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BCE

PRESENT.

Bisect the angle B C E by the method shown in CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT AND IMPERFECT OF müssen. Problem VI. (page 191). Each of its halves is an angle of 15 degrees, and the angle formed by the angle A CE and the half of B C E must necessarily be an angle of 45 degrees.

To describe or draw an equilateral triangle, whose sides shall be of a given length, it is manifestly only necessary to set off A B of the length required, and then to proceed to form the triangle by the mode of construction given above.

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XIII. SECTION XXIV.-CONJUGATION OF VERBS. Dürfen expresses a possibility dependent upon the will of another, or upon a law, as :-Ich darf diese Blumen nicht pflücken, I cannot (I am not allowed, permitted to) pluck these flowers. Der Bauer tarf nicht fischen, the peasant is not allowed (by law) to fish. 3d darf diese Früchte essen, aber ich kann sie nicht erreichen, I can (have the right to) eat these fruits, but I cannot obtain (get at) them. (§ 83. 1. 2.)

CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT AND IMPERFECT OF dürfen.

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Singular.

Ich muß, I must;
Du mußt, thou must;
Gr muß, he must;

Plural.

wir müssen, we must. ihr müßt, you must. fie müssen, they must.

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6. Wollen expresses a desire, but not a positive intention, and is rendered by "to wish," as:-Was will er? What does he wish? Was will er thun? What does he wish to do?

The imperfect often answers to our "was going," when expressive of purpose, as:-Ich wollte sagen, I was going to say. | (§ 83. 8.)

CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT AND IMPERFECT OF wellen
WITH AN ACTIVE VERB.
PRESENT.

Singular.

Ich will gehen, I wish to go;

Plural.

wir wollen gehen, we wish to go. Du willst gehen, thou wishest to ihr wollet gehen, you wish to go.

go;

Er will gehen, he wishes to go;

sie wollen gehen, they wish to go.

IMPERFECT.

Ich wollte gehen, I wished to go; Du wolltest gehen, thou wishedst to go;

Er wollte gehen, he wished to go;

wir wollten gehen, we wished to go. ihr wolltet gehen, you wished to

go.

sie wollten gehen, they wished to go.

7. The perfect and pluperfect tenses of these verbs, as also of lassen, to permit, to cause, is formed by means of the infinitive, instead of the participle (§ 74. 3), as :-Er hat nicht gehen können. Wir haben nie schießen dürfen.

Ich habe es nicht thun mögen.
Sie haben schreiben müssen.
Sie hätte lesen sollen.
Sie haben nicht arbeiten wollen.

Ihr habt ihn nicht gehen lassen.

He has not been able to go. We have never been allowed to shoot.

I have not wished to do it.
They have been obliged to write.
She ought to have read.
You have not been willing to
work.

You have not caused him to go (have not sent him).

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Uhr ist es? What o'clock (literally, how much upon the clock) is it ?

When a part or the whole of the last quarter of an hour is named, it is designated, as in English, by its distance from the hour following, as :—

Wir dürfen Andern nicht thun, was wir nicht wünschen von ihnen ge than zu haben.

Er hat Briefe schreiben wollen.
Wird sie gehen müssen?

Es fehlen fünf, acht, oter zehn Mi. It lacks five, eight, or ten Sie wird nicht gehen können.

nuten bis (or an) zwölf.

Es fehlt ein Biertel bis zwölf.

minutes to twelve.

It lacks a quarter to twelve.

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Aufmerksam, attentive
Dağ, that.
Deutich, German.
Trudichrijf. print.
ĝinten, to find.
Getult, f. patience.
Genug', enough.
Gute, f. goodness,
kindness.

Samtschrift, f. hand

The man is going to the table. The child springs upon the

board.

The boy hurries into the gar-
den.

The dog runs under the tree.
Accusative.

The fish swims in the water.
The stone falls into the water.
He is standing at the door.
He is going to the door.
VOCABULARY.

wife.

Kirsche, f. cherry.
Können, can, to be
able.
Kunst, f. art, skill.
Lernen, to learn.
Lejen, to read.
Mannheim, n. Mann-
heim.

Hausfrau, f. house-| Nächst, next.
Neitisch, envious.
Regnen, to rain.
agen, to say.
Schwer, heavy, hard,
difficult.
Thun, to do.
Verkaufen, to sell.
Warten, to wait.
Woche, f. week.
Wellen, to will.
Seit, f. time.

writing, manu- Mergen, to-morrow.
script.
Musen, must.
RÉSUME OF EXAMPLES.

Mit der Ruhe eines Sto'ifers ertrug'
er den heftigsten Schmerz.

Bei dem Gedanken an die Schmach feines Vaterlantes fonnte er tie Thränen nicht länger zurück hal

ten.

Wir müssen uns bestre'ben, wenn wir

anters gute Bürger sein wollen, mit unsern Kräften und nach un ferm Vermögen tem Staate zu

mußen.

With the (quiet) calmness of a stoic he endured the most violent pain.

At the thought of the disgrace of his native country he could not longer) repress (the) his tears.

We must exert ourselves, if we (otherwise) wish to be good citizens, with all our strength and according to our ability to serve the State.

