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No loud laugh broke upon the silent air,
To tell the wanderers man was nestling there.

The dead leaves strew the forest walk,

And withered are the pale wild flowers;

The frost hangs blackening on the stalk,
The dew-drops fall in frozen showers :-

Gone are the spring's green sprouting bowers.
Gone summer's rich and mantling vines;

And autumn, with her yellow hours,
On hill and plain no longer shines.

What is human life, but a waking dream,-a long reverie-in which we walk as "in a vain show, and disquiet ourselves for naught?" In childhood we are surrounded by a dim, unconscious present, in which all palpable realities seem for ever to elude our grasp; in youth, we are but gazing into the far future of that life for which we are consciously preparing; in manhood, we are lost in ceaseless activity and enterprise, and already looking forward to a season of quiet and repose, in which we are to find ourselves, and listen to a voice within; and in old age, we are dwelling on the shadows of the past, and gilding them with the evanescent glow which emanates from the setting sun of life.

Rule 4 and Note 1.-"Simple commencing series."

The old and the young are alike exposed to the shafts of Death. The healthy, the temperate, and the virtuous, enjoy the true relish of pleasure.

Birth, rank, wealth, learning, are advantages of slight value, if unaccompanied by personal worth.

Gentleness, patience, kindness, candour, and courtesy, form the elements of every truly amiable character.

Sympathy, disinterestedness, magnanimity, generosity, liberality, and self-forgetfulness, are qualities which universally secure the esteem and admiration of mankind.

"Compound Commencing Series."

In a rich soil, and under a soft climate, the weeds of luxury will spring up amid the flowers of art.

All the wise instructions of the lawgiver, all the doctrines of the sage, all the ennobling strains of the poet, had perished in the ear, like a dream related, if letters had not preserved them.

The dimensions and distances of the planets, the causes of their revolutions, the path of comets, and the ebbing and flowing of tides, are now understood and explained.

The mighty pyramid, half buried in the sands of Africa, has nothing to bring down and report to us, but the power of kings, and the servitude of the people. It asked for its moral object, its admonition, its sentiment, its instruction to mankind, or any high end in its erection, it is silent;-silent as the millions which lie in the dust at its base, and in the catacombs which surround it.

Yes, let me be frèe; t let me go and come at my own will; let me do business, and make journeys, without a vexatious police or insolent soldiery to watch my steps; let me think, and do, and speak what I please, subject to no limit but that which is set by the common Wal; subject to no law but that which conscience binds upon me; and I will bless my country, and love its most rugged rocks, and its most barren soil.

Exception 3.-" Poetic and pathetic series."

Wheresoe'er thy lot command,

Brother, pilgrim, stránger,
God is ever near at hand,

Golden shield from danger.
Rocks of granite, gates of brass,
Alps to heaven soaring,
Bow, to let the wishes pass
Of a soul imploring.

Falling slide of contrast to the preceding clause.

All the emphatic series, even in suppositive and conditional expression, being, like enumeration, cumulative in effect, and corresponding, therefore, to climax in style, are properly read with a preFalling downward slide in the "suspensive" or slight form, which belongs to incomplete but energetic expression, and avoids, accordingly, the low inflection of cadence at a period.

Emphasis, and length of clause, may substitute the "moderate" falling slide for the slight "suspensive" one. But the tone, in such cases, will still be perfectly free from the descent of a cadence, which belongs only to the period.

From the phantoms of the night,

Dreaming horror, pale affright,

Thoughts which rack the slumbering breast,
Fears which haunt the realm of rest,

And the wounded mind's remorse,

And the tempter's secret force,

Hide us 'neath Thy mercy's shade.

From the stars of heaven, and the flowers of earth;

From the pageant of power, and the voice of mirth;
From the mist of the morn on the mountain's brow;
From childhood's song, and affection's vow;
From all save that o'er which soul bears sway,
There breathes but one record,-" passing away!"

When the summer exhibits the whole force of active nature, and shines in full beauty and splendour; when the succeeding season offers its "purple stores and golden grain," or displays its blended and softened tints; when the winter puts on its sullen aspect, and brings stillness and repose, affording a respite from the labours which have occupied the preceding months, inviting us to reflection, and compensating for the want of attractions abroad, by fireside delights and home-felt jóys; in all this interchange and variety, we find reason to acknowledge the wise and benevolent care of the God of seasons.

