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the porpoise the brain has no olfactory lobe, and there are no olfactory nerves; and therefore the nasal passages are made subservient to the supply of the lungs with air. A reference to the engraving will show how the canal from the slit-like opening at the top of the head passes down past a valve, which closes it against the water when the animal is submerged, and then onward to the head of the windpipe, which here does not open on the floor of the oesophagus (or focd-throat), but is continued up, and thrust into, the nasal canal, while the muscles of the soft palate and food-throat grasp it firmly. If the animal chooses, however, he can force the water from his mouth past this perforated plug, and make it issue in a stream from the blow-hole. Though the function of smelling seems to be thus entirely sacrificed to other uses, in the nose of the whale and porpoise, it will be seen from the engraving that an orifice lead

observation of the habits of animals will soon lead us to suspect our error. The sense seems to be the keenest in the carnivora, and man is so sensible of his inferiority to these in the sense of smell, that he supplements his deficiency by their acuteness. The little terrier will inform his master, the rat-catcher, if the rat is at home, by his impatient scratching at the mouth of the hole. The huntsman sees a fox cross an alley in a wood; Reynard has gone he knows not whither, and has left no trace which is available to his dull sense. But a hound comes in sight, and when motioned to the place he sniffs the ground in uncertainty but for a moment, and then flings up his nose towards the sky, and with one long, melancholy howl calls his comrades of the pack, and, in almost less time than it takes to write it, they are all in full cry on the trail, making the echoes ring with their confident music. Who has not observed the pointer, as he stops in the midst of his swift, business-like beat, motion-ing from the part of the canal external to the valve passes less, as if Medusa's head had turned him to stone? Yet, if you mark him well, his whole frame is instinct with tremulous emotion; his eyes glisten, and seem starting from his head; his nostrils twitch, and his limbs quake with excitement. The game lies hidden in deep cover; it is impossible for him to see it; but as you look at him you feel certain that he is as vividly conscious of its presence, as if his eye saw, or his foot were upon it.

We have seen, in writing of the other senses, that while beasts seem to have these in greater efficiency than men, this is because their attention is not abstracted from their indications, and not because the organ is any more perfect or elaborate in its structure; but in the case of the smell, a corresponding development and complication of structure accompanies a keener sense. The great difference between the skull of man and that of the beast consists in the fact, that in the latter the brain and the brain-case-which it accurately fits-are much smaller; the jaws and therefore the hollow of the mouth-are much larger and longer. Now, the nasal cavity which lies between these partakes, in the beast, of the elongation of the jaws, and not of the curtailment of the brain. The nose is almost always at the end of the muzzle, and the long chambers of the nose only pass under the brain at the posterior part of their course, where they also begin to descend to enter the throat. Hence, instead of comparing the face to a three-storeyed house, as we did in speaking of the man, it should be compared to a two-storeyed shed, with a lean-to behind for the accommodation of the brain. The turbinated bones are, therefore, not so much one above as one behind the other, the front or inferior one being very much enlarged and contorted, or folded, so as to fill up the large chamber. This bone is very differently shaped in the different animals. In the sheep it arises by a broad plate, which runs inward from the outer wall of the nose, and then divides into two plates, both of which assume the form of scrolls, one curling upwards and the other downwards; and the number of turns of these scrolls is so great, that if a transverse section of the nose be made, the edge of the bone looks like the capital of an Ionic column. In the hare and rabbit the bone has a different form, and consists of a number of plates one above the other, which subdivide into other smaller horizontal plates or ridges, all of which are, so to speak, gathered' ogether into one stem at each end. The seal has a bone of ae same structure, but much more subdivided and complicated; and the extraordinary development of the organ in these swimming carnivora, would lead us to suppose that they hunt by scent. It will be seen that the design of all these structures, however different their form may be, is to increase the surface over which the pituitary membrane, as it is called, can be spread. Now, in man, the membrane of the lower scroll-bone is not so specially the seat of the organ of smell as of a refined and acute sense of touch; for the nerve which supplies it is not from the olfactory bulb, but from the fifth pair of nerves. It is this nerve which is excited by the application of snuff: so that the snuff does not act as an odour, but as an irritant, and the pleasure may be compared, by those who do no appreciate it, to the pleasure of scratching in other parts of the body. In beasts, however, the nasal branch from the fth pair of nerves would seem to be a nerve of special sense; and, besides this, since the turbinated bones are not one above, but one behind the other, the air passes successively over them all, instead of below the ethmo, or upper turbinated bones, as in man. Perhaps it is not out of place here to remark upon some functions discharged by the nose, which are not olfactory. In

