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FOR "any" and "some," as generally used before a noun, the German has no corresponding word, as:-Haben Sie Brot? have you some bread? Haben Sie Seite? have you any silk? Ich habe Bücher, I have some books.

1. The indefinite adjective pronoun "some" is expressed in German by welcher, welche, welches, as :-Haben Sie Wasser? Ich habe welches; I have "some." For the genitive of welcher-which, however, is usually left out-we employ the personal pronoun preceded by "of," as:-Haben Sie viel Wasser? have you much water? Ich habe (ressen) viel, I have much of it (literally, I have of it much). Haben Sie viel Hüte? have you many hats? 3ch babe (teren) vicle, I have many of them (I have of them many). From these examples it will be seen that the partitive word in German is placed after the pronoun, while in English it is placed before it. In this use it is declined like the relative welcher. DECLENSION OF welcher AS A PARTITIVE. Singular.

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welcher, welche,


wel.. es,

Plural of all genders. welche, who.

teren, who-e.

welchen, to whom. welche, whom.

G. Desser, D. Welchem A Welchen. 2. Genua like "enough," is indeclinable, and generally follows its noun, or stands independently. Biel and wenig are frequently used without declension. (§ 53.)

3. Das as also ties (tics being a contraction of the neuter ticies) is frequently used in referring to nouns of both numbers and all genders. as:-Wer ist das? who is that? Dies ist mein Freunt, This is my friend. Das sind Franzosen, those are Frenchmen. Das and ties, however, never precede and qualify a noun, except of the neuter gender. (§ 134. 1.)

1. 68, like its English equivalent, may refer to nouns of both numbers and all genders, as :-Gs ist mein Freunt, it is my friend. When es refers to a noun in the plural, the verb must agree in number with the noun, while in English it agrees with the protou, as :-68 sind die Russen, die Ungarn überwunten haben, it is (German, sind) the Russians who have overpowered (conquered) Hungary. (§ 57. 8.)

not one.

5. 68 sometimes answers to our word "so" or "one," as :-Er ist zelund eter scheint es zu sein, he is healthy, or appears so to be. Ge tft Seltat, aber ich bin es nicht, he is (a) soldier, but I am 68 is likewise rendered by "there" (Sect. XXXVI. 3), as: -68 stant in alten Zeiten ein Schloß so hoch und behr (Uhlant), there stood in ancient times a castle so high and lofty. Es war ein König in Thule (Geetbe), there was a king in Thule. ($ 57. 8.)

6. 6s is often so used as to have no equivalent in English, as:-68 reden und träumen die Menschen viel von bessern künftigen Tagen (Schiller) men talk and dream much of better future days, Ich weiß es, daß er da war, I know (it) that he was there. Es leben die Freiheitskämpfer, (long) live the champions of liberty. Gs lebe die Republik, (long) live the republic.

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3. Hat er viel

1. Wie alt ist dieser Mann? 2. Er ist nicht sehr alt. Gelt? 4. 3a, und er hat auch viele Freunde und viele Feinte. 5. Welcher Knabe hat viel (R. 2, above) Aerfel und Birnen? 6. Einer von ren Sehnen tes Bauern hat viel Aerfel, ter antere viel Birnen. 7. Der eine bat viel Gluck, ter antere hat nur Gram unt Kummer. 8. Wie viel Bred hat ter Bäcker? 9. Er hat sehr viel Brot, aber nur wenig Mehl. 10. Dieser Mann hat wenig Gelt, aber viel Verstand. 11. Diese Stiefel fint mir viel zu groß, und die Schuhe sind meinem Bruder ein wenig zu furz. 12. Wird Ihr Cheim viel Pulver kaufen? 13. Er wirt nur wenig faufen, tenn er bat zu wenig Gelt. 14. Wer ist das? 15. Es ist ein alter Freund des Arztes. 16. Wer hat gutes Wasser? 17. Der Matrose hat welches. 18. Werte ich morgen tie Bücher bekommen? 19. Sie sollen schen beute welche haben. 20. Hat der Bauer viel Weizen? 21. Er bat dessen nicht viel. 22. Hat der Schmiet viel Stabl? 23. Er hat (dessen) viel. 24. Hat er viel Nägel? 25. Er hat (deren) viel. 26. Wer bat Milch? 27. Der Bauer hat welche. 28. Hat er (teren) sehr viel? 29. Er hat genug.


