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Adventus, -ūs, m.,

advent, coming. Amicitia, -æ, f., friendship.

Rarus, -a, -um, rare, seldom.

the opposite sexes. Our readers will notice that, in pursuance | 7. By the solace of hope the mind of a sage is refreshed. 8. We ought of the plan laid down in the last lesson, our copy-slips convey not to lose virtue in the miseries of life. 9. The wretchedness of the the knowledge of some fact, scriptural, historical, geographical, condition beats down the man. 10. He loses the hope of a happier time, or chronological. Each may serve, too, as the basis or foundaVOCABULARY. tion-stone of a theme or essay, and excite inquiry into the Debeo, 2, I owe. condition of the countries or the history of the personages that Etiam, conj., also. are mentioned therein. Exemplum, -i, n., an example. Exspecto, or expecto, 1, I expect, await. Fides, -ei, f., fidelity. Incorruptus, -a, -um, Convoco, 1, I call incorrupt. together. Portus, -ûs, m., Cupide, adv.,desiringly. harbour, port.



ALL the nouns of the fifth declension end in es in the nomina-
tive singular. This ending arises from the addition of the
termination s to the characteristic vowel of the stem-namely,
ē, which thus becomes es. This characteristic vowel è appears
in all the cases. The ablative ending in ĕ is blended with the
e of the stem. All the nouns of this declension are feminine,
except dies, a day, and its compound, meridies, mid-day, the
south. Dies, in good prose, is used as a feminine only when it
signifies generally a time, or duration, or a fixed day, an ap-
pointed time; as dies dicta, dies constituta, an appointed day;
longa dies, a long period; damnosa dies, a time of suffering; dies
perexigua, a very brief period. In the plural, dies and meridies
are masculine.

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Avolo, 1, I'fly away.
Cito, adv., quickly.
Conquiesco, 3, I am at

Salus, -ūtis, f., health,
Serenus, -a, -um, serene,
fine, bright.
Servo, 1, I keep.
Tristis, -e, sad.
Tutus, -a, -um, safe.

a Ver, veris, n., spring.
Verus, -a, -um, true.


1. Amicitiae fides animum recreat in ærumnis vitæ. 2. Veræ amicitiæ exempla rara sunt. 3. Amicorum fidei debemus salutem in adversis rebus. 4. Verus amicus etiam in ærumnis vitæ servat fidem. 5. Fides etiam miseris portum parat. 6. Paratur mihi portus tutus. conquiescit. 9. Veris adventus suavis est. 7. Incorruptus amicus rarus est in rebus adversis. 8. In fide amicorum 10. Cito avolat dies. 11. Dies sereni rari sunt in vere. 12. Die constitutà milites in urbem convocat. 13. Certă die amici in domum meam convocantur. 14. Tristes sunt dies miserorum.


1. True friends keep fidelity in the miseries of life. 2. The fidelity of friendship is not a vain hope. 3. Is the fidelity of an incorrupt friend a rare example? 4. In adversity we owe (are indebted for) a port to true friends. 5. The solace of true friendship calls together 6. Fine days quickly fly away. friends. 7. On a certain day the generals call together (their) bands. 8. The soldiers are called together by the king on an appointed day. 9. I await the coming of spring desiringly. 10. A sad day in spring is rare.

We have now gone through the five declensions; and here present, in a tabular view, the several variations

Only two words in this declension-namely, res and dies- NUMBER. CASes. I. have all the cases in both the singular and the plural; all other words are without the genitive, dative, and ablative plural. Species is commonly added to res and dies, as having all the cases, but Cicero pronounces the genitive and dative of species as not good Latin.

Of the following nouns, only the nominative and accusative plural are found in good prose writers :--

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1. Spes est incerta et dubia. 2. Vis spei est magna in animis hominum. 3. Nonne magna est vis spei in animo tuo? 4. Facile indulgent spei vane pueri. 5. Spem feliciorum temporum non debemus amittere in ærumnis vitæ. 6. O spes, dulci solatio animos miserorum hominum recreas! 7. Spe vanȧ sæpe fallimur. 8. Res humanæ sunt incerta et dubiæ. 9. Conditio rerum humanarum est dubia. 10. Rebus adversis virtutem debes opponere. 11. Sapiens non extimescit res adversas. 12. O, res humanæ, quam sæpe animos hominum fallitis ! 13. Animus sapientis non afflictatur rebus



1. The hope of life is uncertain. 2. The hope of a long life is vain. 3. I refresh my mind with hope. 4. The wise man is not easily beaten down in wretchedness. 5. Adversity beats down the minds of brave men. 6. The minds of brave men are beaten down by adversity.