into a chamber, upon whose folded sides a membrane is spread which has branches of the fifth pair of nerves distributed to it. Through this organ, no doubt, the porpoise can test the purity of the water in which it is immersed.

The hog uses his disc-shaped snout to turn up the earth, and the tapir curls his flexible nose round the grass to tear it up; but these slight differences from the usual development of the organ sink into insignificance beside the enormously elongated trunk of the elephant. In this beast, the two narrow tubes into which the nasal chambers are continued forward, run to the very end of the organ, where there is, on the upper side, a finger, which seems to be as serviceable as any of our own. Strong bundles of muscles run along the trunk on all sides, and radiating ones pass between these, so that the beast can move his trunk in any direction he pleases.

In birds the sense of smell is by no means so efficient as in mammals. This we may pronounce with certainty, because not only is the organ, and its accessory apparatus, less developed, but the habits of birds indicate that they are but little guided by the sense of smell. Raptorial birds, like flesh-eating animals, have better-developed olfactory organs than grain-feeding fowls. The main nerve of smell of the vulture is five times the thickness of that of the turkey, although the carrion-feeding bird (first-named) does not exceed the other in weight; but it would seem that this sense in the vulture and condor is only useful to them in selecting while at their meal, and does not guide them to the meal itself. A number of confined condors had some steaks of flesh, wrapped in paper, placed before them, but they gave no sign of being aware of their presence; when, however, the paper was removed, they were seen tumbling over one another in their eagerness to snatch the food.

The general peculiarities of the organ of smell of birds are the following:-The nerve leaves the skull by one hole, and not through many, as in beasts; the membrane to which the nerve of smell goes is confined to the base of the beak, and the outer nostrils are not at the end, but at its sides or base; and though these nostrils are sometimes protected by a scale (as in the pheasant), or a sheath (as in the stormy petrel), or a bunch of stiff feathers (as in the raven), there are never any flexible cartilages moved by muscles. That singular wingless bird, thence called the apteryx, affords the only exception to the above statements, for its nostrils are at the end of its bill, the upper turbinated bones are of very large size, and many nerves pierce the skull, as in the mammalia. These peculiarities indicate greater acuteness in the sense of smell; and this is thought to be associated with its habit of probing among loose earth, to hunt for worms, by scenting them.

In the pelican there are no external nostrils whatever; and this is, no doubt, reasonably accounted for by the fact that this bird fishes under water with its long bill, and detains its prey for inspection in its capacious pouch. While in this position, te contents of the bill send off effluvia to the nose by the back way of the palate; and since the nostrils of the bird, if it had any, would be above the water, and its prey below it, they could be of no service.

In the higher reptiles, the internal organ is very like that of birds; but in some the nostrils are wide apart, and in others, as in all the crocodiles, they are united into one, which in the true crocodile of the Nile is shaped like a half-moon, and closed by a valve from behind; and in the gavial, or slender-snonted crocodile of the Ganges, the skin round the nostril can be raised so as to allow it to be just lifted above the surface, while the

rest of the animal is concealed. In both cases the nostril is placed at the tip of the snout, for reasons which those who have read the lessons on the ear will understand. Space fails to write of the organ in the serpent, the frog, and the siren; but, in passing on to describe it as it occurs in the fish, it should be remarked, that in all the foregoing animals there is a communication between this organ and the air-passage to the lungs. The position of these hind nostrils, as they are called, are, as we have seen, very various. In some cases, they open just behind the teeth, as in the toad; and in others, far back in the alimentary canal. They are sometimes double, and sometimes single; but they are always present: and consequently these animals all breathe naturally through the nose: and for this reason it has been difficult to discuss the function of smell without trenching on the function of respiration. In fish, on the contrary, there are no lungs; and therefore the hind outlet of the nose is not present, and the organ is solely an organ of smell.