1. We must be cautious in the choice [versichtig in der Wahl of him to whom we confide important concerns [wichtige Angelegen beiten anvertrauen]. 2. They that (who) speak evil [übel] of others are often worse [schlimmer] than those whose failings they lay open [blestellen]. 3. He professed [bekannte] that religion whose pride and too little diligence. origin is divine [Ursprung göttlich ist]. 4. This boy has too much 5. That is the man through whose help he was saved. 6. Which pleased you the most? This or that? Neither. 7. Can those be loved whose vices are detested by everybody [Jetermann]? 8. How many hats has that boy? 9. He has three of them. 10. Who sells here good bread? 11. Our baker sells very good bread.


Impersonal verbs are confined to the third person singular, and have as their subject or nominative only the pronoun cổ, as :-Gs regnet, it rains. Es tennert, it thunders. Gs blist, it lightens. (§ 81. 1.)

1. Besides those verbs that are merely impersonal, others may be thus employed, as:-G8 scheint, daß er frank ist, it appears that he is sick. Es schmerzt mich, das zu hören, it pains me to hear that, etc. 2. Many verbs, however, that in German are used impersonally have, in this respect, no verbs of the same kind in English to correspond, as :-Gs gelingt mir, I succeed (it succeeds to me), etc.

3. Geben, "to give," is often, with its proper case (the accusa. tive), employed to denote existence in a manner general and indefinite, and is translated like sein, "to be," as:- -Es giebt (not es sint) Leute, die alle Tage auf den Markt geben, there are (i.e., there exist) people who go to the market every day. Es sind heute (not es giebt) viele Leute auf dem Markte, there are many people to-day at the market. Es giebt keine Rosen ohne Dornen, there are (there exist) no roses without thorns. Es sind (not es giebt) viele Kinter in tiefer Schule, there are many children in this school. Gs gicht (there exist) noch Riesen in der Welt, there are still giants in the world.

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1. Es giebt dieses Jahr sehr viel Obst. 2. Es ist heute sehr schönes Better. 3. Es giebt mehr arme, als reiche Leute. 4. Es ist ein wahres Bergnügen, diesen Morgen spazieren zu geben. 5. Giebt es in Deutschland auch reißende Thiere ? 6. Es giebt noch viele Welfe in den Gebirgen. 7. Die feindlich mee ist auf ihrem Rückzuge. 8. Giebt es etwas Shinetes, als den Aufgang der Sonne? 9. Es hat den ganzen Tag göchneit. 10. Geben Sie diesen Nachmittag mit mir auf's Eis? 11. Nein, es thaut schon, und das Gis kann leicht brechen. 12. Wenn es tagt, werte ich Sie zu einem Spaziergang abholen. 13. Es schneit beute ten ganzen Tag. 14. Regnet es schon? 15. Nein, aber es wird balb anfangen zu regnen. 16. Wie lange hat es geregnet ? 17. Es hat bis sier Uhr geregnet. 18. Donnert es? 19. Ja, es donnert und blist, und i fürchte, daß es auch hageln wird. 20. We waren Sie, während es schneite? 21. Ich suchte in der Gapelle tes St. Georg Zuflucht, denn es schneite nicht nur, sontera es stürmte und Hagelte auch. 22. Ich sage Sönen nur das, was (Sect. XXI. 1) ich gehört habe.


learned men that are owned by the three kingdoms. They call themselves Templars, they worship in common in the Temple Church, and they preserve the devices and traditions of an order of knights whose name they bear, and in whose seats they sit. How is this? Was it always so? Certainly not. The lines of Edmund Spenser, quoted above, testify as much, and their witness, as we shall see in the course of this sketch, is exactly even with the truth. Let us inquire somewhat into the history of these colleges of law, and see how they came to be colleges at all; let us glean something out of the historic memories which cling around them, and follow the path pointed out by the finger of Time till it leads us to the epoch when the lawyers dwelt not in the Temple, but armed Christianity stalled her horse and sharpened her sword there.

There was a cry in Christendom that the heathen had entered into the inheritance of God, and had defiled His holy places. Stories the most pitiable were told of what the infidels had done to those who went up to Jerusalem to worship; how that once more the wicked had given the dead bodies of God's servants to be meat for the fowls of the air, and the flesh of His saints to the beasts of the land. A thrill of horror went through men as they listened to the accounts, most likely exaggerated, which were repeated from mouth to mouth, and the sensation vibrated to the heart of Europe." Swiftly there followed upon this a determination to be up and doing, a stern sentiment founded on religion and soldierly anger, prompting men to exact satisfaction at the risk of their lives for the blood of Christ's children which had been shed. This was in the year 1090.

