Billeder på siden
[blocks in formation]

6. The article le, preceded by the preposition à, is contracted into au before a noun masculine commencing with a consonant, or an h aspirate; and into aux before a plural noun [§ 13 (8)]. Allez-vous au bal ou au marché? Do you go to the ball or to the market? 7. À l'eglise means at or to church; à l'école, at or to school. Nous allons à l'église et à l'école, We go to church and to school. 8. Quelque part means somewhere, anywhere; nulle part, sowhere.

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

1. Où est-ce que je vais ? 2. Vous allez chez le chapelier. 3. Est-ce que je vais à la banque? 4. Vous allez à la banque et au concert. 5. Est-ce que je coupe votre bois? 6. Vous ne coupez ni mon bois ni mon habit. 7. Est-ce que je porte un 8. Vous ne portez pas un chapeau vert, vous en Chapeau vert? portez un noir. 9. Votre écolier va-t-il quelque part? 10. п perruquier? 12. Il ne va nulle part. 13. Ne portez-vous point va à l'église, à l'école et au marché. 11. Ne va-t-il pas chez le

des bottes de cuir rouge? 14. J'en porte de cuir noir. 15. N'allez-vous pas chez le banquier? 16. Je ne vais pas chez lui; il est absent depuis hier. 17. Vient-il à la banque ce matin ? 18. Il a l'intention d'y venir, s'il a le temps.* 19. A-t-il envie d'aller au concert? 20. Il a grande envie d'y aller, mais il n'a pas de billet. 21. Demeurez-vous dans ce village? 22. Oui, Monsieur, j'y demeure. 23. Envoyez-vous ce billet à la poste ? 24. Je l'envoie à son adresse.

EXERCISE 44. 1. Do I wear my large black hat? 2. You wear a handsome green hat. 3. Does the banker go to the hairdresser's this to go to the bank this morning? 6. He does not intend to go morning? 4. He goes there this morning. 5. Does he intend there, he has no time. 7. Do you send your letters to the postoffice? 8. I do not send them, they are not yet written (écrites). 9. Do I send you a note? 10. You send me a ticket, but I have no wish to go to the concert. 11. Does your brother go to school to-morrow? 12. He goes (there) to-day, and remains at home to-morrow. 13. Do I go there? 14. You do not go anywhere. 15. Where do you go? 16. I am going to your brother's, is he at home? 17. He is not at home, he is absent since yesterday. 18. Does your brother live in this village? 19. He does not [Sect. XXIII. 12], he lives at my nephew's. 20. Are you wrong to go to school? 21. No, Sir, I am right to go to church and to school. 22. Do you wish to come to my house? 23. I like to go to your house, and to your brother's. 24. When are you coming to our house? 25. To-morrow, if I have time. 26. Does the banker like to come here? 27. He likes to come to your house. 28. Is the hairdresser coming? 29. He is not yet coming. 30. What are you sending to the scholar? 31. I am sending books, paper, and clothes. 32. Where is he? 33. He is at school. 34. Is the school in the village? 35. It is there.



LEAVES, properly so called, only exist on plants which bear flowers. The reader may test this by his own experience. Did he ever see a leaf on a mushroom, or a moss, or any other cryptogamic plant? Probably he may say, "Yes, I have seen them on ferns, and these are cryptogamic plants." Well, we have already stated that the leaf-like expansions on ferns are not leaves, but fronds, and we have explained the distinction between a leaf and a frond. It only remains to be said, in connection with this subject, that the little stem to which these fronds are attached, and which corresponds to a petiole in a real leaf, is denominated a stipes, from the Latin stipes, the trunk of a tree. In the next page is a representation of one of the treeferns of tropical climates, the trunk of which is denominated a caudex, from the Latin cauder, a stem.

*The i of si is elided before il, ils, but in no other case. This is the only instance of the elision of i

Ir past ages these tree-fers must have been amongst the most numerous of vegetable productions Can we need hardy say, is wel known to be mig more than the remains of Vegetatut substances on bed under great pressure in the earth that they have changed to the wombin which we at present find them.. Novining the manre of quality, yet 11 mary cases the origin shape of the reretable has not underFone alteration So that a person suficity sounted with botany car ready sal the end of part from which any specimer of con under anses he been formed.