Its usual form is that of a roundish sac, opening on the side of the muzzle by one or two external holes. The sac is either round, in which case a column of cartilage rises in the centre, and radiating folds run from this to the circumference; or elongated, when a bar of cartilage runs across it; and on each side of this plates pass off to the sides; and these secondary plates at their middle portion are elongated into flaps, which float freely in the water of the sac. An example of the first form is seen in the sturgeon, and of the last in the ray and dog-fish. In the drawing of the dog-fish, one sac is represented with a fore-andaft flap to the nostril, the fore-flap being pulled forward by two threads, so as to disclose the interior; while, on the other side, these flaps have been wholly removed, to expose the organ. These cartilaginous flaps are moved by proper muscles, so that the water in the sacs can be rapidly changed by their action; hence these fish have been said not only to smell, but to scent their prey. In the lamprey, or nine-eyed eel, the nasal sac is single, and in the middle line above the head. In the nautilus, Professor Owen has detected an organ of smell; and the pretty little organs which are thrust up from the back of the naked sea-slug are considered to be of the same nature. We have already pointed out the organ in the lobster; but where the sense resides in insects is yet unknown.

Notwithstanding these difficulties and uncertainties, it is hoped that it has been shown that there is sufficient evidence of contrivance in the nasal organ in the animal kingdom, to make us exclaim with David, "How wonderful are thy thoughts! how great is the sum of them!"

LESSONS IN GERMAN.—XVI. SECTION XXIX.-POSITION OF THE VERB, ETC. WHEN for the sake of emphasis a word (which is not the subject) is placed at the beginning of a principal sentence, or if a subordinate sentence precedes the principal sentence, the subject is placed after the finite verb (a present or imperfect), as:-Da geht Ihr Freund, there goes your friend. Hier steht sein Bruter, here stands his brother. Zu lange schon hast Du geschlummert, too long already hast thou slumbered. Jezt muß ich geben, now I must go. Als ich gestern nach Hause kam, regnete es fehr starb, when I returned home yesterday, it was raining very hard. Heute kann er nicht lesen, und morgen will er nicht, he cannot read to-day, and to-morrow he will not.

1. Fahren is both transitive and intransitive; when transitive, it is conjugated with haben (§ 71. 1), and signifies to convey in a vehicle, to drive, as:-Der Kutscher hat mich schnell gefahren, the coachman has driven me rapidly. Der Schiffer hat mich schnell gefahren, the boatman has rowed me rapidly. When intransitive, it is conjugated with sein (§ 71. 1), and signifies to ride in a vehicle, as:--Ich bin gefahren, I have ridden (in a carriage, boat, or other vehicle).

2. Reiten is also used transitively and intransitively, and signifies to ride, as on horseback, as:-2 :-Der Araber reitet tas Biert und das Kameel, the Arabian rides the horse and the camel. Ich habe ein schnelles Pferd geritten, I have ridden a fleet horse. When used intransitively (§ 71. 1), it is conjugated with fein, as-Er ist sehr schnell geritten, he has ridden (on horseback) very rapidly.

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2. Er will hin3. Der Haus4. Um gesund zu

1. Will der alte Soldat heute in den Wald gehen? gehen, aber heute kann er nicht, denn er hat viel zu thun. fnecht ist auf den Markt gegangen, um Fleisch zu holen. bleiben, muß man ortentlich und mäßig leben. 5. Der Holzhauer ist in den Walt gegangen, um Holz zu hauen. 6. Der Messer geht von einem Dorse zum antern, um Ochsen zu kaufen. 7. Er geht aus einem Dorfe in tas antere, kann aber keine Ochsen finden. 8. Was will er mit den Ochsen? 9. Er will sie schlachten; wir müssen ja Fleisch haben. 10. Der Bauer hat zwei Pferte, welche der Brauer kaufen will. 11. Ich gehe in tie Statt, um einen Hut oder eine Müße zu kaufen. 12. Er hat Bücher zu lesen und eine Aufgabe zu schreiben. 13. Wo will der Freund Ihres Bruters hingehen? 14. Er vill nirgends hingehen, er will bei seinem Obeim bleiben. 15. Wollen sie auf den hohen Verg gehen? 16. Ich will tahin gehen, aber nicht heute. 17. Können Sie morgen auf das Land gehen? 18. Ich kann dahin gehen, aber ich will nicht. 19. Wann will Ihr Vater seine Pferde wieder haben? 20. Er muß sie morgen früh haben, weil er morgen Abend nach Frankfurt fahren will. 21. Warum will er nicht dahin reiten? 22. Weil er kein gutes Reitpferd hat, und das Wetter sehr kalt ist.