The Saracens (a people often confounded with Turks, from whom they were altogether dissimilar), from Arabia, had conquered Palestine in the year of our Lord C37, driving out the authority of the declining Greek emperors, and establishing the religion and the state system of Mahomet. The Caliphs, or chiefs of the Saracens, had so far respected the religion and social habits of the conquered Christians, that they had allowed them to retain about one-fourth of the city of Jerusalem, besides numerous places in the provinces. Among other things which they were permitted to keep was the Church of the Holy Sepul1. It seemed this morning as if it [als ob es] would rain, but chre, which the Empress Helena, mother of the first Christian now the weather begins to be fine. 2. It happened [es ereignete Emperor, Constantine, had built over the spot where the Saviour that it rained just as the battle commenced, and it thunwas supposed to have been buried. The Christians experienced dered and hailed throughout the whole day. 3. It has rained, at the hands of the Saracens the greatest moderation, though hailed, snowed, and frozen this winter. 4. As long as it rains the character and principles of the two religions were essentially I cannot depart. 5. It appears that there are many strangers different, and in some particulars diametrically opposed. Pilin this hotel. 6. There are (exist) many things which we cannot grims flocked in hundreds and thousands from all parts of explain. 7. As soon as it becomes day, I shall call upon you to Europe, to see the places which had been honoured by the real go and see the rising of the sun. 8. Exists there anything more presence of their Lord, to utter their prayers in the very places noble than to forgive an enemy? 9. Do you intend to go to-where He had prayed, to abase themselves on the very scene of morrow with me upon the ice? 10. No, I fear that it thaws His sufferings, and to adore Him in Jerusalem, 'the place already, and it would be dangerous to venture it [gefährlich sein, es where God ought to be worshipped." Though their numbers wagen]. 11. As soon as the wind abates it will rain. 12. In must have proved inconvenient, one would think, to the Mussulevery community there exist more blockheads than villains, and man authorities, and though their enthusiasm was not unlikely more ignorant men than learned. to have produced breaches of the peace, we do not hear of their having been interfered with. Occasionally, perhaps, there was a disturbance, but that in all probability was due rather to the imprudence of the Christians than to the tyranny of the Caliph; so the pilgrimages went on, and were accounted by the religious system of the day for righteousness in those who performed them.


THE KNIGHTS TEMPLARS, OR RED CROSS KNIGHTS. Ox the borders of the debateable land where the jurisdictions of the Queen and of the Lord Mayor of London conflict and conjin, is a stately monument (not Temple Bar), rich in historic interest, and in memories of bygone men. Hidden away under the block of buildings which form the south side of Fleet Street, one does not notice, without seeking for them, the colleges of the Inner and Middle Temple, which constitute the monument alluded to. It is from the river, from Waterloo or Blackfriars Eridge, or better still from the Surrey shore, that one sees

"Those bricky towers,

The which on Thames' broad, aged back do ride,
Where now the studious lawyers have their bowers,
There whilome wont the Templar knights to bide,
Till they decayed through pride."

Within those "bricky towers" do now study and work the apprentices, barristers, and serjeants of the law who are membors of the two societies of the Temple; there are collected some of the brightest minds which the Universities of the kingdem have trained, some of the wittiest heads that ever Nature looked Lpon and smiled, some of the most intellectual, polished, and |

But a change came. In the year 1065, the year before the conquest of England by the Normans, Palestine was wrested from the Saracens by the Turcoman troops, whom they had hired, in the decline of their own vigour, to defend them. The power of the Arabian Caliphs was over; that of the Turkish Sultans or Emirs had taken its place. A very different sort of power the Christians found it. Though professing the same creed as the Saracens, the Turks had none of their moderation. Brutality coupled with fanaticism-these were the principles on which the new rulers proceeded to govern. Forthwith came a wail of misery from the Holy Land; pilgrims were ill-treated, insulted, and put to death. Women (it was customary even for women to go) were outraged; taxes the most offensive were exacted from those pilgrims who had money, and those who had none were driven back with the sword, whilst great numbers perished through the instrumentality of the Turks. A golden fee was required of every one before he could be admitted to the Holy Sepulchre. The Patriarch of Jerusalem was dragged across his church by the hair of his head, and flung into

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1. By unipersonal verbs is simply meant those verbs which are used only in the third person singular. Having, properly speaking, no personal subject, they are sometimes called impersonal; for the third person singular, used in English, is neuter, and in French, though il be used, it is understood and translated as neuter by the word it. These verbs express chiefly an abstract opinion or sentiment; most frequently they denote the state or change of the weather; and they generally precede or announce the occurrence of an event, as, it happened.

cinquante-cinq. 14. Fait-il trop froid pour vous dans cette
chambre ? 15. Il n'y fait ni trop froid ni trop chaud. 16. Y
a-t-il beaucoup de foin dans votre écurie? 17. Il y en a assez
pour mon cheval.
18. Restez-vous à la maison quand il pleut ?
19. Quand il pleut je reste à la maison, mais quand il fait beau
temps je vais chez mon cousin. 20. Y a-t-il de la viande au
marché? 21. Il y en a beaucoup, il y a aussi du gibier. 22. I
y a du veau, du mouton et de la volaille. 23. N'y a-t-il pas
aussi des légumes et des fruits ? 24. Il n'y en a pas. 25. Il y

en a aussi.