Arnongi fronds are the sites for leaves in ferns and severa, miner apagamit pats nevertheless these organs are But the mess : in the general complenty of yogame pants the mucrosegue nature of these organs, and the comparsay humed sognstance with this divison of the Tepetive wind render a metratue to state mac conoerning them in a series of papers Lee these, wit so many tribes of flowering pusse our notabe.

[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]

There could be no frs: bot frut there can b no seed: and without the later the greater 113ber of vegetaties could not be muqued The reseca. them, for demommating fowers the reprodaotre organs of plants w be manifest 7: state this fact, that fowers are the reproductive portions of a giant is very easy. To demonetrace, however, the elaborate means by with the fictions of reproductoe are Sscharged is very difficult. Indeed the laws afecting the mealtplace of animals and vegetables

No somlar in many respects, that many of the terms employed

look at and agreeable to smell the botanist is obliged frequently to destroy them before he can make himself acquainted with the pechants of ther structure; that is to say, he is obliged to eat or pal ther vamos regans from their attachments; this operation is termed sect Presently, then, we shall have to dissect a flower and learn its various parts. As a preliminary to this examination towerer. it will be necessary that the learner abould make ima squated with some general terms employed in thes department of Botany.

First of all then the manner in which flowers are arranged upon any plant is termed the inflorescence of that plant. By the term botante derstand not merely the flower itself, but various appendages to the dower; in short, the term inflorescence has a very wide signification.


The attachment of flowers to the parent stem usually takes to which the term peduncle, or occasionally pedicel, is applied. place through the intervention of a little branch-like appendage, The reader will therefore remember that a peduncle or pedicel stands to a flower in the same relation as a petiole to a leaf. It


the department of Botany are borrowed from the sister stobes of amma smatomy and phymology: and without some primary knowledge of these sciences it would be next to impossible to make the reader comprehend the intricacies of vegetable reproductions. We therefore shall not attempt to deal with these intricacies, bas shall content ourselves by saying that all plants most pro-, bably, certainly all evidently-dowering or phenogamous plants possess sexes, and these sexes are usually in the same plant, in the same fower of the plant Occasionally, however, the two sies are ca feres dovers and sometimes on different pists. We may, therfore poplary say, that the greater amber of dowers contain both miles; but occsscally, in some pisata, the gentlemen od bles bare dowers, each sex to auf, and comacy, an the gentlemen monopouse all the fowers on ne plant and the labes all the flowers en the other. Wherese two sets of flowers on one pies them a plant be from two Greek wards, as oned and ass pronounced siks, syng me house the plant, we suppose, being regarded as a house, and the fowers as chambers in the same. When however, the main the Sowers of one plant. and the females the fovers of ather, then such plants are said to be dams, or "wo-based the reason of which will be chraus


SECT. XHI-ANATOMICAL EXAMINATION OF A FLOWER. Pleasing objects of contemplation as flowers are, beautiful to

is also called the primary axis of inflorescence, and the flower-stalks which spring from it are called the sewery, tertiary, etc., ares. These pedicels or flower-stalks are arranged on various plants in different ways, and thus give rise to various terms indicative of the nature of inflorescence. The word pedce is derived from the low Latin peduncrius, a little foot, while pee is derived from the Latin

ds, which has the same meaning. Both words are diminutives of the Latin pes, a foot.

