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Wer hat meinen Stock? 6. Herr S. hat ihn. 7. Hat meine Schwester Ihren Regenschirm? 8. Nein, sie hat den ihrigen. 9. Hat der Schlosser meinen Schlüssel ? 10. Nein, er hat den seinigen. 11. Hat die Wasch frau die Hemten meines Bruters und meiner Freunde? 12. Sie hat sowohl die seinigen, als tie ihrigen. 13. Alle Menschen haben ihre Fehler und Eigenheiten-ich habe tie meinigen, Sie haben die Ihrigen und er hat die feinigen. 14. Gott ist allmächtig; die Schicksale des Menschen sind in seiner Hand, auch das meinige und das deinige. 15. Das Weltmeer ist zwischen mir und den Meinigen. 16. Hat Herr A. Ihr Papier oder das meinige? 17. Er hat das seinige. 18. Mein Bruter hat mein Buch und ich habe das seinige. 19. Hat er Ihre Oblaten und Stempel oder die sei20. Er hat die meinigen. 21. Wessen Wagen hat Ihr guter nigen? Freund, Herr G.? 22. Er hat den seines Obeims. 23. Und wessen Pferte hat er? 24. Er hat die meinigen. 25. Wesseu Kutscher hat er? 26. Er hat den seinigen. 27. Wessen Schafe sind diese auf der Wiese? 28. Sie sind die unsrigen. 29. Haben diese Deutschen ihre Pferde und ihre Wagen, oter die unsrigen? 30. Sie haben tie unsrigen. 31. Wessen Bücher haben diese Schüler? 32. Sie haben die ihrigen. 33. Nehmen Sie immer das Ihrige? 34. Ja, Jetermann nimmt das Seine. 35. Wann haben Sie tie Ihrigen gesehen? 36. Ich habe sie vorgestern gesehen. 37. Haben Sie mich und die Meinigen gestern Abend in dem Concert gesehen? 38. Ja, ich habe Sie und die Ihrigen gesehen. 39. Der Feltherr lobte tie Seinigen.


1. The coachman of [tes] Count [Grafen] B. has my spectacles, but not yours. 2. The daughters [Tochter] of the infirm [franken] general are more proud [stolzer] than mine. 3. I have lost [verteren] my letter-stamp [Brief- Stempel], but here is yours and his. 4. To whom [wem] belong [gehören] these beautiful meadows? Are they yours? 5. No, they are not (the) mine; they are the [bas] property [Eigenthum] of my friend, the coachman. 6. Have you his key or mine? 7. I have neither his nor my own, but that of [denjenigen] my wife. 8. They discovered [entreckten] the thief [Dieb] by [an] the [tem] shirt which [welches] he wore [trug], and which was not his own. 9. When [wann] did you see your friends ? 10. I have not seen them since last [seit jüngstem] summer. 11. He loves too [u] much [sehr] his (property). 12. Have you seen me and mine, and Henry and his, last night [gestern Abend] between seven and eight o'clock [Uhr], in the [ber] avenue [Allee]?


In compound sentences, connected by a relative, the verb stands at the end of the last clause, as well when the relative is in the nominative, as when in an oblique case, as:-Das Buch welches ich habe; the book which I have. Das Buch welches hier ist; the book that here is (is here). In compound tenses the main verb immediately precedes the auxiliary, as :—Das Buch welches ich gehabt habe; the book that I had have (have had). Das Buch welches ich haben werte; the book that I have shall (shall have). The same position of the verb is required when the second of two connected clauses is introduced by a conjunction or an adverb, as:-Ich kaufte es, weil es wohlfeil ist; I bought it, because it is cheap. Er wohnt noch, wo er gewohnt hat; he still resides where he has resided. Er kommt, wenn er nicht frank ist; he will come, if he is not sick (he comes, if he is not sick).

1. Derjenige (that or the one) always points to something specified by a relative in a succeeding clause. It is compounded of the substantive pronoun der, vie, das, and jener with change of termination. It is frequently used instead of der, die, or tas for the sake of greater emphasis, as :-Gr liebt nur dasjenige (instead of bas), was (Sect. LXIX. 2) er achtet; he loves only that which he esteems.

Derjenige is inflected like ter meinige (Sect. XX.), that is, its first component is declined like the definite article, and its last like an adjective of the new declension.


