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however, frequently finding the fame great excavations, which, in lower grounds, are vaguely attributed to running waters, the fallacy of this laft idea ftruck me; and I first concluded, that thofe excavations exifted from the origin of our continents. There alfo I could ftudy, without any poffible miftake, the effects of all the immediate caufes which have acted on the abrupt parts of the furface of our continents, ever fince they have exiited; namely, the tendency of thofe parts to moulder down by the effects of the weather; the progress of that decay; its tendency to an end, when the rubbish is undisturbed; the caufes that can disturb it; and the maximum of their effects. That preliminary study enabled me, afterward, to diftinguifh, in other places, the real effects of running waters, from the effects of other caufes, which are only rendered effectual by certain original ftates of the grounds, eafily traced back; and from that fingle difcrimination of caufes, light fucceeded to the obfcurity in which the phenomena of the furface of the earth had been involved by fome geologifts: for then, rendered attentive to crigins and progreffes of natural operations on our dry land, I found many different clafles of them, which fix its origin at a time not very remote.

26. The importance of the final refult of thofe obfervations, has made me defirous to facilitate them to others, by fketching a plan of relearches, and pointing out the objects which are to be examined. That study is, in a great degree, almost within the reach of every man; for there is hardly any country which does not afford fome of the clafies of phenomena, which may lead to the age of our continents; and I have known from experience, what intereft such a fixed and endleis object of obfervation can spread on the fuppofed loft hours of travelling or airing. After a little practice in that kind of obfervation, the effects of the principal caufes which have acted on every part of our land, may eafily be diftinguished: the effects produced by each of thofe caufes, in former times, have left clear monuments: their prefent operations are feen; and the whole together affords various measures of time, which I fhall explain.

This, Sir, is the plan of a future letter; in which, following that form, 1 fhall treat of various claffes of phenomena, rendered now more interefting by their explained tendency; and which will confine the age of our continents within very narrow limits.

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To the REMARKABLE PASSAGES in this Volume.

N. B. To find any particular Book, or Pamphlet, see the
Table of Contents, prefixed to the Volume.

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Becker, Archbishop, narrative of the cir
cumftances of his murder, 374. His
conduct and character, 376.

Benyowsky, Count, his birth, &c. 170.

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Taken prifoner by the Ruffins, ib.
His escape from Cazan, 171. His ar-
rival at Japan, ib. Vifits Formofa,
172 Returns to Europe, 173. His
expedition to Madagascar, and advance.
ment to fovereign power there, 174.
Propofes an alliance with the British
His death, 175:
government, ib.
Berkeley, Bishop, his letter to Mr. Pope,
defcribing the inland of Inarime,
Bertbelon, Abbé, his memoir on the im-
portance of clean freets, 547. Оп
the kind of water moft favou able to
vegetation, 555.

Bertbout Van Berchem, his table of qua-
drupeds, 545. His obfervations on the
difcrimination of quadrupeds into fpe-
ces, &c. 548.

Bologna, fome account of, 498.
Bradgate, fome account of the manor of,

Bruce, Mr. his dangerous journey through
the great Nubian defert, 33. In the
kingdom of Sennaar, 35. His return
to Cairo, where he obtains a firman, of
great advantage to the English mer-
chants, 47. His account of the anti-
dyfenterica, 121. Of the Rhinoceros,
123. Of the horned viper, ib. Of
the Zimb, a dreadful infect, 125. Of
the antiest Cufhites, 127. Of the
fhepherds, and thepherd kings of an-
cient Egypt, 129. Of the origin of
arts, ido atry, and hieroglyphics, 131.
His travels ridiculed by Peter Pindar,


Brunings, M. C. his prize differtation on
the velocity of running water, 500.
His account of a new hyetometer, 503.
Bruttelen, analysis of the mineral waters
of, 555.

Burke, Mr. his rhapfodical, vifionary pic-
ture of the queen of France, 325. See
alfo France.


