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fox to its mouth with the other; feeds on
fishes, roots, fruits and seeds, Flesh said to be
good.
4. F. atra. Common coot. Five varieties.
Front flesh-colour; bracelets greenish-
yellow; body blackish.
Black: wings white.

7 Entirely black; breast and belly waved
with ferruginous.

Brown: chin, belly and primary quillfeathers white; head spotted with white; upper mandible red.

• White: head and wings with a few spots. Inhabits Europe, Asia, and America; fifteen inches long; frequents lakes and still rivers; and forms a floating nest among the rushes; lays numerous dirty-white eggs, sprinkled with minute, deep-rusty spots; the young, when first hatched, are very deformed; runs along the water, swims and dives dextrously; feeds on small insects, aquatic fishes, and seeds: in winter time often repairs to the sea.

5. F. aterrima. Greater coot. Front white; bracelets red; body blackish. Inhabits, like the last, our own country and other parts of Europe: scarcely differs from it but in increased magnitude and depth of black colour. FULIGINOUS. a. (fuliginosus, Latin.) Sooty; smoky (Howel).

FÜLIGO. (fuligo, quasi fumiligo, from famus, smoke.) Soot. Wood soot, fuligo lizni, or the condensed smoke from burning wood, has a pungent, bitter, and nauseous taste, and is resolved by chemical analysis into a volatile alkaline salt, an empyreumatic oil, a fixed alkali, and an insipid earth. The tincture prepared from this substance, tinctura fulginis, is recommended as a powerful antispasmodic in hysterical affections.

FU'LIGO, in botany, a genus of the class cryptogamuia, order fungi. Fungus with a cellular fibrous bark; the fibres penetrating in a reticulate manner through the seminal mass. Three species; one, F. septica, yellow and lanciniate, a native of our own country.

FULIMART. s. A kind of stinking ferret (Walton).

FULK (William,) a learned and eminent divine of the church of England, in the 16th century. He was patronised by the earl of Leicester, who in 1571 presented him to the living of Warley in Essex, and soon after to that of Diddington in Suffolk. He attended his patron when he went ambassador to France; and on his return was made master of Pembroke-hall, and Margaret professor of divinity at Cainbridge. His works are very numerous, levelled chiefly at the papists. The most considerable of them is his Comment on the Rhemish Testament. He died in 1589. FULL. a. (pulle, Saxon.) 1. Replete; without vacuity; having no space void (Psalms). 2. Abounding in any quality good or bad (Sydney. Tillotson). 3. Stored with any thing; well supplied with any thing (Tickel). 4. Plump; saginated; fat (Wiseman). 5. Saturated; sated (Bacon). 6. Crowded with regard to the imagination or memory (Locke).

7. Large; great in effect (Arbuthnot). 8. Com-
plete; such as that nothing further is desired
or wanted (Hammond). 9. Complete without
abatement (Swift). 10. Containing the whole
matter; expressing much (Denham).
Strong; not faint; not attenuated (Pope). ́
12. Mature; perfect (Bacon). 13. Spread to
view in all dimensions (Addison).
In bo-

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FULL FLOWER. (flos plenus.) tany. When the corol is so multiplied as to exclude all the stamens. Polypetalous flowers are generally the object of plenitude. See LUXURIANS.

FULL MOON (plenilunium), that phasis of the moon, when the whole disk is illuminated; which is in the time of her opposition to the sun.

FULL. s. (from the adjective.) 1. Complete measure; freedom from deficiency (Clurendon). 2. The highest state or degree (Shakspeare). 3. The whole; the total (Shakspeare). 4. The state of being satiated (Jeremiah). 5. (Applied to the moon.) The time in which the moon makes a perfect orb (Bacon).

FULL. ad. 1. Without abatement (Milton). 2. With the whole effect (Dryden). 3. Exactly (Addison). 4. Directly (Dryden).

1.

FULL-BLOWN. a. (full and blown.) Spread to the utmost extent, as a perfect blossom (Denham). 2. Stretched by the wind to the utmost extent (Dryden).

FULL-BOTTOMED. a. (full and bottom.) Having a large bottom (Guardian). FULL-EA RED. a. (full and ear.) Having the heads full of grain (Denham). FULL-EYED. a. (full and eye.) large prominent eyes. FULL-FED. a. (full and fed.) Sated; fat; saginated (Pope).

Having

La

FULL-LADEN. a. (full and laden.)
den till there can be no more added (Tillotson).
FULL-SPREAD. a. (full and spread.)
Spread to the utmost extent (Dryden).
FULL-SUMMED. a. (full and summed.)
Complete in all its parts (Howel).