In that solemn hour, when exhausted nature can no longer sustain itself; when the light of the eye is waxing dim; when the pulse of life is becoming low and faint; when the breath labours, and the tongue falters; when the shadow of death is falling on all outward things, and darkness is beginning to gather over the faces of the loved ones who are weeping by his bedside, a ray of immortal hope is beaming from his features: it is a Christian who is expiring.

Note 2.-"Repeated and heightening rising inflection."

I ask, will you in silence permit this invasion of your rights, at once wanton, mischievous, uncalled for, and unuécessary? Will you patiently tolerate the annihilation of all freedom,-the appointment of a supreme dictátor, who may, at his will, suspend all your rights, liberties, and privileges? Will you, without a murmur of dissent, submit to a tyranny which nearly equals that of the Russian autocrat, and is second to that of Bonaparte ? *

"Repeated and increasing falling inflection."+

Was it the winter's stórm, beating upon the houseless heads of women and children; was it hard labour and spare meals; was it disease; was it the tomahawk; was it the deep malady of a blighted hope, a ruined enterprise, and a broken heart;-was it some, or all of these united, that hurried this forsaken company to their melancholy fate ?

Yes, after he has destroyed my belief in the superintending providence of God,-after he has taught me that the prospect of an herenourished in me a contempt for that sacred volume which alone throws after is but the baseless fabric of a vision,-after he has bred and

light over this benighted world,-after having argued me out of my faith by his sophistries, or laughed me out of it by his ridicule,—after having thus wrung from my soul every drop of consolation, and dried up my very spirit within me;-yes, after having accomplished this in the season of my health and my prosperity, the sceptic would come to me while I mourn, and treat me like a drivelling idiot, whom he may sport with, because he has ruined me, and to whom, in the plenitude of his compassion-too late and too unavailing-he may talk of truths in which he himself does not believe, and which he has long exhorted me, and has at last persuaded me, to cast away as the dreams and delusions of human folly.

OUR HOLIDAY.

GYMNASTICS.-VII.

THE gymnastic exercises to which we have hitherto directed our attention have been chiefly those in which poles, bars, and similar wooden contrivances have formed the apparatus. We now come to another series, in which the use of ropes forms a principal feature; and these will be found to be as greatly diversified as the class before described, ranging from the simplest exercises on the hanging rope to those on the trapeze, etc.

THE HANGING ROPE.

By the hanging rope is meant one suspended either from the ceiling of an apartment, or from a cross-beam between two

The inflection of any clause always lies on the emphatic word ; and, if that word is a polysyllable, on the accented syllable chiefly, although not always exclusively.

This inflection both begins higher, and ends lower, every time it is repeated.

upright supports, without any other appendage. This contrivance, simple as it is, will afford an amusing as well as highly beneficial help to the young gymnast, if he be rightly instructed in its use. The first thing to be attended to is, that the rope-a good stout one, capable of being easily grasped in the hands-should be very firmly fixed in its position. It will not do to risk the chance of a heavy fall to the ground, at a time when, to the strain caused by the weight of the body, may be added that derived from rapid motion. If the learner be practising in private, and is not an adept in such matters, it is well to consult an experienced carpenter, in the first place, as to the strength of the beam to which the rope is to be attached, and next as to the best manner of securing it. A strong iron hook will sometimes suffice, but it is better to have the rope affixed to a swivel, by which abrasion of the rope, and its consequent insecurity, are prevented.

nastic training and amusement. To those who are not fami liar with it, its nature will be made clear by our illustration (Fig. 24). An upright post, some twenty feet in height, is firmly fixed in the ground, and usually supported by solid wooden buttresses at the foot. That part of the post which is buried in the earth should be charred, by which means rotting is in great measure prevented. To the top of the post is affixed a revolving iron disc, which works round freely upon a pivot; and to this disc four or five ropes are attached, as shown in the engraving. At the end of each rope is a ring, or in some cases a small bar of wood, which the gymnast grasps with both hands.

Fig. 23. THE HANGING ROPE.

Several exercises may be performed on the hanging rope. The gymnast may begin by practising (1) the swing, grasping the rope two or three feet from its extremity, and swinging backwards and forwards with greater or less velocity; at first with the legs almost perpendicular, next bent by raising the knees upward, and lastly stretched forward in the horizontal position, as depicted in our illustration (Fig. 23). This is a capital exercise for the development of the muscles of the body, without subjecting it to any undue strain.