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3. For both derjenige and the relative welcher the pronoun ber may be substituted, as :-Der Mann der frank ift; the man that (who) is sick. Welches Buch haben Sie? which book have you? Ich habe das (tasjenige), das (welches) Sie gehabt haben; I have that (the one) that (which) you have had.

Der, when substituted for berjenige, is in the genitive plural berer (instead of deren), as-Hart ist das Schicksal derer (terjeni. gen), die sich nicht ernähren können; hard is the fate of those who cannot support themselves.

The use of berjenige often corresponds to that of our personal pronoun, as well in the singular as in the. plural, as :— Derjenige, den Sie suchen, ist nicht hier; he that (whom) you seek is not here. Diejenigen, die Sie suchen, sind nicht hier; they (those) whom you seek are not here.

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Welches Pferd hat Ihr Bruder gekauft? 12. Er hat dasjenige gekauft, welches Sie gestern gehabt haben (Sect. XVII. 8). 13. Welchen Mann Loben Sie? 14. Ich lobe denjenigen, dessen Sohn Sie lieben. 15. Welche Bücher haben Sie gekauft? 16. Ich habe diejenigen gekauft, welche mein Bruter in ten (Sect. XVI. 3) Händen gehabt hat. 17. Weffen Bücher haben Sie? 18. Ich habe die Bücher derjenigen Knaben, deren Hüte Sie haben. 19. Diejenigen, welche lasterhaft sind, haben keinen Frieden des Herzens. 20. Derjenige, welcher die Narbe an der Stirne hat, ist der alte Amtmann. 21. Dasjenige ist gut, was (§ 65. 5.) nüßlich ist. 22. Diese Männer sind dieselben, deren Scheunen, Ställe und Wohnhäuser Sie gestern gesehen haben. 23. Der Arbeiter in dem Weinberge desjenigen, welcher den lehten Lohn gibt, sind wenige. 24. Der Einsiedler jener Kapelle ist ein Freund derer (Sect. XXI. 3), die hülflos und verlassen sind. 25. Der (Sect. XXI. 3) ist weise, der tugendhaft ist.



[wessen] key have you? 3. I have that of the woman whose [deren] daughter you know [kennen]. 4. I shall give [geben] this [dieses] book to that (man) who will be first [zuerst] here. Have you seen my book? 6. No, I have not seen the one which you mention [erwähnen]. 7. The joy [Freute] which I shall have. 8. I came, because I had promised [versprochen] it to him. (Translate in the following order :-" Because I it to him promised had.") 9. Where [wo] do you live [wohnen] ? 10. I live in the same house in which I lived when you called [besuchten] upon me. 11. Which of these ladies [Damen] is your wife? 12. The one who is talking [spricht] with the old gentleman [Herrn]. 13. The friend whom I have lost was very dear [theuer] to me. 14. I have bought [gekauft] that coat [Rod] which you saw [fahen] in the window [Fenster] of my tailor [Schneiters]. 15. Remember me [Empfehlen Sie] to that gentleman who is so very

1. The friend whom I have is faithful [treu]. 2. Whose polite [höflich].

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IN Copy-slip No. 40 the learner will see how the letter O is joined to any letter that follows it, namely, by carrying a hairstroke to the right from the point a little above the central line, in which point the letter is completed, and a junction effected between the hair-strokes with which the letter is commenced and ended. The position of this point is shown in Copy-slip No. 35 by the letter x, a little above the line c c, to the right of the letter O. There are different modes of beginning the hairstroke by which the letter O is joined to the letter that comes after it. Sometimes a dot like a period or full-stop is made at that part of the right side of the letter from which the hair-stroke turns off towards the next letter; sometimes the pen is turned round to form a small curved line, open in the centre, like the line which is called the circumference of a circle, or resembling in general appearance the outline of a comma placed thus, ; while in some cases the hair-line is carried on from the letter o without any dot or curved line whatever.

The hair-stroke that is used to connect the letter o with any letter that follows it, influences in some measure the commencement of the formation of letters that begin with the top-turn cr top-and-bottom-turn, such as m and n, and some other letters as v and y, which have not yet been brought under the



reader's notice. In our copy-slips up to the present lesson, letters commencing with the top-turn have always been begun from the central line that, in all cases when we have found it necessary to designate it by letters, has been marked c c, but when they follow the letter o it is manifestly impracticable to commence them at or on this line, and the connecting hair-stroke must be carried to the right and turned with a graceful curve into the hair-stroke of the top-turn about midway between c c and the line immediately above it, which we have always marked a a in copy-slips to which small italic letters have been appended for the sake of explanation. This will be found to be the case whenever letters beginning with the top-turn are joined to letters such as b, f, o, r, s, w, and V, which do not end in a bottomturn or top-and-bottom-turn, or anything resembling in formation the lower portions of these turns.

