ichild want to sleep? 19. No, Sir, that child does not want to sleep, he is not tired. 20. Has your brother's gardener a wish to mine. work in my garden? 21. He has a wish to work in (dans) old. 24. What is the day of the month? 25. It is the ninth of 22. How old is that child? 23. That child is ten years

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Avoir le temps, to have time, or is twelve.


Avoir peur, to be afraid.
Avoir raison, to be right.
Avoir regret, to regret.
Avoir tort, to be wrong.
Avoir sujet, to have reason.
Avoir soin, to take care.




THIS contrivance, which is also called the "Rack," is one of the

5. The following are examples of the use of the preposition most useful within the range of gymnastic appliances. It is

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That child wants to sleep.
You are ashamed of running.

Have you anything to say?
I have nothing to say.
Has your sister nothing to write?

She has two letters to write.
Has she time to write them?
She does not design to write them.
She does not intend to write them.
She has no desire to write them.
Are you afraid to dance?

I am not ashamed to dance.
Your cousin is right to go out.
Do you not take care to write?

also one of the most simple in its character, consisting of two stout upright posts, firmly embedded in the ground, and crossed by a movable round bar, about two inches in diameter. The posts should be about seven feet high, and drilled with holes commencing at a distance of three feet from the ground, and continuing to the top. These holes are for the ready insertion of the bar at any desired height from the ground. For security in its position, each end of the bar should be provided with a cap, screwed on or otherwise fixed after it is placed in the uprights.

1. The exercises upon the bar are commenced from the position shown in our illustration (Fig. 13). From this position a variety of simple movements may be practised, all tending to assist the development of the muscular powers. Thus, the body may first be gently swung to and fro; then the hands may be used in travelling from end to end of the bar; and next the

Ares-vous le courage d'aller à la Have you the courage to go to the body may be raised by the arms until the bar is below the



level of the head. Free movements of the legs are also de

sirable-kicking forwards, backwards, or in a straddling position; raising the knees and then extending the legs downward, and so on. The position of the hands may be changed, the bar being held with the grasp reversed, or the arms crossed while the same movements are practised. And the learner should include the hanging by either hand alternately among these elementary exercises, to which it is necessary to be perfectly accustomed before attempting the higher rack movements.

The position taken by the body in Fig. 13 is called hanging sideways. To hang crossways the gymnast must, in starting, turn his back to one of the supports, and grasp the bar either hand over hand, or one hand before the other, while he has the length of the bar in front of him. This distinction between sideways and crossways it will be necessary to bear in mind. While hanging crossways, practise such of the movements previously mentioned as are suited to the altered position.

2. When familiar with the preliminary exercises, the learner will proceed to the more difficult, commencing with the rising and sinking movement, and practising it until he is sufficiently expert to be able to bring the body above the bar, and to rest upon the hands while the bar is level with the thighs. This is called rising into the rest, or resting position. A jerk and a spring of the legs will at first be required in the progress upward, and it will be facilitated by pausing in an intermediate position, known as the drop rest. This is reached when the bar is level with the pit of the stomach, the arms being bent upward, ready for the completion of the rise. Or the rest may be attained by the help of a swinging movement, first backwards and forwards two or three times, and then taking advantage of the next backward motion to spring upwards towards the resting position. The rise may also be practised with the bar behind the gymnast, but this is a more difficult feat.

3. Circling the bar should be performed with the bar at the height of the chest or shoulders. It consists, as will probably be understood from the name, in turning a summersault completely over the bar, and is not difficult when the swinging and rising movements have been well practised. Grasping the bar firmly, the gymnast starts from the ground with a spring, throws the legs upwards, and, bending the arms, turns over by the impetus which the spring and the throw give to the body. He may next turn from the swinging position, without touching the ground, and should practise both the forward and the backward circle.

and the knee between the hands. This is a convenient position for a variety of movements-swinging, twirling, etc.

7. From the position just described release the left hand, holding firmly on with right arm and leg, and pass the left leg over; then bring up the left hand. The position will then be sideways, both hands and both legs over the bar, and the knees between the hands. From this you may easily rise to the sitting position on the bar, sinking again and again, until you have practised the movement sufficiently.

8. From the sitting posture, perform twirls both backward and forward; for the backward twirl grasping the bar in the ordinary manner, with the knuckles forward; and for the for ward twirl, holding it with the grasp reversed.