2. The learner may now attempt the leap, which is performed easily enough in open ground, but is unsuited to an apartment, unless it be a very spacious one. Take the rope as far back from the perpendicular as its length will allow, keeping your face towards it, and holding it with arms extended above your head; then throw yourself forward with a spring, and, as you reach the full limit to which the length of the rope will carry you, relinquish your grasp, and alight easily upon your feet. Or, instead of simply coming to the ground in this manner, you may have a bench or stand placed near the spot at which you would so descend, and clear this mark by the forward impulse the body has acquired at the moment in which the rope leaves

your hands. Turning a summersault from the rope is sometimes practised, but this feat is dangerous, and we do not think it necessary to enlarge upon it.

3. Climbing the rope is not so easy as it might appear to the uninitiated. Commence by making a firm grasp, with the left hand a foot or so higher than the right; then make a spring up the rope, while you change the position of the hands, bringing the right now in the ascendant. Cross the heels over the rope, and hold it as tightly as you can by this means, to assist the purchase which the hands have acquired. Inflate the lungs before making each successive effort, by which means you will rise with greater facility.

The exercises with the ropes attached to this apparatus partake of the nature of the swing and the leap, described in the earlier portion of this paper. They may mostly be performed either forwards, sidewards, or backwards; that is, with the face to the upright pole, or with the shoulder towards it, or with the back turned to it, as in the illustration. They are practised, as will be seen, with the rope at the fullest angle to which it is capable of being extended; and how to keep the rope at this angle is the first difficulty to the learner. If he allow the rope to return too much towards the perpendicular, he will find himself scraping the ground, in a manner which will quicken, although it may not improve, his sensations. To avoid this he should keep the weight of the body as far as possible in the same line as the direction of the rope, bearing away, with as much force as he can spare, from the upright post in the centre. Stretching the rope out to the angle, and with his shoulder at

Fig. 2.-THE GIANT'S STRIDE.

first towards the post, he commences by taking a forward swing which describes an arc of about one-fourth of the circumfer ence of the circle, touching the ground with his feet when this distance is completed, and then continuing the movement as before until the circle is completed; or he may go completely round in two such evolutions. This leap, or stride, is the movement from which the apparatus takes its name. When he has become accustomed to the use of the rope in this manner, and has acquired the knack of keeping the rope extended, he may describe the circle in one continuous movement; and he may afterwards per form the flying leap by going round and round the pole as many times successively as his powers and skill will allow. He may then perform the same movements by starting with his face towards the pole; or he may swing round it with his body bearing in the opposite direction, as shown in Fig. 24.

The apparatus of the Giant's Stride will allow two or more persons to prac tise the foregoing movements at the same time; but it is necessary in this case that they should possess some acquaintance with the proper use of the ropes, in order that they may avoid coming into collision with each other.

Instead of touching the ground with both feet in the series of strides or leaps which we have just described, the gymvary the exercise by performing the He then starts from one leg-either the right or the left, but practising from each alternately-and comes to the ground on the same foot as he progresses round

We have now said enough of the hanging rope, and will pass on to a contrivance which is very nast may sometimes similar in character, although more complicated in construc-hopping movement. tion. This is by some called the Round Swing, but is more generally known under the title of

THE GIANT'S STRIDE.

This favourite apparatus may be seen in every public gymnasium, probably familiar to most of our readers, who even if they have not practised upon it, or in any public park where a space is ys be the case-to the purpose of gym

the circle.

Another variation of these gymnastic exercises is to take a rope in each hand, and walk or run round the circle, now and then leaving the ground altogether, and performing the swinging stride as before. The gymnast may either face the pole during these movements, or perform them with his back towards it.

LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXVII.

OFFICIAL HANDWRITING.-I.

In our early lessons in Penmanship-after giving the necessary
preliminary instructions for regulating the position of the hand,
arm, and body when engaged in writing, and the proper modo
of holding the pen-we furnished the learner with ample details
respecting the formation of the small letters of the writing
alphabet, and brought him forward on his way, step by step,
until he was able to write words and sentences involving the in-
troduction of capital letters and figures. The copy-slips set
before him, as examples for practice and illustrations of all that
was advanced in
our lessons, were
of such a nature

that he was perforce compelled to copy them slowly

him thus far on his way, the rest remains entirely with himself; the best and only thing indeed that we can do to aid him in the acquirement of a distinctive and characteristic form of handwriting being to place before him models, consisting of various styles of writing, that have been approved by persons who are competent judges of what is desirable in handwriting calculated for the government office, the solicitor's desk, or the merchant's counting-house.