The learner may now begin to test his recollection of the forms of the letters he has hitherto been copying from our copy-slips, by selecting words from the POPULAR EDUcator, into whose composition those letters only enter with which he has already been made acquainted. There are some that he may select even from the lesson that is now before him, such as top, not, that, dot, and, etc.; although they are not many in number, they are amply sufficient to test his skill in copying words in type, without having the writing alphabet before his eyes.

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(R. 3.)

Avez-vous besoin d'argent?
J'ai besoin d'argent.
Je n'en ai pas besoin.
En avez-vous besoin?
J'en ai besoin, et mon frère en a
besoin aussi.

Avez-vous besoin de votre frère.

J'ai besoin de lui.*

De quoi avez-vous besoin?
J'ai besoin d'un dictionnaire.
Avez-vous soin de votre livre ?
J'en ai soin.

Avez-vous soin de votre père?
J'ai soin de lui *

Votre frère est-il fâché contre moi?
Il est faché contre votre sœur.
Avez-vous peur de ce chien ?
J'en ai peur.

De qui avez-vous honte ?
Je n'ai honte de personne.
Avez-vous besoin de quelque chose?
Je n'ai besoin de rien.

Besoin, m., want, need.

EAU.-Name, o; sound, like the letter o in the English Conduite, f., conduct.












word no.

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Domestique, m.,servant.
Effets, m. pl., things,

Etonné, -e, astonished.

Do you want money?

I want money.

I do not want any.

Do you want any?

I want some, and my brother wants
some too.

Do you want your brother.
I want him.

What do you want?

I want a dictionary.

Do you take care of your book?
I take care of it.

Do you take care of your father?
I take care of him.
Is your brother angry with me?
He is angry with your sister,
Are you afraid of this dog?
I am afraid of him.

Of whom are you ashamed?
I am ashamed of nobody.
Do you want anything?
I want nothing.

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1. Qui a besoin de pain? 2. Personne n'en a besoin. 3.

EI.-Name, ay; sound, like the letters ay in the English N'avez-vous pas besoin de votre domestique? 4. Oui, Monsieur,

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Vein of marble.
When e and i stand together, and the e is accented thus, éi,
they are no longer a compound vowel, but each letter has its
own distinct vowel sound.


1. The expressions avoir besoin, to want; avoir soin, to take
care; avoir honte, to be ashamed; avoir peur, to be afraid, re-
quire also the preposition de before a noun. These idioms
mean literally to have need, to have care, etc. :-
Avez-vous besoin de votre frère ?
J'ai soin de mes effets,

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j'ai besoin de lui.* 5. Votre jardinier a-t-il soin de votre jardin? 6. Oui, Madame, il en a soin. 7. A-t-il bien soin de son vieux père? 8. Oui, Monsieur, il a bien soin de lui. 9. Votre garçon a-t-il honte de sa conduite? 10. Oui, Monsieur, il en a honte. 11. Avez-vous peur de ce cheval-ci ou de celui-là ? 12. Je n'ai peur ni de celui-ci ni de celui-là. 13. Notre domestique a-t-il soin de vos effets? 14. Il en a bien soin. 15. Avez-vous peur de parler ou de lire? 16. Je n'ai peur ni de parler ni de lire. 17. Êtes-vous étonné de cette affaire ? 18. Je n'en suis pas étonné. 19. En êtes-vous fàché? 20. Oui, Monsieur, j'en suis bien fâché. 21. Avez-vous besoin de ce garçon ? 22. Oui, Madame, j'ai besoin de lui. 23. N'avez-vous pas besoin de son livre ? 24. Je n'en ai pas besoin. 25. Avez-vous envie de travailler on de lire ? 26. Je n'ai envie ni de travailler ni de lire, j'ai envie de me reposer, car je suis fatigué.