9. When both legs are over the bar, as described in No. 7, release the hold of the hands, first one and then the other, and hang by the hocks, with the head downwards. Recover from this position by a swing to and fro, to give an

Fig. 13

impetus, grasping the bar as the body rises. This exercise should only be at tempted by the learner who has attained some degree of proficiency in the foregoing movements, and has become familiar with this form of "practice at the bar" generally.

10. The lever exercises upon the bar are accomplished in the following manner:Grasping the bar firmly, with the hands in the position known as the drop-rest, and throwing all the weight upon the arms, gradually raise the body until it extends in an horizontal position above the bar. You may then move the body from side to side, as upon a pivot, but being careful to keep the legs close together and fully extended.

11. After the learner can perform the last exercise, resting upon both arms, he may attempt it with one arm only, the other being stretched forward on the same level as the rest of the body. These exercises will try the wrists, but may be safely attempted by the learner who has gone through the preliminary movements.

12. It is an easy matter to descend from the positions last described to that known as lying upon the bar. In this the stomach alone must rest upon the bar, the body being properly balanced and fully extended, somewhat as if in the act of swimming. But lying with the back upon the bar is much more difficult, and it is well not to attempt this feat unless, as in a properly-conducted gymnasium, some one or two persons are by to prevent your falling in case of failure. But, with caution, there is very little hazard of injury, and in practising movements of this kind for the first time it is well to have the bar fixed at a moderate height only from the ground.

Fig. 14.

4. The circling movement is defined by the dotted line in our next illustration (Fig. 14), which also shows one method of practising the next series of exercises, namely, hanging by the arms. The gymnast may hang either by the armpits, as in the cut, or by the elbow joints; but in the latter case he will lack the necessary purchase for the performance of such feats as the circle. He should, however, practise each method, in order to strengthen all the muscles of the arm alike.

5. At present, in holding the bar we have exercised the arms exclusively. But the legs also may be employed for this purpose. Commence by hanging crossways with the hands, then swing one leg over the bar, so that it is held firmly in the hock. If it is intended to place the right leg over the bar, the right hand should be held foremost, and vice versa. After one leg has been hooked on, the hands may be brought nearer together, and the other leg placed over the bar. Travel, then, along the bar

from end to end.

6. Hang crossways with the right hand in front, and bring over the right leg; then advance the left hand nearer to the right, and remove the right hand to the other side of the leg. The position is then sideways to the bar, with one leg over it,

Very expert gymnasts-more expert than our readers are likely to desire to be, or, perhaps, than it is advisable they should become are able, from the last-named positions, to twirl a summersault, alighting easily upon the feet. But no useful end can be served by the practice of hazardous experiments of this kind, and therefore we wish to be understood as in no way recommending them to our readers, although we include them in the list of feats, the accomplishment of which may occasionally be witnessed.

We have now described the principal varieties of the exercises on the horizontal bar; but, to the learner who is partial to practice with this contrivance and it is a general favouritemany other movements will suggest themselves. Those which are simple in character are frequently the best, for, in increasing the difficulty of performance, there is not necessarily a propor tionate advantage in physical development and the accession of bodily strength.

We come next to the Parallel Bars, reserving these exercises for another paper.



NEARLY five hundred years have elapsed since the subject of the following sketch presented itself, but the interest which it excited, and the principles which it brought into notice, can never die. We are all interested very deeply in the matter of freedom of conscience, freedom to worship God in the way suggested by the light He has given us; and we can never afford to lose sight of the principle then vindicated, even to the death, that it is not competent to a ruler to visit with the punishment of a crime, a man whose sole offence consists in differing from his brethren on points of spiritual belief. The first occasion on

were made to silence him, but he spoke on and spoke out, and, strong in the protection of John of Gaunt, the Duke of Lancaster, brother to the Black Prince, and uncle to King Richard II., managed to weather the several storms which his opinions brought upon him. He was arraigned more than once before spiritual tribunals, and many of his opinions were declared to be erroneous, and many more were condemned as heretical, by an assembly of Church magnates. Ecclesiastical censures, however, were the only weapons with which the spiritual courts could enforce their decrees, and Wycliffe was suffered to die a natural death at his rectory of Lutterworth, in Leicestershire, whither he retired after a life of unceasing toil and labour in aid of what he deemed to be the truth.