As many of our readers are doubtless desirous of entering the Civil Service, and are anxious to know what style of writing will be deemed satisfactory by the examiners appointed to test the qualifications of candidates, we bring under their notice, in

will you please give

and deliberately, directions

in order to become acquainted with

the forms of the

letters and their relative

propor

tions, and to give each up-stroke and down-stroke its proper thickness, inclination, and curvature, which he could not have done had he attempted to execute his task with

that in future

successful candidates

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the rapidity with which writing of an ordinary kind is written.
In order to write legibly, the first and most essential step is
to acquire the habit of forming the letters of the writing alpha-
bet correctly; copying each letter, whether singly or in combi-
nation with others, with the utmost care, and writing it slowly
so as to gain sufficient time to note the shape of every part of it
and its direction before imitating it with the pen or pencil. This
degree of proficiency in writing, the only safe and sure basis and
foundation of a clear and legible hand, we may fairly suppose
all to have attained, who have been endeavouring to teach them-
selves how to
write by means
of the instruc-
tions given in
our previous
lessons. Hav-
ing got thus
far, it will now
be necessary

for them to endeavour to

write rapidly as

as clearly,

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am directed by the Civil

the present lesson, two specimens of official handwriting which have met with the approval of Her Majesty's Civil Service Commissioners, and of which we have their kind permission to give the accompanying fac-similes. We append an extract from the report itself, from which,

aided by a careful study of the accompanying specimens of handwriting, our

readers will be able to form a clear idea of what is required of
candidates for the Civil Service, as far as writing is concerned.
"In our former reports," say the Commissioners,
66 we have
observed upon the importance which we attach to good hand-
writing, as one of the most useful accomplishments which a clerk
can possess, and one which any young man has it in his power
to acquire. We believe that the effect of our examinations has
been, upon the whole, to improve the general style of writing for
official purposes. There is, however, room for much further
improvement. In consequence, probably, of the insufficient
attention paid
to the subject
in schools, the
quantity of bad
handwriting
which comes
before us is
still very
great; and we
are therefore
unable, without
causing incon-
venience to the
public depart-
ments, by delay
in supplying
vacancies, to
enforce so high

Service Commissioners to acknowledge

wildly, the receipt of your

taking care,

however, that

they do not

sacrifice legibi

25th

lity and plain 25

ness in causing

the pen to move over the

paper with too

instant

letter

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SPECIMEN OF HANDWRITING APPROVED BY HER MAJESTY'S CIVIL SERVICE
COMMISSIONERS.-NO. 2.

great a degree of quickness. And here it is necessary for us to say, that although we have done as much as is possible to give each learner the clearest instructions for making the letters of the writing alphabet, the ultimate formation of his handwriting, or, in other words, the adoption and acquirement of certain distinctive peculiarities that will eventually give a special character to his writing as he gradually becomes less and less of a mere copyist, imitating in every detail the set shape, inclination, and curvature of the letters set before him, must rest entirely with himself. His handwriting must be based, it is true, on the instructions we have given, and the more closely he adheres to them, the more legible his writing will be. But having helped

VOL. II.

a standard in this respect as we should desire. It is

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Besides these there are the improper diphthongs, formed by a, n, or w, and the iota subscriptum, or written under, as q, ?, 4. Both the proper and the improper diphthongs are long, or, in other words, receive the stress of the voice in pronunciation.

When two vowels commonly pronounced as one sound (a diphthong) are pronounced separately, a diæresis (separation) is produced, which is denoted by two dots set over the second vowel; as, eï, oï, av.

The consonants are divided, first according to the organs chiefly employed in pronouncing them. Thus, in uttering some, we use the palate or upper part of the throat; these are termed gutturals (Latin, guttur, a throat). Others are designated labials, being such as come mostly from the lips (Latin, labium, a lip). Others, again, bear the name of linguals, from Latin, lingua, a tongue.

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The

Li-vowels or liquids, A, u, v, p; the sibilant or hissing sound, the mutes, T, K, т, ß, y, d, P, X, 0.

Lose nine mutes are also divided into three gutturals, three le cius, and three linguals. In this division regard is had to the organs of speech. If, however, we give attention to the predominant sound, then we classify these nine mutes thus:1, those of the k sound; 2, those of the t sound; and, 3, those of the p sound. Once more, they may be considered according to the force or hardness of the utterance, and be separated into three soft, three hard (or middle), and three aspirated. The whole is presented in this tabular view of

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ponent parts-that is, by the inversion of crasis or by dissolution-you obtain the two words entire; so TOUTOS becomes To επος; also ταγαθα becomes τα αγαθα.