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Nom. -a
Gen. -00

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-ibus, ubus -ebus -us, -ua -es

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Hiems, hiemis, f.,

Humidus, -a, -um,
humid, wet.
Humus, i, f., the
ground or soil.
Infidus, -a, -um, un-

limpid, bright.
Lubricus, -a, -um, slip- Profundus, -a, -um,


1. Play is pleasant to boys. 2. There are various kinds of play. 3. Magnificus, -a, -um, Quies, quietis, f., rest, Boys willingly indulge in play. 4. Is not play pleasant to boys. 5. magnificent. Morōsus, -a, -um,

morose, ill-tempered. Nemo, neminis, c., no


Nox, noctis, f., night." Insperatas, -a, -um, Nunquam, adv., never. unhoped for. Palus, palūdis, f., a marsh.

Latinus, -a, -um, Latin.
Lépus, -oris, m., a hare.
Ligneus, -a, -um,

-a, -um,

Semper, adv., always.
Sempiternus, -a, -um,

Sermo,-õnis, m., speech.
Sitis, -is, f., thirst.
Tardus, -a, -um, slow.
-2, -um,
tumid, swelling.
Ultimus, -a, -um,the last.

Pavidus, -a, -um, fear- Tumidus,
ful, timid.


1. Est mihi amicus fidus et carus. 2. Infidus est servus tuus. 3. Terra est rotunda. 4. Vera amicitia est sempiterna. 5. Fames et sitis sunt molesta. 6. Avarus nunquam est contentus. 7. Rex est potens. 8. Gradus tuus tardus est. 9. Virtus patris tui est eximia. 10. Fons est clarus et gelidus. 11. Nomen clarum est ducibus. 12. Amnis limpidus delectat omnes. 13. Cervo sunt alta cornua. 14. Res est magna et insolita. 15. Hic sunt vasta paludes. 16. Opes credula fallit pueros. 17. Hominibus exigua est dies. 18. Nemo semper felix est. 19. Glacies est lubrica. 20. Pons ligneus custoditur. 21. Non omnes milites sunt fortes. 22. Magnificæ porticus defenduntur. Portus est commodus. 24. Dentibus acutis edimus. 25. Nox est longa et frigida. 26. Bonus laudatur, improbus vituperatur. 27. Senectus sæpe est morosa. 28. Insperata salus venit. 29. Mare est vastum, profundum, tumidum. 30. Quies valde exoptata facile amit

Play is pleasant to me. 6. Play is exceedingly pleasant to thee. 7. Grave men avoid boyish plays (games). 8. O play, how sweetly thou delightest boys' minds! 9. Kings are not delighted with boyish play. 10. The senses are keen. 11. I have keen senses. 12. Great is the power of the senses. 13. Is the power of the senses great ? 14. A brave man does not yield to feelings of pain. 15. Beasts have keen senses. 16. O ye senses, how great pleasure you procure for (occasion) men! 17. The animals are endowed with senses.


1. Sensus doloris est amarus. 2. Estne amarus tibi doloris sensus ? 3. Omnibus hominibus et omnibus animalibus sensus doloris est amarus. 4. Magna est luctus vis. 5. Sapiens vi sensuum non vincitur. 6. Fortis luctui non cedit. 7. Fortesne vi sensuum cedunt? 8. O luctus, quam vincis hominum animos! 9. Pueri libenter indulgent lusui. 10. Multa genera sunt lusūs. 11. Lusus omnis generis grati sunt pueris et puellis. 12. Viros non delectant pueriles lusus. 13. Viri puerili lusu non delectantur. 14. Indulgent voluptati pueri et homines. 15. Quam magnopere evitatur luctus a liberis. 16. Arcubus

et sagittis delectant pueri. 17. Acubus delectant puellæ.

1. The terrible thunder greatly moves the minds of men. 2. Is not
the sound of thunder terrible ?
3. The roaring of thunder is frightful.
4. Thunder is frightful. 5. Lightning precedes thunder. 6. Many
men fear thunder. 7. Thunder is feared by many men. 8. O thunder,
how frightful is thy roaring! 9. The house resounds with the
thunder. 10. Men's knees are strong. 11. The vigour of the knees
indicates the strength of the body. 12. The knees have great
strength. 13. Suppliants fall on (their) knees. 14. O knees, how
much you tremble! 15. In the knees there is great strength.

titur. 31. Sermonem Latinum discimus. 32. Nonne doces Græcam

linguam ? 33. Gentes barbara remotæ sunt. 34. Lepores pavidi evolant. 35. Flos est caducus. 36. Hora ultima venit. 37. Incertæ sunt divitiæ. 38. Mores antiquos amat mater mea. 39. Verba tua sunt dura. 40. Quam humida est humus! 41. Non facile in hieme agri arantur.