1. It is too cold for him to-day to go over to Frankfort. 2. There runs the hare over the hill. 3. There drives your brother. 4. The confectioner is gone to the bakehouse in order to bake bread. 5. The butcher goes to market in order to buy sheep. 6. Your coachman has driven me rapidly here. 7. Do you see that man upon that horse which we saw yesterday? 8. The solcarriages comfortably. 10. We have ridden in your coach to diers ride on beautiful horses. 9. They say one rides in those 11. Tread not beyond the law! steamboat passes down the river to-day for the first time.

pay our visits.

12. The new

SECTION XXX.-COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. German adjectives are compared by suffixing to the simple form of the positive, er for the comparative, and eft for the supersuperlative mild-est (mildest). (See §§ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.) lative; thus, positive mild (mild), comparative milt er (milder),

1. When the positive ends in el, en, or er, the e of this termi

nation is, in the comparative, omitted, as :-etel (noble), ctler* (nobler). It may be here remarked, that adjectives of this class add for the superlative st only; thus, etel, erler, etelst. Adjec tives, when compared, are commonly contracted when euphony


Adjectives in the comparative and superlative are subject to the same rules of inflection as when in the positive degree. (§ 37. 1.)

* The disposition to contract two concurrent syllables finds a parallel in almost every language. Thus, in English, we have entrance for containing each two syllables, are pronounced as though consisting of enterance; wondrous for wonderous, etc. So hoped, prayed, etc., words but one. This is a serious difficulty in the way of foreigners lear our language, but one which in the German, by a conformity of com graphy to pronunciation, is entirely avoided.

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3. The Old form of the superlative is rarely used; the article (as in English) always preceding it, as:-Mein Hut ist der schönste, my hat is the finest. Instead of the regular form, the dative of the New Declension, preceded by the particle am, contracted from an tem, is often used, as :-Mein Hut ist am schönsten. (See § 38. 1, etc.)

The adverb mehr, like its English equivalent (more), is likewise employed in the comparison of adjectives, as-Sie ist mehr liebenswürtig, als schön, she is more amiable than beautiful. (See § 42. 1, etc.)

4. Adjectives of all degrees of comparison may in the simple and absolute form be employed as adverbs; but when the superlative is so used, the form produced by the union of am with the dative is adopted, as :— Er schreibt schön, he writes beautifully. Er liest schneller, als ich, he reads more rapidly than I. Sie liest am schnellsten, she reads the most rapidly. (§ 106.)

5. Participles, when used as adjectives, are compared in the like manner, as :-Gelehrt (learned), gelehrter (more learned), gelebrtest (most learned); rübrent (affecting), rührenter (more affecting), rührentst (most affecting).

6. Je je or je testo, in phrases like the following, is answered in English by "the-the;" thus, Je mehr, je munterer, the more the merrier. Je mehr, besto tesser, the more, the better. Je is sometimes preceded by teste, as:-Ein Werk ist desto nüßlicher, je vollkom mener es ist, the more perfect a work is, the more useful it is.

7. Desto is likewise used without je, as-Gr lief darauf desto schneller, thereupon he ran the faster. Er hörte nun testo aufmerk famer zu, he listened now the more attentively.

8. The following adjectives are irregular in comparison (see § 39):

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Klugheit, f. prudence. Lantluft, f. country


Luft, f. air, atmo


Muth, m. courage. Ovid', m. Ovid. Paris', n. Paris. Parma, n. Parma.