1. Are you cold this morning? 2. I am not cold, it is warm this 2. The unipersonal verb is conjugated only in the third person morning. 3. Is it foggy or windy? 4. It is neither foggy nor singular of a tense. Its nominative pronoun il, it, is used abso-windy, it rains in torrents (à verse). 5. Is it going to rain or lutely, i.e., it represents no noun previously expressed.

Il pleut aujourd'hui,

It rains to-day.

3. The unipersonal verb assumes the termination of the class or conjugation to which it belongs. Some verbs are always unipersonal, and will be found in § 62. Others are only occasionally so, and if irregular, will be found in the personal form in the same § 62.


YAVOIR, to be there. 1 Il y a, there is, there


GRELER, to hail.

Il gréle (§ 49), it hails,

it is hailing.


PLEUVOIR, to rain.
Il pleut, it rains, it is

GELER, to freeze.

Il gèle (§ 49), it freezes, ! it is freezing.

NEIGER, to snow.
Il neige, it snows, it is

DEGELER, to thaw.

Il dégèle (§ 49), it
thaws, it is thawing.

to snow? 6. It is going to freeze, it is very cold. 7. It is windy and foggy. 8. Is there anybody at your brother's to-day? 9. My brother is at home, and my sister is at church. 10. Is there any meat in the market? 11. There is meat and poultry. 12. Is it too warm or too cold for your sister in this room? 13. It is not so warm in this room as in your brother's library. 14. Are there good English books in your sister's library? 15. There are some good ones. 16. Are there peaches and plums in your garden? 17. There are many. 18. Do you remain at your brother's when it snows? 19. When it snows we remain at home. 20. Are there ladies at your mother's? 21. Your two sisters are there to-day. 22. Have you time to go and fetch them ? 23. I have no time this morning. 24. Is your horse in the stable? 25. It is not there, it is at my brother's. 26. Does it hail this morning? 27. It does not hail, it freezes. 28. What weather is it this morning? 29. It is very fine weather. 30. Is it too warm? 31. It is neither too warm nor too cold. 31. Does it snow every day? 35. It does not snow every day, but it snows very often.

5. Il y a means there is, or there are, and may be followed by 32. Is it going to freeze? 33. It is going to snow. a singular or plural noun [§ 61 (2)].

Il y a du gibier au marché,

Il y a des pommes dans votre jardin,

There is game in the market.

There are apples in your garden.

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Il ne pleut pas, il neige.

Il va pleuvoir ce matin.
Ne gele-t-il pas ce matin?

Il ne gèle pas, il fait du brouillard.
Y a-t-il du sucre chez vous?
Il y en a beaucoup chez mon frère.
Ya-t-il plusieurs personnes chez

Il y a plus de cent personnes.

Ny a-t-il personne à l'église?
Il n'y a encore personne.
Est-il trop tôt ?

Au contraire, il est trop tard.
Fait-il froid ou chaud aujourd'hui?
Il fait chaud et humide.
Fait-il-du vent ou du brouillard ?
Il fait un temps bien désagréable.

Does it rain this morning
It does not rain, it snows.
It is going to rain this morning.
Does it not freeze this morning?
It does not freeze, it is foggy.
Is there any sugar at your house?
There is a great deal at my brother's.
Are there several persons at my

There are more than one hundred


Is there nobody at church?
There is as yet no one there.
Is it too soon?

On the contrary, it is too late.
Is it cold or warm to-day?
It is warm and damp.
Is it windy or joggy

It is very disagreeable weather.

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1. Quel temps fait-il aujourd'hui ? 2. Il fait un temps superbe. 3. Fait-il très-beau temps aujourd'hui ? 4. Il fait un temps couvert et humide. 5. Pleut-il beaucoup ce matin? 6. Il ne pleut pas encore, mais il va pleuvoir. 7. Fait-il du vent ou du brouillard? 8. Il ne fait pas de vent. 9. Le brouillard est très-épais. 10. Combien de personnes y a-t-il à Fassemblée ? 11. Il y a plus de deux cents (Sect. XIX. 7) per12. Ny a-t-il pas beaucoup de manuscrits dans votre bibliothèque ? 13. Il n'y en a pas beaucoup, il n'y en a que


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Le crayon est dans le pupitre,
Mettez cette lettre dans votre

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6. En, after the verbs to be, to go, to reside, followed by the name of a part of the earth, a country, or province, gives the preposition to the force of in or into.