The Greeks paid great attention to euphony, or pleasing sound. Consequently they studied to prevent two vowels from coming into immediate succession, so as to cause an hiatus or stoppage of the flow of the sound-such a stoppage as would take place, if instead of saying an hiatus (Latin, a gaping), we were to say a hiatus. To avoid this unpleasant suspension of the breath, we, in English, convert a into an. In the same way, and for the same purpose, the Greeks employed an at the end

1. Of the dative plural in σ, and adverbs of place ending in σι: 25, πασιν ελέξα; ἡ Πλαταιασιν ἡγεμονία.

2. Of the third person singular and plural ending in σ, as τύπτουσιν εμε; τίθησιν εν τῇ τραπεζῇ: also with εστι, 13

εστιν εμοι.

3. Of the third person singular in e, as eTUTTEV EμE.

4. Of the numerals, as eixoσiv avôpes; but not always; therefore we find also είκοσι ανδρες.

Regard to euphony also led the Greeks to drop the in the adverb outws before a word beginning with a consonant: thus, δυτως εποιησεν ; but δυτω ποιεω.

Thus the preposition er, as in εκ της ειρήνης, becomes εξ before a vowel, as εξ ειρηνης.

The same practice obtains in the negative oʊk (not, no), as ουκ αισχρος, ου καλος; also, ουχ ήδυς. In the last example the K, that is X, immeaspirate in dus requires the aspirated form of diately before it, for in Greek only letters of the same kind go together, that is, a soft sound with a soft sound, a hard with a hard, and an aspirated sound with an aspirated sound. But of this matter I shall have more to say by-and-by.

The points employed in punctuating Greek are few; by the original writers points were not at all used. The comma, the period, and the note of exclamation are employed as in English. What with us is called the semicolon is used in Greek as a note

of interrogation; and the colon is one dot placed at the top of the word, thus

Colon • Ει ελέξας

Period, παντες ως ὡμολογησεν.
Interrogation ; τις ταύτα εποίησεν ;

PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTION IN THE VERB.

Before I proceed to treat of nouns I must say a few words respecting the verb, inasmuch as without some knowledge of the verb you will be unable to form sentences, as I intend you should from your earliest acquaintance Greek grammar. Parts of the verb eva, to be, are inuisp sable. I here put down such as you will want, together with the corresponding English, or what is commonly called "the meaning."

PARTS OF THE VERB eival, TO BE. eiui, I am. es or e, thou art. EσTI, he, she, or it is. nv, he, she, or it was. noar, they were. Eiσ, they are. Observe that eσTi and eigi become eσT

Looi, be thou. EσTW, let him be. EσTE, be ye. and ery before a Observe also that the Greek GTI is the Latin est, and the English is.

From a union of the mutes with the sibilant σ there are pro-word beginning with a vowel.

duced these

DOUBLE CONSONANTS.

(ps Psi) formed of πσ, βσ, φσ.

& (x Ksi)

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και γα, χσ. δσ.

$ (z Zeta) Sometimes a vowel at the end of a word or syllable, standing before another vowel which begins a word or syllable, is elided or struck out, when we produce what is termed elision (Latin e, Instead of the elided vowel, an aposout of, and lædo, I dash). trophe' is put. Elision takes place in all the prepositions except περι and προ. When prepositions are compounded with verbs that begin with a vowel, the apostrophe is not used; thus, απ' οίκου is the elided form of απο οικον, and απέφερον is the elided form of απο-έφερον.

When, however, the two vowels thus coming the one before the other, are melted or blended together, so as to form one long syllable or diphthong, what is grammatically called crasis (Greek, a mixing) takes place. Thus To eros by crasis or krasis becomes τουπος. By resolving the double vowel into its com

In the Greek language verbs have three voices, whereas in Latin and in English verbs have only two. If in English I say I strike, I express myself in what is called "the active voice;" but if I say I am struck, I express myself in what is termed 'the passive voice." These two voices exist in Greek thus

Active.

TUTTW, I strike.

Passive.

TUTTOμаι, I am struck. Here you observe that the passive is made by adding to the root TUTT the suffix oua, instead of the letter w, by which the first person singular of the active is formed.

The Greeks have a third voice. In the present tense this voice is not distinguished in form from the passive; being the same word τυπτομαι. In signification, however, the third voice differs from the active and the passive. This third voice, under the name of the middle voice, denotes a reflex action, that is, an action which turns back on the agent or actor, as TUTTOUAI, beat myself.