which this principle was vindicated in England was in 1401, and the man who was the first martyr to the cause of free conscience in England was William Sautré, a harmless, inoffensive man, the rector or curate of St. Osith's Church, London. William Sautré was one of a numerous body who had been stirred to the very bottom of their hearts by the teaching of John Wycliffe, or Wickliffe, and his followers. Wycliffe had taught with as much boldness as ability-his enemies said with more that certain doctrines inculcated by the clergy of the day were erroneous, and contrary to the teachings of our Lord and his apostles; he taught that the Bible was the only standard by which men might measure the truth or falsity of their creeds; and he denounced in emphatic and somewhat rough language, the vices and corruptions which had infected the clergy, especially the clergy in monasteries. Upon these topics Wycliffe preached with considerable effect at Oxford, where he was a professor, and in many other places. Attempts


After the death of Wycliffe, the spirit which had animated him passed into the breasts of his disciples, "the poor preachers," who went about with the English Bible (a new and forbidden article) in their hands, and preached so convincingly and cheeringly that, as was seen in the ministry of our Lord, "the common people heard them gladly." The attention of the Church authorities was soon drawn to them, and letters called bulls (on account of the bullæ, or lead seals, which were attached to them) were sent from the Court of Rome, addressed to the Archbishop of Canterbury and the English bishops, to the University of Oxford, and to the king, commanding them each and all to help in suppressing the heretics, and in uprooting the tares (the Latin word for tare is lolium, from which the nickname "Lollard' reformers), which, while men slept, the enemy had sown in the garden of the Lord.


was afterwards derived and affixed to the

Edward III., who died in 1377, was not the king to busy


himself overmuch in such matters, unless the reformers in at the danger of standing firm that they recanted and renounced religion proved themselves to be reformers in the State also; their belief rather than go to the stake. Let no man mock but to Richard, his grandson, these exhortations of the Pope them for their weakness, but rather pity them, as men who appeared in the light of a duty. Richard agreed to a law which might excusably fear lest they should be doing wrong in departwas passed through a Parliament of which the Upper Chamber ing from the faith as delivered to them and as taught by the was at that time far more powerful than the Lower, and was existing Church, which was presumed to have the Holy Ghost composed of more spiritual than lay peers, by which it was for its guide, and as men-many of them fathers and husbands ordered that preachers of heresy should be apprehended and who feared to wrench asunder the ties which bound them to imprisoned"till they will justify them according to the law and this world, who looked in their children's faces, and who listened reason of Holy Church." No other punishment of a penal to the entreaty of their wives, and then failed to pronounce the nature was permitted during this reign (1377-1399); but when words which would make the children fatherless and the wives Henry IV. in 1399 usurped the throne, and wanted the support widows. Others there were, cast in another mould, who by of the clergy to back his bad title, he consented, as the price of their nature could not accept life as the price of their creed, their assistance, to a law called the Statute of Heresy, which was who looked upon the offer with scorn, and asked if that were intended to crush out effectually the troublesome Wycliffites, all they were to have in exchange for their souls. Equally who had increased in numbers and audacity during the late enthusiastic with their persecutors, though in another direction, king's reign, and were leading many out of the fold of the they made this matter "very stuff o' the conscience," and resoCatholic Church. The Wycliffites no more wanted to go lutely refused to abjure. Not among the physically strong only out of the Catholic Church than John Wesley wanted to go were these men found; indeed, the delicate and sensitive, and out of the Church of England; but the Catholic Church said the men with highly strung nerves, were the boldest and most to them as the Church of England in effect said to him, courageous professors of their faith. Such esteemed the claims "Holding opinions such as these, you are not of us, and wo of wife and child, of kindred and friends, as merely so many will have nothing to do with you while you continue to hold temptations, strong temptations no doubt, which must be overthem." come, and they pointed for their justification to the words of the Saviour, where He declared that the man who loved wife and children and friends more than Him, was not worthy of Him, and they clung exultingly to the assurance, "There is no man that hath left house, or parents, or brethren, or wife, or children. for the kingdom of God's sake, who shall not receive manifold more in this present time, and in the world to come life everlasting."