* In case of halb, the preposition auf is commonly omitted.

Wir haben es nicht thun mögen.
Sie werden gehen dürfen.
Ich mußte ten ganzen Abent lesen.
Sie hatten es nicht thun sollen.

We must not do to others what we do not wish to have done by them.

He has wished to write letters.
Will she be obliged to go?

She will not be able to go.
We have not wished to do it.
You will be allowed to go.
I was obliged to read the whole
evening.

They ought not to have done it.

EXERCISE 37.

1. Wollen Sie mit mir nach Mannheim gehen? 2. Ich kann nicht, ich habe keine Zeit. 3. Wann können Sie gehen? 4. Ich werde die nächste Woche gehen, wenn Sie so lange warten können. 5. Will Ihr Lehrer mit 3hnen auf das Feld over nach ter Start gehen? 6. Er will nicht auf's Feld, und kann nicht nach der Start gehen. 7. Was wollen diese Kinder? 8. Sie wollen Aepfel und Kirschen, aber sie können keine kaufen, denn sie haben kein Geld. 9. Was wollen Sie, mein Herr? mein Fräulein? meine Dame? 10. Wollen Sie die Güte haben, mir ein Glas (Sect. LXI.) Wasser (Sect. XXV.) zu geben? 11. Können Sie mir sagen, wie viel Uhr es ist? 12. Ich kann es (Sect. XXXV. 6) Ihnen nicht sagen, ich habe keine Uhr bei mir. 13. Was wollte der Kaufmann Ihnen ver faufen? 14. Ich konnte nichts bei ihm finden, was ich kaufen wollte. Wir werten morgen schlechtes Wetter haben. 16. Es kann sein, daß lefen? 18. Nein, ich habe genug mit der Druckschrift zu thun. es noch heute regnen wire. 17. Können Sie die deutsche Handschrift 19. Der 20. Gine Neidische (Sect. XVI.) will seinen Freund nicht loben. Gelehrte ist nicht immer eine gute Hausfrau. 21. Geruld ist eine schwere Runst; Manche (§ 53. 1) können sie lehren, aber nicht lernen. 22. Gin guter Lehrer muß Geduld haben. 23. Jeter gute Schüler wird aufmerksam sein.

EXERCISE 38.

15.

10.

1. You can go into the garden, but you cannot remain long there. 2. These attentive scholars were allowed to go with their teacher to Mannheim. 3. We can employ [anwenten] our time better. 4. Can you speak German? 5. We could not learn our lessons this week. 6. You must learn this week's lessons [die Aufgaben dieser Woche] attentively. 7. You may go tomorrow to your parents. 8. He may be a good man. 9. The housewife must (is obliged to) go to market to-morrow. Have you written to your parents? 11. Yes, I was obliged to write. 12. It is two o'clock. 13. I shall arrive at your house at a quarter past three o'clock. 14. Will you come twenty minutes before eight o'clock? 15. I may come to your house this evening, but do not wait for me. 16. As long as [so lange als] it rains, I cannot go out. 17. Fish can only [nur] live in water, and birds in the air. 18. You should not have done that, it will not be any recommendation [feine Empfehlung] to you. 19. I wish to go to the theatre this evening. 20. We may not have the opportunity [Gelegenheit] another time.

LESSONS IN MUSIC.-IV.

THE Binary (or two-pulse) measure is the boldest of the measures, and the one most easily felt or performed. It is by far the best for large masses of voice, and is well adapted to aid in giving majesty to a tune. Try "St. Stephen's" or "Bedford," first in the three-pulse measure (lengthening the accented notes), and then in the two-pulse measure, and you will understand the character of the Binary measure. The Trinary (or three-pulse) measure is well adapted to aid in producing a soft and soothing musical effect. When the tune is simple it is not unfit for congregational use, especially if the people have been trained to keep the accent. The adaptation of this measure to soft and soothing music is illustrated by its analogy (according to Dr. Bryce) to the breathing of health and rest. The Quaternary (or four-pulse) measure, when delicately performed, gives much clegance to a tune. It is adapted to congregational tunes when the movement is not too slow. Try the well-known tune "Vesper Hymn," taking care to give the medium accent. The Senary (or six-pulse) measure is commonly used in connection with quick movements, and is naturally soft, light, and elegant; for this reason it is better adapted to secular compositions than to sacred music.

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Take a low sound of your voice for the key-note in this exercise. If any one gives you the pattern from an instrument, tell him to play in the key of D with two sharps. You understand that the letters under the "staff" are the initials of the notes on the modulator, and direct you in tracing out the tune there. The notes are placed within the accent marks to which they belong. Dон occupies the whole of the loud "pulse" of the measure. ME fills the first soft pulse, and SOH the second. This is the Trinary measure. The second measure is easily understood. In the third measure you have the first Doн occupying two pulses (loud and soft), and the second Doн only one pulse. The horizontal stroke, as in the second pulse, always indicates that the preceding note is to be continued. Thus the last note of the exercise is continued through the whole measure. In the fourth measure the third accent-mark is followed by no note. In the time of that pulse, therefore, the voice rests. If the previous exercises have been perfectly learnt from the