The inflorescence, or mode of flowering, is said to be definite or termal when the primary axis is terminated by a flower. When the original stem goes on growing in a straight line, giving off as it proceeds little flower-shoots or secondary ares of various degrees on either side, but does not terminate in a flower, then the term indefinite in forescence is applied; the propriety of which term will be obvious. The term axillary is sometimes given to this condition of inflorescence. If the reader glance for an instant at Fig. 60 in the cpposite page, he will be at no loss to comprehend what is meant by indefinite or antiary inforescence The reader will here please to observe the little leaf-like things from the arilla (or junctions with the primary ans of which the flower-peduncles spring in this example. Such leaf-like appendages are frequently to be seen attached to the peduncles of many flowers. They are called beats, from the Latin bractea, a thin plate of metal, and although their usual appearance is green like a leaf, yet they sometimes undergo very strange modifications. Thus, the pineapple, which we discovered long ago to be no fruit, is, in reality, nothing more than an assemblage of fleshy bracts, and the scale of the fir-cone is nothing more than hard leathery bracts. In proportion as bracts are developed nearer to a flower, so does their natural green color give place to the colour of the dower itself. Occasionally the flower actually springs from the upper surface of a bract, as in the case of the linden Fig. 61).

Sometimes bracts unite at the base of each group of flowers, and on the same plane, as, for example, we find it in the carrot. This association of bracts gives rise to what botanists term the a Latin word, which is derived from volvo, to wrap or roll, and which means anything that serves to wrap


or corer

Under the classification invite inflorescence are compre





[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]
[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

a the

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

', a wave, uras severs of the ་ ་་ཆོ་ན* Po về when assentially NAPMAN as is itself termde ochere each of the Howe 54. the secondary Ou Wycany axes before The Teo memer for the rest. w, as in the

[ocr errors]

*v3 ww་༥༢་མས་


* in the myosotis or mác, là which the flowers are pxtrema abortions of the axes Trang điện Bundle is an +jax vivo a deram length and an Ask william

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][ocr errors]
[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

Bome' what's banished, but set free from daily betings I loathe? -Tried and convicted traitor"-sts? Who prove it, at his peril, on my head? Mashei1 ́—I thank you for 't. It breaks my chain! I held some suck Legiance till this hour-but now my sword's my own. Your consul's merciful. For this all thanks. He dares not touch a hur of Catiline. "Traitor!" I go but I return. This Here I devote your senate! I've had wrongs to stir a fever in the blood of age. This day is the birth of sorrows. The eye could at once command a long-stretching vista, seemingly closed and shut up at both extremities by the cosiescing cliffs.

It seemed like Laocoon struggling ineffectually in the hideous coils of the monster Python.

In those mournful months, when vegetables and animals are alike coerced by cold, man is tributary to the howling storm and the sullen sky; and is, in the pathetic phrase of Johnson, a "slave to


I would call upon all the true sons of humanity to cooperate with the laws of man and the justice of Heaven in abolishing this "cursed traffic."

Come, faith, and people these deserts! Come and reanimate these regions of forgetfulness.

I am a professed lucubrator; and who so well qualified to delineate the sable hours, as

"A meagre, muse-rid mope, adjust and thin ?” He forsook, therefore, the bustling tents of his father, the pleasant "south country" and the "well Lahai-roi;" he went out and pensively meditated at the eventide (see Genesis xxiv. 62).

The Grecian and Roman philosophers firmly believed that "the dead of midnight is the noon of thought."

Young observes, with much energy, that "an undevout astronomer

is mad."

Young Blount his armour did unlace, and, gazing on his ghastly face, said "By Saint George, he's gone! that spear-wound has our Good night to master sped; and see the deep cut on his head! he opes his Marmion!"-" Unnurtured Blount! thy brawling cease; eyes," said Eustace, "peace!"

A celebrated modern writer says, "Take care of the minutes, and


In this lesson, as well as in some of the preceding lessons, there are several sentences of poetry, which are not divided into poetical lines. The object of printing these lines without regard to this division, was to prevent the student from falling into that "sing song utterance, into which he is too apt to fall in reading verse. remains to be observed here, that abbreviations and contractions, such as occur in poetical sentences in this lesson and others, which appear in the form of prose, are not allowable in prose itself.


the hours will take care of themselves." This is an admirable remark, and might be very seasonably recollected when we begin to be "weary in well-doing," from the thought of having much to do. I've seen the moon gild the mountain's brow; I've watched the mist o'er the river stealing; but ne'er did I feel in my breast, till now, so deep, so calm, and so holy a feeling; 'tis soft as the thrill which memory throws athwart the soul in the hour of repose.