1. Faithful friends are loved. 2. I have great riches. 3. They lose wished-for friendship. 4. The ground is wet. 5. Wet ground injures. 6. Hares have sharp teeth. 7. With sharp teeth we all eat. 8. Thy soldiers are brave. 9. Are thy father's soldiers brave? 10. They delight in (abl.) credulous hope. 11. The horns of the bull are strong. 12. The virtues of the king are remarkable. 13. How beauti


ful is the portico. 14. You ought to learn Latin. 15. Men fear the
last hour. 16. The house is guarded by a strong band. 17. Avaricious
men are avoided. 18. Ill-tempered women are never loved. 19. The
ill-tempered are troublesome. 20. Is friendship eternal ? 21. Hope is
eternal. 22. How slow are thy steps! 23. Ice is slippery in winter.
24. No one loves hunger and thirst. 25. Quiet quickly flies away.
The harbour is convenient for ships. 27. The fearful are never safe.
28. Art thou satisfied with the speech of thy father? 29. They strike
a powerful prince. 30. Falling flowers are gathered (lego, 3). 31. He
gathers flowers in the march. 32. The Greek language is beautiful.
83, Swelling seas are often found. 34. The rest and solace of true
friendship are wished for. 35. No one is always happy.


1. Hominis genu validum est. 2. Validis genibus est vigor. 3. Suntne valida genua tua? 4. Silvæ resonant horribili sonu tonitrūs. 5. Sonus tonitrus animalia permovet. 6. Tonitru a validis bestiis extimescitur. 7. Sunt mihi debilia genua. 8. Suntne patri tuo debilia genua? 9. Non; valida genua sunt patri meo. 10. Permoveor multo fulmine. 11. Fremitus tonitrus supplices permovent. 12. Supplex pulchram domum indicat.


IN the last two lessons we have dwelt altogether upon the treatment of shadows, which belong more especially to flat surfaces, as they come more commonly under our general observation, and are found to be under the most simple conditions. We now propose to enter upon the consideration of shadows connected with convex and concave or curved surfaces, where we have to represent the relief and rotundity of an object. These require a different style of treatment to those on a flat or evenly-shaded surface. For flat shadows-namely, those on the sides of walls, or on the ground-we have employed straight lines only, without crossing them with other straight lines, and thus produce either dark or light shades by making the lines broader, or closer together, or wider apart, as the tone of the shadow required; but with rounded forms we must adopt the practice of crossing lines by others, straight lines by straight, and curved lines by curved, making the lines to follow the course of curvature, which, independently of the tone employed, materially assist us in proMagnificent, magnifi- ducing the effect of rounded forms. The first essay will be a

To how large an extent Latin words enter into the composition of our present English is strikingly seen in the last Vocabulary. These words found therein have their English representatives.

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Infidel, infidelity.

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Profound, profundity.
Quiet, quietness,
Rotund, rotundity.
Sempiternus Sempiternal.
Tumidus Tumid, tumidity, tu-


Humid, humidity.
The student of Latin will be greatly assisted if, before he
attempts to commit a Latin word to memory, he tries to find an
English word which is derived from it, and with which he may

associate it in his mind.

flat tint, for which the pupil must use a B or B B pencil with a tolerably broad point. Fig. 82 is a series of regular perpendicular lines crossed over with inclined lines at a very acute angle with the perpendicular; the angle of inclination may be understood by referring to the crossed lines, a (we caution the pupil at present against crossing the lines at right angles, thereby producing a kind of rectangular network); this first example must be repeated over and over again until it is mastered. The first difficulty will be to draw the lines equidistant from each other, so that the intervals between them be uniformly regular, both with regard to the first-drawn perpendicular lines and those which cross them. In the next place, the beginner will at first be almost certain to make some of his lines broader, some darker than others. To avoid this, he must endeavour to use equal pressure; and then again, probably, they will not be parallel with each other. To overcome all these

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little impediments to progress, he will require very considerable practice before he thinks of attempting the next step in shading, which differs from that already explained in the manner of drawing the line.