1. Do you want your servant? 2. Yes, Sir, I want him. 3. Does your brother-in-law want you? 4. He wants me and my brother. 5. Does he not want money? 6. He does not want money, he has enough. 7. Is your brother sorry for his conduct? Does he take good (bien) care of his books? 8. He is very sorry for his conduct, and very angry with you. 10. He takes good care of them. 11. How many volumes has he? 12. He has more than you, he has more than twenty. 13. What does the young man want? 14. He wants his clothes. 15. Do you want to rest (vous reposer)? 16. Is not your brother astonished at this? 17. He is astonished at it. 18. Have you a wish to read your brother's books? 19. I have a wish to read them, but I have no time. 20. Have you time to work? 21. I have time to work, but I have no time to read. 22. Does the younger brother take care of his things? 23. He takes good care of them. 24. Is that little boy afraid of the dog? 25. He is not afraid of the dog, he is afraid of the horse. 26. Do you want bread? 27. I do not want any. 28. Are you pleased with your brother's conduct? 29. I am pleased with it. 30. Has your brother a wish to read my book? 31. He has no desire to read your book, he is weary. 32. Is that young man angry with you or with his friends? 33. He is angry neither with me nor with his friends. 34. Do you want my dictionary? 35. I

5. Être fâché, in the sense of to be angry, requires the pre- want your dictionary and your brother's. position contre:

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N'aimez-vous pas les enfans atten- Do you not like attentive children?
tifs ?
Je les aime beaucoup.
I like them much.

1. If the ending or distinguishing characteristic of the conju- Ne recevez-vous pas beaucoup de Do you not receive many letters? gation of a verb, in the present of the infinitive, be removed, the part remaining will be the stem of the verb:





lettres ?

Nous en recevons beaucoup.
Vendez-vous beaucoup de marchan-

dises ?

Nous en vendons beaucoup.

We receive many letters.
'Do you sell many goods?
We sell many.

2. To that stem are added, in the different simple tenses of a regular verb, the terminations proper to the conjugation to Votre frère aime le boeuf et le Your brother likes beef and mutton. which it belongs [§ 60].

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Assez, enough.


Chapeau, m., hat.

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Chér-ir, 2, to cherish.

Cherch-er, 1, to seek, to


look for.

Mais, but.



Marchand, m.,


Dame, f., lady.

De bonne heure, early.


De-voir, 3, to owe.

chant. Marchandises, f. pl., Neveu, m., nephew.


Toujours, always.
Travail, m., labour.
Trouv-er, 1, to find.
Vend-re, 4, to sell.

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1. Votre mère aime-t-elle la lecture? (Sect. XXII. 11.) 2. Oui, Mademoiselle, elle l'aime beaucoup plus que sa sœur. 3. mord -ent. Quel chapeau votre neveu porte-t-il? 4. Il porte un chapeau de soie, et je porte un chapeau de paille. 5. Cette dame aime-telle ses enfants? 6. Oui, Monsieur, elle les chérit. 7. Fournissez-vous des marchandises à ces marchands? 8. Je fournis des marchandises à ces marchands, et ils me donnent de l'argent. 9. Vos compagnons aiment-ils les beaux habits? (Sect. XXII. 11.) 10. Nos compagnons aiment les beaux habits et les bons livres. 11. Cherchez-vous mon frère? 12. Oui, Monsieur, je le cherche, mais je ne le trouve pas. 13. Votre frère perd-il son temps. 14. Il perd son temps et son argent. 15. Perdons-nous toujours notre temps? 16. Nous le perdons très souvent. 17. Devez-vous beaucoup d'argent? 18. J'en dois assez, mais je n'en dois pas beaucoup.

7. The plural of the present of the indicative may be formed from the participle present by changing ant into ons, ez, en. Ex.: Chantant, nous chantons; finissant, nous finissons; receTant, nous recevons; rendant, nous rendons.

8. This rule holds good not only in all the regular, but in almost all the irregular verbs.

9. Verbs may be conjugated interrogatively in French (except in the first person singular of the present of the indicative) [§ 98 | 4)(5)], by placing the pronoun after the verb in all the simple Senses, and between the auxiliary and the participle in the compound tenses.

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Aimez-vous le boeuf ou le mouton? Do you like beef or mutton?
Je n'aime ni le bouf ni le mouton. I like neither beef nor mutton.

lienne ?
Nous chantons des chantons alle- We sing German songs.
Portez-vous ce livre à l'homme ?
Non, je le porte à mon frère.
Emportez-vous tout votre argent?
J'en emporte seulement une partie.
Finissez-vous votre leçon aujour.

une chanson ita- Do you sing an Italian song?