Blest be the day I 'scaped the wrangling crew from Pyrrho's maze and Epicurus' sty; and held high converse with the godlike few, who to th' enraptured heart, and ear, and eye, teach beauty, virtue, truth, and love, and melody.

But thou, who Heaven's just vengeance dar'st defy, this deed, with fruitless tears, shalt soon deplore.

O Winter! ruler of the inverted year! thy scatter'd hair with slectlike ashes fill'd, thy breath congeal'd upon thy lips, thy cheeks fring'd with a beard made white with other snows than those of age, thy forehead wrapt in clouds, a leafless branch thy sceptre, and thy throne a sliding car, indebted to no wheels, but urg'd by storms along its slipp'ry way, I love thee, all unlovely as thou seem'st, and dreaded as thou art!

For as I passed by, and beheld your devotions, I found an altar with this inscription, "To THE UNKNOWN GOD." Whom therefore ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you.


The student should take particular notice of the following marks, so that he may call them by name, and discover their use in the following examples :

[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]
[blocks in formation]



IN the last lesson it was shown that every mass of matter has a centre of gravity, but we did not inquire how such centres are found in bodies of known shapes. To that part of our subject we now proceed.

As a general rule, the problem requires high mathematics for its solution; but there are some cases in which the centre can be discovered without much difficulty. I take, first, the practical method by suspension, which gives it exactly whenever the body is of a uniform thickness, such as a deal board, or card, or piece of paper. The two opposite faces should be equal and alike, the edges being either perpendicular or square to them, or running off at the same slope. In all such cases it is evident that the centre of gravity is within the substance of the board half-way across between the faces. If, therefore, we can find the point on either face under which it lies, by boring straight in half-way at that point, the required centre is reached.

But how find the outside point? Let the board be of any irregular shape, as at a (Fig. 27), and bore two holes through it perpendicularly at any two points, near its edge, o and Q. Put a straight iron rod now through o, and on the rod, by a small ring, hang a plumb-line, o A, close to the board. Put rod, line, and board now across two supports, so arranged that the rod may be horizontal. The board having settled to rest, the centre of gravity will, as I showed in last lesson, be somewhere behind the plumb-line. Chalk now, or mark with a pencil, the course, o A, of this line on the board. Perform the same operation with the hole Q, pencilling in like manner the line Q B. What now have we? Two lines, behind both which the centre of gravity lies; whence we infer that their intersection, &, is the point required.

But the method in part applies to bodies which have not parallel faces like boards, or are not cut perpendicularly, or at the same slope across at their edges; but in such cases the sought centre is not midway across. All that is necessary is that there should be one flat face on it, as in that represented at b (Fig. 27). You can still determine the point a, behind which the centre of gravity lies, by boring two passages at o and Q, perpendicularly to the face, into its substance, suspending and marking the lines o A, Q B, as before. The centre of gravity will still be behind the point G; but where, or how far in, is another question, the answer to which depends on the shape of the body.

If the board which above first occupied our attention be supposed to become very thin-to be cardboard, or even paper-the body becomes almost all surface, and the point & and the centre of gravity nearly coincide. Practically, they become identical; and the operation is sometimes spoken of as "the finding of the centre of gravity of an area or surface." In strictness, a surface cannot have a centre of gravity, for (see Lesson I. on Geometry) it has no thickness, and therefore can have no weight, no force, no centre of force. But, for all that, the inquiry is useful. We may agree, for mechanical purposes, that a surface should have such a centre; and the best course for that purpose is to give it a thickness the smallest we can conceive, namely, that of one particle or atom. Imagine, then, a triangle, or polygon, or circle, one atom thick; and let us agree that, when we find its

Tarn is a small lake, high up in the mountains. ** A clergyman.

++ Cure.-The office of a clergyman. Stole.-A long robe worn by the clergy of England.

§§ Bridewell.-A house of correction.

« ForrigeFortsæt »