Plautern, to prattle. Schriftsteller, m.

writer, author. Sitte, f. manners, custom. Stamm, m. stock,

trunk. Stern, m. star. Um'geben, to associate.


Das Wetter ist heute kälter, als gestern.

Der erelste Mensch ist nicht immer der glücklichste, und der reichste nicht immer der wei'seste. Der Klügste ist gewöhnlich am be. schei'rensten, der Dümmste am zu tringlichsten.


Unrein, impure.

Un'würtig, unworthy.
Veränderung, f. alte-
ration, change.
Verstand, m. under-
Birgil', m. Virgil.
Wohlthat, f. benefit.
Würtig, worthy.
Zinn, n. tin.

The weather is colder to-day than yesterday. The noblest man is not always

the most fortunate, and the richest not always the wisest. The wisest (man) is generally the most modest, the most stupid the most obtrusive.

Ein guter Feldberr muß mehr Klug, A good commander-in-chief als tapfer fein.

Dieses Tuch ist besser, als jenes.
Hunger ist der beste Koch.
Die Tanne ist der höchste Baum.
Weisheit ist mehr zu schäßen, als
Reichthum aber am meisten
Tugend und Frömmigkeit.

must be more prudent than valiant.

This cloth is better than that. (The) hunger is the best cook. The pine is the highest tree. Wisdom is more to be prized than riches, but virtue and devoutness the most.


1. Dieser Jäger hat einen schönen Hunt, meiner ist schöner, und der ourige ist der schönste von allen. 2. Die Grte ist kleiner, als die Sonne; und die Sterne sind entfernter, als der Mond. 3. Virgil ist ein angench, als Paris merer Schriftsteller, als Ovit. 4. Die Start Canton (§ 123. 6) ist größer, 5. Alerander der Große hatte weniger Klugheit, als Muth 6. Van findet viel mehr Kupfer als Silber, und mehr Eisen als Zinn. 7. Dieses Mädchen plaurert mehr, als sie (§ 134. 2) arbeitet. 8. Die Luft in ten Stätten ist unreiner, als die Landlust. 9. Frankreich ist nicht so fruchtbar, wie Deutschland. 10. Dieser Jüngling hat nicht so viel Verstant, wie sein Bruder, aber er hat auch nicht so viel Eitelkeit. 11. Die Rose ist eine der schönsten Blumen in der Welt. 12. Diejenigen sind gewöhnlich am wenigsten stolz, deren Geist am gebildetsten ist. 13. Die Sitten derjenigen, Die Wohlthaten, deren wir würtig fint, fine uns angenehmer, als die, veren mit welchen wir umgehen, haben gewöhnlich Einfluß auf uns. wir unwürtig sind. 15. Derjenige ist der reichste, dessen Kinder tugendhaft sint. 16. Der Herr hat keinen Gefallen an denjenigen Menschen, die keine


Liebe zu ihren Brüdern haben. 17. Der Apfelbaum hat einen viden

Stamm, tie Buche hat einen rifern Stamm, und tie Eiche hat den vidsten Stamm. 18. Je mehr er hat desto mehr will er. 19. Florenz ist schöner, als Parma.


1. The more frequent our intercourse is with nations, the more our commerce will be extended. 2. Are the palaces of the kings of England as beautiful as those of the German kings? 3. England is not so fertile as Spain or Italy. 4. It is as easy to do good as to do evil. 5. Virtue is the greatest ornament of man. 6. A sage said (used to say), that the more he reflected on the immortality of the soul, the more important it appeared to him. 7. The Rhine presents the most beautiful view. 8. The country air was more beneficial in the recovery of this youth than the treatment of the most efficient doctor. 9. Ovid is a less agreeable writer than Virgil. 10. The spring is more variable than the autumn. 11. This view is beautiful, but the view from that hill is more beautiful. 12. Augustus was not, perhaps, a greater man than Antony, but he was more fortunate than he. 13. Of all flowers the rose is the most beau tiful, if the violet is not still more beautiful. 14. The society of that youth is less agreeable than that of his brother. 15. Mont Blanc is a high mountain, but Chimborazo is higher, and Mount Everest the highest. 16. Virtue is more to be prized than riches. 17. The soldiers are going to Vienna. 18. The woodcutter cuts down the highest beech in the forest. 19. Florence is the capital of Italy. 20. The stars in the heaven shine brightly. 21. She is more beautiful than amiable. 22. The louder the man called, the faster the boy ran. 23. The boatman rowed rapidly across the river.