Commit thoroughly to memory this table of βουλευω, Ι 20. Καλως έχει ανδρειως μαχεσθαι. 21. Ει διωκῃ, μη φευγε. 22. advise, which contains such parts of the verb as you are likely Avdpeiws μaxov. 23. Ει βλακεύουσι, ψέγονται. 24. Ει αληθεύεις, to want in learning to form the nouns, the adjectives, etc. 25. Αει αριστεύετε. 26. Μετρίως εσθιε και πινε και

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The middle signification is sometimes best rendered by another word; thus, instead of saying, I advise myself, we may say, I consult, or I take advice.

Observe how these several changes in the terminations are produced. The stem, or permanent form of the word, is Sovλev. To Sovλev, the endings, w, eis, El, oμEV, ETE, ovo, are added, according to the person and number you may wish to form. Thus, to form the infinitive active, corresponding with our English to advise, you add er to Boulev, and so produce Boulev-ely. If you wish to put into Greek our advise thou, you add e to Bovλev, and so produce Bouλev-e, the second person singular of the imperative mood. You proceed in the same way with any other verb. In order to make the matter clear, I put the endings here apart from any verb:

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πιστευῃ. παιζε.

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16. I am adidle, they are 20. Eat and

1. I am true. 2. Thou art true. 3. He is true. 4. We are true. 5. You are true. 6. They are true. 7. If speak the truth, I am believed. 8. Do not fight. 9. They fight. 10. Follow ye. 11. Thou followest. 12. Ye follow. 13. He plays. 14. They fly. 15. If they flee, they are pursued. mired. 17. They are admired. 18. If they are not admired. 19. It is well to fight bravely. drink moderately. 21. They do not hasten. 22. If thou flatterest, thou art not admired. 23. He writes well. 24. They write badly. 25. It is well to be always the best. 26. You live moderately. 27. They eat too much.

I will now give you some directions as to these exercises. First, then, you must repeat each word in the vocabulary until you have impressed it indelibly upon your memory. Then prointo English, and put the English words into their corresponding ceed, with the aid thus gained, to translate the Greek sentences Greek words, paying due regard to the model or pattern given you here and in other cases. In translating from the one lanGreek and the English as given in the exercises; that is, if you guage into the other, you may derive aid from consulting the given in English, finding the example most like the one you are translating from Greek into English, consult the exercise Greek, then in the same way consult the exercise given in have to translate; and if you are translating from English into Greek. everything thoroughly; make every first step sure before you Be not in haste to advance, but be very careful to do attempt to take a second step. Bear in mind the Latin proverb "festina lenté," hasten slowly; in English, "slow and steady wins the race." Do not be content with writing an exercise once, write it again and again; and when you think you have made it quite correct, then commit it to memory.

The Greek is a language in which compounds are readily and copiously formed. The Greek may, in consequence, be acquired with comparative ease, provided the student is trained in the formation of the compounds. The necessary instructions I shall endeavour to impart. With this view I shall supply lists of words etymologically connected with those which are given in the vocabulary. A knowledge of one word will thus become to the learner a knowledge of several. Let us take, as an instance, the verb Bouλevw, the present tense of which stands above. Βουλεύω, Ι advise, comes from βουλη, advice or counsel; βουλη leads to Bouλeia, the dignity or office of a counsellor; thence we derive Bouλetor, a council-house; Bovλevμa, a determination; Bouλeutns, a counsellor; Bovλevyopew, to speak in a council; besides other terms. These words are again modified in meaning, as well as multiplied by means of prepositions; e.g., in combination with σvv, with, Bovλn forms another set of terms, as ovμßovλevμa, a resolution; ovμßovλevois, the communication of a resolution; ovμßovλevтns, a joint counsellor; ovμßovλevw, I give counsel; ovμßovλos, a senator. It would be easy to extend this list. But without going further, here are eleven words connected in origin, form, and meaning with one word. When, then, you know that one, you have a key to all the rest. With a few roots, you thus see, you would soon become master of a copious vocabulary; and as the roots of the language are not numerous, the acquisition of it, when rightly studied, is by no means a very difficult task.

N.B.-The roots will be printed in capitals. Let the Etymological Vocabulary, no less than the above Vocabulary for the Exercises, be thoroughly committed to memory. ETYMOLOGICAL VOCABULARY.

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