To FULL. v. a. (fullo, Lat.) To cleanse cloth from its oil or grease.

FULLAGE. s. (from full.) The money paid for fulling or cleansing cloth.

FULLAN, a country in the interior part of Africa, W. of the kingdom of Cushna. Its boundaries have not been ascertained.

FULLER. 8. (fullo, Latin.) One whose trade is to cleanse and scour cloths.

FULLER (Nicholas), prebendary of Salisbury, and a learned English critic; who published in 1617 Miscellanea Theologica, in four books, and afterward two more of Miscellanea Sacra. He died in 1623; and there are some MSS. of his remaining in the Bodleian library, that show his great skill in Hebrew and philology.

FULLER (Dr. Thomas), a learned English divine, was born at Aldwinckle, near Oundle, in Northamptonshire, about the year 1608, and studied at Cambridge. He was chosen minister of St. Bennet's there; and, at about 23 years of age, his merit was so great, that he

was in consequence of it presented to a prebend in the church of Salisbury. He had also the living of Broad Windsor in Dorsetshire, and about 1640 became lecturer at the Savoy. It is said his memory was so tenacious and comprehensive, that he could make use of a sermon verbatim if he ouce heard it. He once undertook, in passing to and from Temple-bar to the Poultry, to tell at his return every sign as it stood in order on both sides of the way, repeating them either backwards or forwards; and this task he actually performed. He wrote, 1. A History of the Holy War. 2. The Church-history of Britain, in folio. 3. Andronicus, or the Unfortunate Politician, in Svo. 4. A Pisgah-sight of Palestine. 5. A History of English Worthies; and other works. He died in August 1661, and was interred in the chancel of Cranford church in Middlesex, whither his body was attended by at least 200 of his brethren of the ministry. He was a learned, industrious, pious, moderate, and lively water. His style however is exceedingly quoins, and he was too fond of punning. The I was very corpulent man, and once as rid ng with a gentleman of the name of Sp rowhawk, he could not help cracking a jok upon his companion. What is the difference (said he between an owl and a spariou howk ?" "It is (answered the other) fuller in the head, fuller in the body, and fuller all over."

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FULLER'S EARTH. See ARGILLA

FULLONICA.

The greatest quantity and the finest quality of this earth is dug in the pits at Wavedon, near Woburn, Bedfordshire.

FULLER'S WEED. See DIPSACUS. FULLERY, the place where cloths, &c. undergo the operation of falling.

"FULLING, the art or act of cleansing, Scouring, and pressing cloths, stuffs, and stockings, to render them stronger, closer, and firmer: called also milling. Pliny (lib. vii. cap. 59.) asserts, that one Nicias, the son of Hernias, was the first inventor of the art of fulling: and it appears by an inscription, quoted by Sir G. Wheeler in his Travels through Greece that this same Nicias was a governor in Greece in the time of the Romans. The fulling of cloths and other stufis is performed by a kind of water-mill, thence called a fulling or scouring mill. These mills, except in what relates to the mill-stones and hopper, are much the same with corn-mills: and there are even some which serve indifferently for either use; corn being ground, and cloths fulled, by the motion of the same wheel. Whence in some places, particularly in France, the fullers are called millers; grinding corn and milling stulls at the same time.

The principal parts of the fulling-mill are: the wheel, with its trundle, which gives motion to the tree or spindle whose teeth communicate it to the pestles or stampers, which are hereby raised and made to fall alternately, according as its teeth catch on or quit a kind of latch in the middle of each pestle. The

pestles and troughs are of wood; each trough having at least two, sometimes three pestles, at the discretion of the master, or according to the force of the stream of water. In these troughs are laid the cloths, stuffs, &c. intended to be fulled: then, letting the current of water fall on the wheel, the pestles are successively let fall thereon, and by their weight and velocity stamp and press the stuff's very strongly, which by this means become thickened and condensed. In the course of the operation, they sometimes make use of urine, sometimes of fuller's earth, and sometimes of soap. To prepare the stuffs to receive the first impressions of the pestle, they are usually laid in urine; then in fuller's earth and water; and, lastly, in soap dissolved in hot water. Soap alone would do very well; but this is expensive: though fuller's earth, in the way of our dressing, is scarce inferior thereto; but then it must be well cleared of all stones and grittinesses, which are apt to make holes in the stuff. As to urine, many say it is prejudicial, and ought to be entirely discarded; not so much on account of its ill smell, as of its sharpness and saltness, which qualities are ap to render the stuffs dry and harsh. The true method of fulling with soap is delivered by Mons. Colinet, in an authentic memoir on that subject, supported by experiments made by order of the marquis de Louvois, then superintendant of the arts and manufactories of France; the substance of which we shall here sul join.