ANY intelligent self-teacher, who has carefully followed our instructions from the beginning, and has been able to find time to write for at least an hour daily, will now find that he has acquired the proper position of the hand in writing, and the right mode of holding the pen, while he has also gained sufficient control over the muscles of his hand and wrist to be able to make the movements necessary to form the letters that have already been brought under his notice, without the temporary inconvenience which a beginner invariably experiences from an undue tension of the ball of the thumb and the muscles on the opposite side of the palm of the hand, caused by holding the pen too stiffly, and not permitting the fore-finger and thumb to


graved copy-slips, there must still be many of our readers who do, and for their benefit examples for practice are given in Copy-slips Nos. 58, 59, and 60. After furnishing examples of the seven letters of the writing alphabet that yet remain to be mentioned, we shall proceed to give a series of copy-clips in the various kinds of writing generally taught in schools, from which the learner will be able to make himself acquainted with the forms of the capital letters. The instructions already given for tracing out the shapes of the small letters have, of necessity, been copious and ample, and to those of our readers who may be able to write, the explanations of the methods used in forming each letter of the writing alphabet, may have appeared minute and tedious. It must be remembered, however, that these elementary lessons in Penmanship are intended rather






play freely on the joints by which, so to speak, they are hinged together and connected with the wrist and arm. On the contrary, through having gained sufficient confidence in his skill and powers by daily practice, he begins to move the pen freely and rapidly over the paper, while the down-strokes of his letters, which were at first crooked and unevenly formed, are now regularly sloped and sharply and clearly defined at the edges. He begins to find, too, that he no longer requires so many examples for practice in words composed solely of the small letters of the writing alphabet to be placed before him by means of engraved copy-slips, inasmuch as he can select words enough for himself, in writing which he finds a useful exercise in testing his knowledge of the forms of the letters with which he is already acquainted, the way in which each is connected with letters by which they are preceded or followed, and the relative proportion of the parts which extend above and below the lines that contain the body or main part of the letters. But although the majority of our self-taught students may not require en

for learners who are trying to teach themselves to write, and for those who are endeavouring to improve a faulty style of handwriting, than for those who have had the benefit of being shown how to shape their letters by a writing master; and it is for the guidance of self-teachers, who have no one to show them how each letter should be formed by writing it before them, that our instructions have been made as elaborate and precise as they are.

But even to those who know how to write, these minute directions may be of the greatest importance. Many of our readers, we trust, are engaged in the good work of teaching adults in evening schools. To such as these our lessons will afford assistance in conveying in suitable terms the instructions they are giving, and accompanying that instruction by accurately-formed diagrams on the black-board, which will serve as examples to all the members of a large class, and save the labour and loss of time involved in writing separate copies for each individual of which the class is composed.

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A few words of explanation may here be desirable. The Latin c represents the Greek g (gamma), and for the most part was pronounced like our k. Thus, the Romans pronounced Cicero, the name of their great orator, Kikero. Now the x in judex is made up of these letters, thus, judecs-the c and s blending together to form ; hence, judec, judicis, judecs: in the genitive, the laws of pronunciation convert the e of the nominative into i; as it does in comes, comitis. From this example you see that the variations which words undergo are not arbitrary. Those variations depend on the nature of the letters that come together, and in their ultimate causes, on the structure of the organs of speech, as these organs are in each nation modified by natural endowments, climate, culture, and a variety of other


The b in urbs may be considered as equivalent to p, for b and p being labials-that is, letters in pronouncing which the lips are chiefly used-are, as letters of the same organ, interchangeable, or may be used the one for the other, under certain conditions.