It will be noticed that in Fig. 82 the learner placed the pencil upon the paper before he began to draw each line, nor was it taken off until the line was finished; in fact, it was very much like drawing a number of downward strokes like the "straight stroke" in Copy-slip No. 25, in our Lessons in Penmanship (page 117). The kind of line we are now considering is one that must have no perceptible beginning or ending, where the pencil either commences the movement for drawing the line before it touches

the paper, as a (Fig. 83) or as b, where, at the termination, the pencil is gradually raised from the paper; or as c, where the manner of a and b is combined; that is, where the line commences imperceptibly and ends imperceptibly, first, by lowering the pencil in an inclined direction to the paper at the commencement, and by raising it gradually at the end before leaving off, so that the strength of the line when completed is in the middle. Curved lines drawn in the same way must also be repeatedly practised. The straight lines (Fig. 82) are for flat tints, back grounds, etc.; the curved lines are employed for rounded forms.

After the pupil has mastered the manner of drawing these various kinds of line, he may then proceed to cross them, as in


Fig. 84, observing again that he must not as yet cross them at right angles. Perhaps he may ask, why not as yet? is there any decided objection to lines crossed at right angles? Certainly not, when done by an experienced hand; but the reason why we object to his crossing them in that way at present is because he will have first to acquire the power of making all his lines equal in tone, thickness, and strength, and at regular intervening distances; and this we know will demand all the thought and care he can bestow for a while before he must attempt to cross them in any direction.

The reason for commencing the line (as shown at b, Fig. 83) firmly, and then gradually lifting up the pencil when drawing

lines for an even tint of shade of some extent is, that we may continue the line by the manner of c, so that the extremities of these lines as they lap over one another may form an even line without any perceptible joint. Very probably it may be necessary to repeat the example c many times successively (but this depends upon the extent of the shadow), and then we finally end with the example a. Let the pupil draw a square of about four or five inches' side, and fill it up by this method of making an even shade tint. If he were to work the whole space with continued portions similar to Fig. 82, the joints of these portions would show, and spoil the tint; the edge, b c (Fig. 82), would be shown across the shadow as many times as the portion was repeated.

be guided by his own judgment, which the more it is exercised the keener will be his perception of the tone of a shadow or reflection by comparing it with other shadows and reflections, for by comparison only we can undertake to say how dark or how light a tint must be.

Believing the pupil now to be master of the method of draw-tone to be given to these portions of the shadow, the pupil must ing a single line under any one of the conditions above named, whether straight or carved, we will proceed to apply them, or rather to combine them so as to form tints required in shading. Of course we can do little for the pupil towards helping him in his judgment regarding the tones of shadows; his own observation must be his guide in deciding how dark or how light a shadow is. Shadows and tones must be compared with one another, because the circumstances surrounding them will so far influence their intensity that it would be impossible to give rules for shadows under all conditions. They are so varied and so changeable that we can do no more than give him a few general principles to guide his practice.

We have said before that cast shadows are, for certain reasons already given, generally darker than broad shadows; we will add now that the highest light and darkest shadow are together; and as the strength of the light upon an object or collection of objects gradually diminishes, so the depth or intensity of the anadows diminishes also. Take an example:-Place a chair near to a window, and another chair in the part of the room farthest from the window; the light which falls upon the chair near to the window will be much stronger than that which falls upon the farther chair. Observe the broad shadows and the cast shadows from the legs upon the ground, the latter especially, of the first chair. Compare them with the corresponding shadows of the second chair, or that farthest from the window. We venture to say, without more comment, that the pupil will have seen enough from this experiment to satisfy him upon this point. This principle of the darkest shadow being near to the highest light is found to be the same respecting the shadow on a ball (Fig. 85), or on the side of a column (Fig. 86), and in thousands of cases besides, so numerous that we need not look far for examples. The great difficulty in shading is the management of the half tints. Any one can make an extreme shade of black; and if the right feeling for half tints and semi-tones is not a natural one-something analogous to that of a good ear for music-it can be to a great extent acquired, though in some cases it will demand a much greater amount of practical experience and observation than in others before they begin to perceive the many varieties of tone which are spread upon the surface of an object, especially if it be an irregular one. But when we have to add colour in connection with light and shade, we go farther into a field of change and variety that is unbounded. And here is the test of the painter. It is the management of the minor tones which makes all the difference between a first-rate artist and a common country sign-painter. The latter may paint a red cow sufficiently well to answer the purpose of giving a title to the village alehouse. We will grant that he has the ability to make a tolerable representation of the animal in outline, but when he attempts to paint it he will do nothing more than fill up the outline with red, and darken the parts in shade with black, because he can see nothing further; but the eye of the true artist would seize upon the innumerable tints spread all over the surface the various degrees of colour influenced by the position and strength of the light, some parts more brilliant, some more subdued, intermingled with greys of various hues in every portion-added to which are the reflections of colour and of light amongst the shadows, some warm, some cold: in short, to name all the changes and tones that would require his especial attention can only be done by him who is able to paint them. Here, then, is the secret why one painter is greater than another; and their comparative excellence is determined by their ability to perceive and represent few or many of the infinite varieties of tones scattered over every object in Nature.