Canonbury-Houfe, antiquity of, 415.
Catherine of Medicis, her character, 59.
Cattle, rules to be obferved by the breed-

ers of, with respect to form, &c. 404.
Cave of the Weird Sifters, in Lapland,
poetically defcribed, 76.

Cerafies, the horned viper, curious ac-
count of, 123.

Children, good remarks on the character-

iftic variety, and proper management,
of their difpofitions, 306.
Chinese typography, executed in Germany,
with moveable types, 563.
Cheifeul Gouffier, Count de, his difference
with the Count de Ferrieres Sauveboeuf,

Clarke, Dr. Sam, claffed with the Unita-
rians, 14.

Clergy, their obligations to a refidence

on their livings ftrongly urged, 477.
Coligny, Admiral, his excellent character,


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Dysentery, cured by the root of the Woo
ginoos, an Abyffinian vegetable, 121.


Education, new plan of, by Mrs. Mac-
aulay Graham, 305.

-, general encomium on a good
one, 331. Remarks on the conduct
of fome parents, on this head, 395-
English, their luxury in building and de-
corating their houses, 30.

Electricity, experiments to fhew its influ
ence on plants, 521. The firoke of
not dangerous, 525.

Elm, profitable culture of that tree, 409.
Evil, original defign of, investigated,
Excbaquet, M. on the analyfis of fedative
fait, 551.

, on the method of extract-
ing the phosphoric acid from bones,


Fogs. See Verdeil,
France, extracts from the general hiftory
of, 59. The feeds of the late Revolution
in that kingdom traced, 62. The Re-
volution matured, and compleated, 70.
Burke's reflections on, 313-326.
Mr. Burke's reflections continued, 438
-464. Encomium on the Revolu
tion, by an English lady, written on
the fpot, 428. Eftimate of the pre-
fent ftate of government in France,

François, Profeffor, his invention of a
new fteam engine, 546.

Fretfulness, a temper inimical to friend-
ship, 331.

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quantity of, 195.

Leeckman, Dr. biographical account of,
411. His manner of lecturing, 412.
Leeks tuccessfully ufed in the dropfy, 27.
Lefanu, Mrs. See Sheridan.

Leicester, account of the public library
there, 419.

Limbourg, D. his memoirs on the influ

ence of the moon on vegetation, 548.
Lindley, lordfhip of, 418.
Longitude, core'pon ence with the Re-
viewers, on a method proposed for
meafuring a degree of, 359.

Louis XIV. his odious reign, and mifer-
able death, 539:

Louis XV. Jate king of France, by his
quarrels with his parliaments, lays the
foundation of the great Revolution in
that country, 62. Progrets of the dif
pures, 64.
Louis XVI the prefent king of France,
his difputes with the parliament of
Paris, 66. Affembles the Notables,
69. Defeated in his defpotic views, ib.
The grand Revolution commences,


Marshall, Mr. the agriculturif, his plan
of a review of the old books on rural
fubjects, 480.

Marriage, juft obfervations on, 396.
Stolen matches highly cenfurable, 397.
Source of matrimonial differences
pointed out, 468.

Mask, the famous prifoner, wearing that
difguife, in the time of Louis XIV.
difcovered, 561.

Materialism, correfpondence on that fub-
ject with the Reviewers, 357. Materi-
ality of the foul maintained, 492.
Mendelzoon, M. his argument in proof of
the immateriality of the foul, 489.
His reafoning in proof of the existence
of a Deity, 503.

Merck, M. his comparifon of the bones
of cetaceous animals with thofe of qua-
dropeds, 550.

Merlin, poetical portrait of, 74.
Micrometer, the feveral kings and im
provements of, 302.

Mobammedanifm, the religious code of, ex-
plained, 17. Account of the Mofques,
and public fervices of, 21.

Monaftic inftitutions, abfurdity and inhu-
manity of, 510.

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Ploughs. See Adam.