Notre ami est en France,
Vous allez en Italie,

Our friend is in France.
You go to Italy.

7. The preposition à is used for the words at or to, in or into, before the name of a town, city, or village, preceded by the verbs mentioned above.

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as well as her sister? 28. She reads better than her sister, but her sister reads better than I. 29. Is there any one at your house? 30. My father is at home. 31. Is your brother-in-law absent ? 32. My brother-in-law is at your house. 33. There is no one at home to-day.

SECTION XXXIV.-THE INDEFINITE PRONOUN ON, ETC. 1. The indefinite pronoun on has no exact equivalent in English. It may be rendered by one, we, they, people, etc., according to the context. On has, of course, no antecedent, and seldom refers to a particular person [§ 41 (4) (5), § 113]. We should honour virtue. Money is brought to us.

On doit honorer la vertu,

He writes well enough and rapidly On nous apporte de l'argent, enough.

We have books enough.

We are attentive enough to our les


Voilà la demoiselle dont vous There is the young lady of whom you parlez. speak.

Votre cheval n'est-il pas dans le Is not your horse in the field?

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1. Écrivez-vous encore la même leçon ? 2. Je n'écris plus la même, j'en écris une autre. 3. Votre commis écrit-il rapidement ? 4. Il écrit fort bien, mais il n'écrit pas vite. 5. N'avez6. J'ai assez vous pas assez d'argent pour acheter cette terre ? d'argent, mais j'ai l'intention de faire un voyage en France. 7. Voilà votre livre, en avez-vous besoin? 8. Je n'en ai pas besoin, j'en ai un autre. 9. Avez-vous encore besoin de mon canif? 10. Je n'en ai plus besoin, je vais vous le rendre. 11. Notre cousin demeure-t-il à la ville ? 12. Il ne demeure plus à la ville, il demeure à la campagne. 13. Aime-t-il aller à la chasse? 14. Il n'aime pas aller à la chasse. 15. Il va tous les jours à la pêche. 16. Notre associé est-il à Paris ou à Rouen ? 17. Il est à Marseille. 18. Où avez-vous l'intention de conduire votre fils? 19. Je vais le conduire en Italie. 20. Demeurez-vous à Milan ou à Florence? 21. Je ne demeure ni à Milan ni à Florence, je demeure à Turin. 22. Votre ami demeure-t-il en Suisse ? 23. Il ne demeure plus en Suisse, il demeure en Prusse. 24. Votre domestique est-il à l'église? 25. Non, Monsieur, il est à l'école.


1. Does your clerk write as well as your son? 2. He writes tolerably well, but not so well as my son. 3. Have you books enough in your library? 4. I have not books enough, but I intend to buy some more. 5. Here is your sister's letter, will 6. I intend to read it. 7. Does your son like to you read it? go fishing? 8. He likes to go fishing and hunting. 9. When does he like to go fishing? 10. When I am in the country. 11. What do you do when you are in the city? 12. When I am in the city, I read and learn my lessons. 13. Do you intend to go to France this year? 14. I intend to go to Germany. 15. Will you go to the city if it rains? 16. When it rains I always remain at home [R. 1]. 17. How many friends have you in the city? 18. I have many friends there. 19. Are there many English in France? 20. There are many English in nce and in Italy. 21. Are there more English in Germany Italy? 22. There are more English in Italy than in 23. Is it fine weather in Italy? 24. It is very fine here ? 25. Does it often freeze there ? 26. It freezes is there, but not often. 27. Does that young lady read

2. As may be seen in the last example, on is often the nominative of an active verb, which is best rendered in English by the passive [§ 113 (1)].

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1. Vous apporte-t-on de l'argent tous les jours? 2. On ne m'en apporte pas tous les jours. 3. Vous fournit-on des habits quand vous en avez besoin? [Sect. XXI.] 4. On m'en fournit 5. A-t-on besoin toutes les fois (every time) que j'en ai besoin. d'argent quand on est malade? 6. Quand on est malade, on en a grand besoin. 7. Avez-vous reçu des nouvelles de mon fils? 9. Ne dit-on pas qu'il 8. Je n'ai point reçu de ses nouvelles. est en Afrique? 10. On dit qu'il doit partir pour Alger. 11. Quand doit-il commencer son voyage? 12. On dit qu'il doit le commencer le mois prochain. 13. Ce mariage a-t-il lieu

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