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1. Does your companion like reading? 2. My companion does not like reading. 3. Does your father like good books? (Sect. XXII. 11.) 4. He likes good books and good clothes.* but my brother owes more than fifteen. 7. Are you wrong to 5. Do you owe more than twenty dollars? 6. I only owe ten, finish your work early? 8. I am right to finish mine early, and you are wrong not to (de ne pas) finish yours. receive much money to-day? 10. I receive but little. 11. Do we give our best books to that little child? 12. We do not give them, we keep them because (parceque) we want them. 13. Do you sell your two horses? 14. We do not sell our two horses, we keep one of them. 15. Do you finish your work this morning (matin)? 16. Yes, Sir, I finish it this morning early. 17. Does your brother-in-law like fine clothes? 18. Yes, Madam, he likes fine clothes. 19. Do you seek my nephew? 20. Yes, Sir, we seek him. 21. Does he lose his time ? 22. He loses not only his time, but he loses his money. 23. How much money has he lost to-day? 24. He has lost more than ten dollars. 25. Does your joiner finish your house? 26. He finishes my house and my brother's. 27. Do you sell good hats? 28. We sell silk hats, and silk hats are good. XXII. 11.) 29. How old is your companion? 30. He is twelve years old, and his sister is fifteen. 31. Does your brother like meat? 32. He likes meat and bread. 33. Do you receive your goods at two o'clock? 34. We receive them at half after twelve. 35. We receive them ten minutes before one.

Repeat the article.


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WE already discovered, at a very early period in our investiga-
tions, that Nature plays some strange tricks in the construction
of plants, causing one thing to look like another, as though for
the express purpose of deceiving us. We discovered that
neither pine-apples, nor strawberries, nor figs, were fruit. We
shall now discover that certain things which appear like leaves
are not leaves.

What would the reader think as regards many of the cactus tribe? Would he not think these curious plants were all leaves?

Botanists denominate an enlarged and flattened petiole of this kind by the term phyllodium, a word derived from the Greek Quλλov (pronounced ful-lon), a leaf, and eidos (i'-dos), form, and which therefore means having the form or semblance of a leaf.

One example more of a portion of a plant resembling a leaf, but which is not a leaf, and we have done. It might have been mentioned whilst we were treating of the cactus, to the condition of which the phenomenon about to be mentioned is similar. Perhaps the student has occasionally seen growing in the hedges the shrub called the butcher's-broom, ruscus aculeatus. Like the cactus, this plant seems to present the curious appearance of flowers springing from the surface of a leaf. Flowers, however, never grow in that position. The part resembling a leaf




diagram (Fig. 53) represents a sprig of butcher's-broom, in
which this peculiar conformation is very evident.


The fact is, they are totally without leaves, the leaf-like portions | is no leaf at all, but only a flattened stem. The accompanying being merely flattened stems. What would he think, again, of those two little leaf-like expansions recognisable in the pansy, of which we give a drawing (Fig. 52)? These are not leaves, but certain leaf-like appendages which botanists denominate stipules. Hence the real leaf of the pansy is said to be stipulate or stipu lated; and the reason why we did not represent the pansy leaf amongst the other leaves a short time back was, because the term stipulate had not been explained. The word stipule is derived from the Latin stipula, the husk round straw, because the stipules stand out from the stem of the real leaf in much the same manner as the leaves of wheat or barley spring from the stalk at intervals in pairs.

Occasionally the petiole, or leaf-stalk, itself becomes expanded into a leaf-like form, and the real leaves are stunted. This peculiarity characterises many of the acacias which grow in Australia. The appended diagram (Fig. 54) will render the peculiar condition more evident.

Just as certain parts of vegetables not leaves may assume the general appearance of leaves, so, on the other hand, leaves occa sionally lose their own specific appearance, and look like things they are not.

For example, who at first glance would think that the prickles on common furze were leaves? Nevertheless, they are; the ordinary flat leaf-like appearance being lost.

Again, many of those tendrils which shoot from slender plants, enabling them to lay hold of neighbouring objects and derive support, are nothing more than modified leaves. This is the case with the plant lathyrus aphaca, a representation of which we give above (Fig. 55).

The student is not, however, to imagine that all tendrils are

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