The method of fulling cloths and woollen stuffs with soup is this:A coloured cloth, of about 45 ells, is to be laid in the usual manner in the trough of a fulling-mill; without first soaking it in water, as is commonly practised in many places. To full this trough of cloth, 15 pounds of soap are required; one half of which is to be melted in two pails of river or spring water, made as hot as the hand can well bear it. This solution is to be poured by little and little upon the cloth, in proportion as it is laid in the trough: and thus it is to be fulled for at least two hours; after which, it is to be taken out and stretched. This done, the cloth is immediately returned into the same trough, without any new soap, and there fulled two hours more. Then taking it out, they wring it well, to express all the grease and filth. After the second fulling, the remainder of the soap is dissolved as in the former, and cast four different times on the cloth; remembering to take out the cloth every two hours, to stretch it, and undo the plaits and wrinkles it has acquired in the trough. When they perceive it sufficiently fulled and brought to the quality and thickness required, they scour it for good in hot water, keeping it in the trough till it be quite clean. As to white cloths, since they full more easily and in less time than coloured ones, a third part of the soap may be spared.

The fulling of stockings, caps, &c. should be performed somewhat differently, viz. either with the feet or the hands, or a kind of wooden rack, either armed with teeth of the same matter, or else horses or bullock's teeth. The

ingredients made use of are, urine, green soap,
white soap, and fuller's earth. But the urine
Woven
also is reckoned prejudicial here.
stockings, &c. should be fulled with the soap
alone: for those that are knit, earth may be
used with the soap. Indeed it is common to
full these kinds of works with the mill, after the
usual manner of cloth, &c.; but that is too
coarse and violent a manner, and apt to damage
the work, unless it is very strong.

FULLINGMILL. s. (full and mill.) A mill where the water raises hammers which beat the cloth till it be cleansed (Mortimer). FULLY. ad. (from full.) 1. Without vacuity. 2. Completely; without lack (Hook.). FULMAR, in ornithology. See PROCEL

LARIA.

FULMAR, in zoology. See MUSTELA. FULMINANT. a. (fulminans, Latin.) Thundering; making a noise like thunder. To FULMINATE. v. n. (fulmino, Lat.) 1. To thunder (Randolph). 2. To make a loud noise or crack (Boyle). 3. To issue out

ecclesiastical censures.

To FULMINATE. v. a. To throw out as an object of terrour (Ayliffe).

FULMINATION. In chemistry, explosion or detonation, accompanied with a very considerable degree of sound. All these equally imply rapid decomposition with or without flame, and the intensity of sound alone distinguishes the idea of fulmination from those of detonation and explosion.

FULMINATING POWDER; a powder that explodes upon the application of certain degrees of heat with instantaneous combustion, and prodigious Sound. These are sometimes made with metals, and sometimes without.

Simple fulminating powder without any metallie substance is thus prepared: Take three parts of nitre, two of purified pearl-ash, and one of flowers of sulphur, mix the whole very accurately in an earthen mortar, and place it on a tile or plate before the fire till it is perfectly dry: then transfer it while hot into a ground stopper bottle, and it may be kept without injury for any length of time. In order to experience its effects, pour from ten to forty grains into an iron ladle, and place it over a slow fire: in a short time the powder becomes brown, and acquires a pasty conKistence; a blue lambent flame then appears on the surface, and in an instant after the whole explodes with a stunning noise and a slight momentary flash. If the mass be removed from the fire as soon as it is fused, and kept in a dry well. closed vial, it may at any time be exploded by a spark, in which case it burns like gunpowder, but more rapidly and with greater detonation; but this effect cannot be produced on the unmelted powder how accurately soever the ingredients of it are mixed together. When fulminating powder is in fusion, but not heated to the degree necessary to produce the blue flame, a particle of ignited charcoal thrown upon it will ccasion immediately a remarkably loud explosion.

It appears that the ingredients of this powder do not acquire their fulminating property till combined by fusion; in other words, till the pot ash of sulphur form sulphuret of potash: whence fulminating powder may also be made by mixing

sulphuret of potash with nitre, instead of by adding the sulphur and alkali separate.

In all these the cause of the detonation, or fulmination, is not accurately understood. In simple fulminating powder, there is a very large portion of elastic gass evolved; in fulminating gold or silver a much smaller; yet the explosion in the latter case is infinitely greater than that in the former.

Fulminating gold.-Dissolve pure gold in nitromuriatic acid to saturation, and dilute the solu tion with three times its bulk of distilled water, and add to it gradually some pure ammonia, a yellow precipitate will be obtained, which must be repeatedly washed with distilled water, and dried on a chalk-stone or in a filter. When perfectly dry, it is called fulminating gold, and detonates by heat, as may be shewn by heating a few grains of it on the point of a knife over the candle.