Had the Catholic Church stopped there, no one could have complained. Perfect liberty of conscience requires that men shall be free to choose what tenets they will embrace and what reject, but it forbids them to go further and say to those who differ from them: "Think and believe as we do, for if you will not we will burn and hang you." The Church of the day would not act upon the advice given by Gamaliel to the Jews, who wished to persecute the apostles: it could not bear the idea that any one should presume to differ from what almost all Christendom accepted as true. Believing firmly that acceptance of all that the Church taught, and in the system of government which the Church had established, was the only way to salvation, she was grieved beyond measure at the sight of her children going astray, and deemed any means, however violent, to be more than justified by the laudable end of bringing back the wanderers. She hoped to make such an example as would deter fresh truants, and she hoped even for the offenders that God would accept the sufferings she inflicted upon them as an atonement for the sins they had committed against Him, supposing Him to be represented by the Pope and the Roman Church.

How easily does fanaticism of any kind cheat itself into the belief that its cause is God's cause, and that to persecute its own opponents is to do God service. The Church accordingly procured from the king in the year 1400 his assent to a law passed by a Parliament constituted as above described, by which persons who refused to renounce their so-called errors, or relapsing after they had so renounced them, were to be given over by the spiritual authorities to the sheriff, who "the same persons after such sentence promulgate shall receive, and them before the people in an high place see to be burned, that such punishment might strike fear into the minds of others, whereby no such wicked doctrine, and heretical and erroneous opinions, nor their authors, nor fautors (an old English word meaning favourers) in this realm and dominions against the Catholic faith, Christ's law, and determination of Holy Church be sustained or in any wise suffered."

This infamous and dreadful law was the price paid by Henry for the support of the clergy, and the clergy, as has been sug gested, believed they were only doing a meritorious thing when they procured the king's signature to the act. For awhile the new power remained like a sword in its sheath; the clergy were almost afraid to handle the new weapon, till taking it out and looking at it with curious and admiring eyes, they perceived that they themselves were not called upon to do any of the dirty work. They were merely to find guilty or not guilty; upon the sheriff devolved the invidious task of execution. So they grew bolder, and the year following that in which the act was passed, the Convocation of the province of Canterbury-an assembly of which all the bishops and abbots were members, and in which the inferior clergy appeared by their representatives-determined to draw the sword against those who dissented from their religious opinions.

Some persons who were brought before them were so terrified


Of this class was William Sautré, priest of St. Osith's. It is not told us if he was a married man (the rule by which celibacy was the appointed lot of the clergy was not yet of universal application)-indeed, the chroniclers of the time speak very little about him and his case, one of them, Thomas Walsingham, monk of St. Alban's, merely mentioning that a certain false priest was burnt in Smithfield in the sight of many people." But married or not, he seems to have been a very good and honest man, bold to speak and preach the truth, according to his vision of it, in his parish church of St. Osith, Wood Street, in the City of London. His character, as far as we know it, cr can judge of it from his behaviour before his judges and at his execution, would seem to have been not unlike that of the "poor parson of a town," of whom Chaucer wrote in 1380.

"To draw folk to heaven by fairnesse,
By good ensample was his business.

A better priest I trow there nowhere none is.
He waited after no pomp ne reverence,
Ne maked him a spiced conscience,
But Christ's lore and His apostles twelve

He taught, and first he followed it himself.”

His opinions, however, openly expressed, were in direct opposition to what the Church authorities permitted, and were in strict accordance with the teaching of Wycliffe. He was cited to appear before his bishop, the Bishop of London, and was ordered to renounce his error; but this proceeding proving ineffectual, and his preaching continuing to attract many, he was summoned before the Convocation of the province of Canterbury, and put upon his trial for heresy, as in a court of justice.

Earnestly the charge was pressed, and boldly was it met, t argument for the defence was answered with invective by the prosecution, and the prisoner stood loaded with obloquy. This however, was not hard for a man like Sautré to bear; the most difficult and trying part for him, the real temptation, lay in the entreaties of his friends--and they were many-and the friendly prayers even of his judges, that he would be converted and live. But even against such mighty levers the man's mind was proof. "Whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye," was the answer he gave back. and nothing could persuade him but that he spoke by the inspi ration of God.

Faithful as his friends called him, obstinate heretic as his enemies called him, William Sautré was ready to die, if need were, for his religion. Horrible to relate, that sacrifice was required of him. The men who were supposed to represent to

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