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1. Artifices debent pueros docere. 2. Pollicem movet rex. 3. Reges custodiunt leges. 4. Leges custodiuntur a regibus. 5. Filius pollicem mordet. 6. Equites vexantur. 7. Artifices ornant urbes. 8. Merces artificum nutriunt filios et filias. 9. Cælebs dormit. 10. Plebs defenditur. 11. Stirps artificis laudatur. 12. Estne tibi seges? 13. Cervix inilitis læditur. 14. Cælibis ætas magna est.


1. I defend artists. 2. Artists are defended by me. 3. Has he a reward? 4. He has not a flock. 5. I am pricked in the neck. 6. Artists paint flocks. 7. The laws of the kings are deadly. 8. The corn-land of the horseman is yielded. 9. Why is the bachelor blamed? 10. The people blame bachelors. 11. Soldiers have rewards, teaches many things (multa).

12. Age

aves, O birds! avibus, by birds.

nubes, clouds. nubium, of clouds. nubibus, to clouds. nubes, clouds. nubes, O clouds! nubibus, by clouds.

Altare, altāris, n., an altar.

febres, fevers. febres, O fevers! febribus, by fevers.


mare (neuter), the sea. maris, of the sea.

mare, the sea.
mare, O sea!
mari, by the sea.

maria, seas.
marium, of seas.
maribus, to seas.
maria, seas.
maria, O seas!
maribus, by seas.

VOCABULARY. Ignis, ignis, m., fire. Navis, navis, f., a ship. Orbis, orbis, m., a globe, the world. f., Ovile, ovilis, n., a

Civis, civis, m., a citizen. Clades, cladis, slaughter.


navis, of a ship. navi, to a ship. navem (im), a ship. navis, O ship!

navi or nave, by a ship.

naves, ships. navium, of ships. navibus, to ships. naves, ships. naves, O ships! navibus, by ships.

rete (neuter), a nets. retis, of a net. reti, to a net.

rete, a net. rete, O net! reti, by a nets.

retia, net. retium, of nets. retibus, to nets. retia, nets. retia, O nets! retibus, by nets.

Rupes, rupis, f., a rock. Securis, securis, f., an


Sedes, sedis, f., a seat.


1. Aves fallunt cælibes. 2. Matres occiduntur febribus. 3. Valde diligo mare. 4. Mare diligitur a nautis. 5. Agricolæ colunt segetes. 7. In orbe est ignis. 8. In ignibus sunt 6. Nauta sunt in navibus. fratres. 9. Altaria sunt deabus. 10. Nonne diis sunt altaria ? 11. Securi defendunt agricolæ ovilia.


1. Sailors defend ships with (their) bodies. 2. Birds are on the rocks. 3. Are rocks loved by sailors? 4. Slaughter injures the 6. Axes defend the ships. 7. people. 5. Birds strike the clouds. The birds of the citizens are injured. 8. The seat of the prince is

praised. 9. We conquer the companions of the princes. General view of nouns of the third declension, according to their stems :

Class I.

Nouns with consonantal stems, or imparisyllabic. 1st division: Nouns without the termination s.

1st subdivision: Nouns in which the nominative and the stem are the same; the stems end in r and l.

2nd subdivision: Nouns in which the nominative and the stem are different; the stems end in n and r.

2nd division: Nouns with the termination s, with the sounds k, t, p.

Class II.

Nouns with the vowel-stems, or parisyllabic.
With and without the termination s.

Some peculiarities belonging to this declension must be briefly indicated. The termination of the accusative singular is properly m, which is connected with the consonantal stem by the interposition of e. In the vowel-stems no interposing vowel

is required, because there is a vowel in the stem. That vowel is i. Vowel-stems, therefore, end in im in the accusative, and in i in the ablative singular; for the most part, however, they in usage have e in both. However, in sitis, thirst, tussis, a cough, and vis, strength, i only is used. Vis is a defective noun, and is thus declined: singular, vis, vim, vi; plural, vires, virium, viribus, vires, vires, virious, the plural being complete and regular. In these nouns,-namely, febris, a fever; securis, an axe; pelvis, a basin; turris, a tower; and restis, a cord, im is more usual than em; but less usual than em is it in classis,

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