Poetical extracts in this volume, viz.
from Airiare, 51. HOLE's Arthur,
73. BowLES's Verses on the Philan-
thropic Society, 91. COTTER'S Poems,
95. The British Album, 213. Ro-
BERTS'S Deluge, 217. The Prison,
Select Poems, 221. STIRLING'S
Poems, 273. DEACON's Poems, 339.
Pow's Reflections on Peace and the Sea.
Jons, 340. Female Characters, &c. 343.
Tetracbymagogon Hypercriticum, 344.
The File, a Poem, 345. HANDS'S
Death of Amnon, ib. WHYTE's Theatre,
398. ALVES'S Edinburgh, 474.
Potatoes, culture of. See Wimpey. See

Pyramids of Egypt, faid to be Volcanic
productions, 515.

Quadrant, Hadley's, encomium on that
ufetul inftrument, 300.

, Mural, ufes of, 302. See also
Quadrupeds, rules for the difcrimination
of, into fpecies, races, and varieties,
548. Buffon's criterion, by copula-
tion, not applicable to animals that are
domefticated, 549. Their bones com-
pared with thole of cetaceous animals,


Quebec, difcontents in the province of,
on account of the form of its govern-
ment, 469.


Ramfden, Mr. invents a new inftrument
for measuring horizontal angles, 303.
His new circular inftrument for obvi-
ating the imperfections of the mural
quadrant, ib.

Razoumowski, Count de, his obfervations

on the decompofition and recompofition
of tones, 545. On fome other fub-
jects of natural history, 546. On the
phofphorifm of fofil fubftances, 547.
On the Glow-worm, 550. On the
Goumoen tone, 551. His account
of a polished cupreous rock, on Mount
St. Bernard, ib. His analyfis of mi-
neral waters, 555

Revelation, of St. John, confidered as a
tragedy, 148.

Revenue of the Crown of England, from

William the Conqueror, to Geo. III.
3. Prefent ftate of, 8. Amount of
the revenue drawn from Scotland, II.
Reynier, M. on the fructification of
moffes, 551

Richelieu, Cardinal, his great political
talents, 61.

Richelieu, Duke de, his remarkable birth,
life, and character, 558.
Ring, curious ftory of one, found in the
belly of a fish, 389.

Rocbuffen, M. his prize differtation on
the immateriality of the foul, givea
by the Teylerian Society, 487.
Rundle, Bishop, his affecting account of
the trial of lord Santry, for murder,
247. See alfo 479.


Salt, rock, advantage enjoyed by Ireland,
of importing, duty free, 5. Duty on
falt, in England, of pernicious confe-
fequence, 6.

fprings, and rock falt, new theory
of, 553..

fedative. See Stride. See Ex-

Santry, lord, his trial, in the Irish House
of Peers, for murder, 247. Banished
to England, where he dies, 479.
Scott, Sir John, his excellent obfervations
on the fources of matrimonial difcon-
tents, and divorces, 468.
Scotland, public flatutes relative to, ab
ridged, 428.

Sea, defcribed in a wonderful style, 48.
Sector, equatorial, invention and improve.
menis of, 303.

Sexual fyftem of plants, controversy re-
lative to, 88.

Sheep, of Shetland, propofal for improv.
ing the breed of, 199. Mr. Bakewell's
amazing fuccefs in improving the breed
of English theep, 406.
Shepherds of ancient Ethiopia, account
of, 129.

Sheridan, Mifs, her excellent performance
in private acting, 398.
Smuggling, obfervations relative to, 267.
Sope, effects of the duties on, confidered,

Soul, the notion of its immateriality de

fended, 484. The contrary doc ine
maintained, 492.
Spain, arrogance of her claims to an ex-

tent of empire injurious to mankind, 7.
Speacles, literary debate concerning, 119.
Steam-engine, invented for raifing water

without a pifton, for draining marshes,

Strabo, his knowlege of geography very
limited, 537.

Struve, Protetor, his analysis of mineral
waters, 546. Of fedative falt, &c.
551. New theory of faline fprings,
and reek falt, 553. On extracting the
phofphoric acid from bones, ib.

Sugar cane,

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