It will be readily seen, on referring to Figs. 85, 86, and 87,where curved lines in working the shadows are used in preference to straight ones, and, on the contrary, where straight are preferred to curved; curved lines must be used to represent curved surfaces, either convex or concave. The ball (Fig. 85), is altogether shaded by curved lines, which render such important service in giving effect to rounded forms. Straight lines are the principal composing lines of the shadow on the cylinder (Fig. 86). On account of its uniformity of surface and because it is perpendicular, perpendicular lines are employed; whilst the apparent lity of the cylinder is made to depend upon the tone of the ther than upon the lines which compose it; the shadow reflection, its deep shade, and its half tint, the last o the highest light. As to the proper strength of

Fig. 87 is drawn from a cast of a geranium leaf, where a mixture of lines is employed, some more curvilineal than others, according to the rotundity of the surface to be copied; for it must be observed that in proportion as a rounded surface approaches the flat, so will it require straighter lines to represent it.

In a former lesson we mentioned the stump, an instrument used for laying on a tint by rubbing; this may be used for the first instalment of a shadow, that is, for rubbing in a flat tint over the broader and more decided parts of the shadow, the whole being afterwards passed over by the line method. In using the stump, the tint must not be made as dark as the shadow ought to be when finished, nor must it be carried into the half tones uniting the shade with the high light. An effect can be much more readily produced with the stump, but the danger is lest the shadows should be made dirty or cloudy. After a little experience this method will be found to be quicker than doing it altogether by lines, inasmuch as it saves a little labour; but the shadows must be passed over with lines after the stump has laid the foundation, otherwise all the crispness, clearness of tone, and definite precision of character will be sacrificed. We strongly advise the pupil to provide himself with a few plaster casts of leaves, fruit, and ornament. The advantages of casts are many. They can be placed in any light, and they present so many different views that they may be said to be inexhaustible copies.



DERIVATIONS: PREFIXES (continued). PAUSING for a moment in the details of our subject, I would Take the word ask you whether you know what words are. father. What is it? Father, as it stands here on the page, is a combination of straight and curved lines. What does the combination of lines represent ? A combination of sounds. What does the combination of sounds represent? A state of mind; a mental conception. What does the mental conception represent? An external object; an external object that has the quality of being a father, or that bears the relation which we designate by the term father. So then the whole connection between an external object and the written or printed name of this book may be set forth thus:-Lines make letters; letters make syllables; syllables make words; words represent sounds; sounds represent ideas; ideas represent outward objects-that is, persons or things. Consequently, objects are the basis of language; ideas are its essence; sounds are its medium, and lines are its forms. These outward objects, and internal realities, are set forth by signs,-signs made by the mouth-signs made by the hand. The lips, then, and the fingers are the interpreters of the person. What progress in civilisation is implied in this connection of the pen with the mind and with the universe; the pen describing, and the press diffusing, so as to be univer sally understood, the most subtle of all essences; states of thought and feeling; and the widest, as well as the wisest of all generalisations which we term the laws of God, or God's own operations in the government of the universe! The study of language, thus viewed, is the study of the mind of man, as well as the study of the works and the will of God. Deep and mysterious study, worthy of our best powers, and sure to be attended by an ample reward! And if the study of language is the study of the human mind, and the Divine mind in their activity and their utterances, then no one who has not made some proficiency in the study is, or can be, competent to interpret or expound man's will or God's will, profane or sacred literature. To resume our subject:

Olig, of Greek origin (oλyos, pronounced ol'-i-gos, a few), is the first part of oligarchy (Greek, apxn, pronounced ar-ke, government), government by a few; oligarch, one of a small number of rulers.

Omni, of Latin origin (omnis, all), is seen in omniscient (Latin, scio, I know), all-knowing; omnipotent (Latin, potens, powerful), all-powerful; omnipresent, existing everywhere; omnivorous, alldevouring.

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