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modulator, you will probably be able to make this out without pattern. Be careful to give the proper accent. You are strongly recommended not to study the "staff," at present, in any of these exercises. It is printed here that you may be able to return to it when you have gained some command of voice and some knowledge of music itself, and are not likely to be perplexed by its numerous signs; but if we may suppose that you have done this, then the following remarks will be of use. [The open note is twice as long as the closed notes. The empty pulse," during which the voice rests, is represented by a distinct character, called a "rest." It tells you to rest as long as one of the closed notes, in the same time, would be sung. A dot after a note, in the old notation, bids you sing that note half as long again. Thus you perceive that the relative length of notes is expressed by symbols, and not, as in the solfa notation, measured out pictorially by the regularly recurring accents placed along the page.]

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Take a low note for the key-note of this exercise also. Point | always in the same place on the staff. It would be well for you it from memory on the modulator, like the last, and all you learn. Mark the accent well, and learn to sing both the upper and the lower line of notes. [The key-note is placed on the lowest line to prevent your accustoming your eye to look for it

if it could be so. But as it is to be found, in different tunes, on every position on the staff, it is important that we should not mislead you. We prefer, however, that this exercise should be sung in the key of D or C, not of E.]

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(The words from "Ballads for the Times," by M. F. Tupper, Esq.) KEY F. M. 96.

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parts of the tune are repeated, so that it is not so long as it looks. If you find the "second" part of the tune low for your voice, pitch the key-note a little higher. Be careful to point on the modulator from memory. Remember that every tune, thus thoroughly learnt, becomes a power by which others will be more easily mastered. You need not attempt the words yet. When you do, let those printed in CAPITALS be sung with increased force and loudness of voice, and those in italics with increased softness. [The square note is used to indicate the place of Doн at the beginning of the staff, but it is not to be sung. The place of Dон, being thus once marked, is not afterwards indicated by a square note as in previous exercises. The pupil must learn to keep the place of DоH in his mind. The notes with a tail to the stem are to be sung half as long as those without the tail.]

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This last illustration, however, is not strictly correct, because it does not preserve the distinct sound of the French u, which sound, especially in combination, many Frenchmen themselves are not careful to preserve. In common conversation, this diphthong sounds like an English w.

In French words commencing with qua, the diphthong ua has two different sounds. In some the sound of ua would be illustrated by the letters koua or k'wa, but in others by ka, viz. :-Quadrangle is pronounced kouah-dranh-gl', or k'wah-dranh-gl. Quadrature, a geometrical phrase, is pronounced kouah-drature, or k'wah-dra-ture. But the same word, used as a term of horology, is pronounced kah-dra-ture.

Quai, a wharf, is pronounced kay. Quaiche, a naval term, meaning a ketch, is pronounced kaish. Until the learner has become really familiar with the French anguage, the surest way to be correct in the use and pronuniation of words commencing with qua, will be to consult a dictionary.

UE.-Name, we. Sound this diphthong occurs most frequently as the final letters of French words, after the consonants g and in which cases both are silent.

When final, and before other consonants, they have the usual sound of the French u.

UI.-Name, we. Sound: this diphthong has the combined sound of the French u, together with that of French i, which latter is like the letters ee in the English word bee.

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71. The sound of am and an, em and en, im and in, is represented by the letters anh, and is like the sound of the letters an in the English words an-chor and can-ker, with an effort to speak through the nose, as it is termed. But be particular to avoid the sound of English g in all nasals.

There is, strictly speaking, a real difference between the nasal sounds of an, en, and in, but it is so slight, and so peculiarly delicate, that scarcely any one not a native Frenchman can detect and describe it intelligibly. In common reading and conversation, these nasals above-mentioned have but one sound, viz., that which has been assigned them in our previous Lessons. It is considered correct enough for all practical purposes. When extraordinary nicety of pronunciation is demanded, as is always the case in using the language of prayer, and in holy and devotional language, the a of the nasals am and an should be pronounced broader than the e ori in the nasals em, en, im, and in. In the former case, let the a have the sound of ah; in the latter, the sound of a in the word fat.

The sound of om and on is represented by the letters on, and is like the sound of the letters on in the English word corquer, uttered with an effort to speak through the nose, as it is termed.

The sound of um and un is represented by the letters unh, and is like the sound of the letters un in the English word un-cle, uttered with an effort to speak through the nose.

Concerning these nasals, remember these two general rules, viz. :

Rule 1.-Single m's and n's followed by vowels are not nasals.

Rule 2.-When the m and n are doubled, the nasality is destroyed.

Exceptions to this last Rule will appear in their proper places. We now proceed to illustrate these nasal sounds, commencing with examples in which the sounds am and an are found.

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In the third, eia, ei is equivalent only to a in sound; hence, substituting a in the place of ei in the combination ein, we have an, whose sound is represented by anh.

Again, ean and oan have each the nasal sound represented by the letters anh.

Aen in the proper name Caen have also the sound of an, represented by the letters anh; hence the word Caen is pronounced Kanh.

The following will afford good examples in illustration of the nasal vowel sounds em and ea :

Like the sound of e mute.

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