Fulminating silver.-Dissolve fine silver in pale nitric acid, and precipitate the solution by lime water; decant the fluid, mix the precipitate with liquid ammonia, and stir it till it assumes a black

colour; then decant the fluid, and leave it in the open air to dry. This product is fulminating silver, which when once obtained cannot be touched without producing a violent explosion. the contact of fire is not necessary to cause it to It is the most dangerous preparation known, for detonate. It explodes by the mere touch. Its preparation is so hazardous, that it ought not to be attempted without a mask, with strong glass eyes, upon the face. No more than a single grain ought at any time to be tried as an experiment. This was invented by M. Berthollet. See

ARGENTUM NATIVUM.

M. Chenevix has invented a fulminating silver not so dangerous as that just mentioned. It explodes only by a slight friction in contact with combustible bodies. It is thus prepared: diffuse a quantity of alumina through water, and let a current of oxygenated muriatic acid gass pass through it for some time. Then digest some phosphate of silver on the solution of the oxygenated muriate of alumina, and evaporate it slowly. The product obtained will be a hyper-oxygenated muriate of silver, a single grain of which, in contact with two or three of sulphur, will ex plode violently with the slightest friction.

Fulminating mercury.-The mercurial preparations which fulminate, when mixed with sulphur, and gradually exposed to a gentle heat, are well known to chemists: they were discovered, and have been fully described, by Mr. Bayen.

"MM. Brugnatelli and Van Mons have like. wise produced fulminations by concussion, as well by nitrat of mercury and phosphorus as with phosphorus and most other nitrats. Cinnabar likewise is amongst the substances which, according to MM. Fourcroy and Vauquelin, detonate by concussion with oxymuriat of potash.

"M. Ameilon had, according to M. Berthollet, observed, that the precipitate obtained from nitrat of mercury, by oxalic acid, fuses with a hissing noise.

"But mercury, and most if not all its oxyds, may, by treatment with nitric acid and alcohol, be converted into a whitish crystallized powder, possessing all the inflammable properties of gunpowder, as well as many peculiar to itself.

"I was led to this discovery (says Mr. Howard, the inventor) by a late assertion, that hydrogen

is the basis of the muriatic acid: it induced me to attempt to combine diferent sab danes with hydrogen and oxygen. With this view 1 mixed such substances with alcohol and nitric acid as night (by predisposing allinity) favour as well as attract an acid co obmation of the hydrogen of the one, and the oxygen of the other. The pure red oxyd of mercury appeared not unfit for this purpose; it was therefore intermixed with aleohol, and upon both nitri-arid was affused. The acid did not act upon the alcohol so immediately as when these fluids are alone mixed together, but first gradually dissolved the oxyd: however, after some minutes had elapsed, a smell of ether was perceptible, and a white dense smoke, much resembling that from the liquor fumans of Libavius, was emitted with ebullition. The mixture then throw down a dark-coloured precipitate, which by degrees became nearly white. This precipitate I separated by filtration; and observ ing it to be crystallized in smaller acicular cry stals, of a saline taste, and also finding a part of the mercury volatilized in the white fumes, I must acknowledge I was not altogether without hopes that muriatic neid had been formed, and united to the mercurial oxyd; I therefore, for obvious reasons, poured sulphuric acid upon the dried crystalline mass, when a violent efferves cence ensued, and, to my great astonishment, an explosion took place. The singularity of this explosion indured me to repeat the processeveral times; and finding that I always ol tained the same kind of powder, I prepared a quantity of it, and was led to make the series of experiment, which I shall have the honour to relate in this paper.

It

"I first attempted to make the mercurial pow der fulminete by con ussion, and for that purpose laid abou' a grain of it upon a cold anvil, and struck it with a haunner, likewise cold. detonated slightly, not being, as I suppose, struck with a flat blow; for upon using three or four grains, a very stunning disagreeable noise was produced, and the face; both of the hammer and the anvil were much indented.

"Hali a rata, or a grain, if quite dry, is as much as ought to be used on such an oeersion.

"The shock of an eletrical hatt ry, sent through five or six grains of the powder, I reduces a very similar effect. It seems, indeed, that a strong electrical shock generally acts on fulminating substances like the blow of a hammer. Messrs. Foureroy en Vauque.in found this to be the case with all their mixtures of oxymuriate of potass.

"To ascertain at what temperature the serenrial powder explodes, two or three grains of it were floated on oil, in a capsule of leaf lin; the bulb of a Fahrenheit's thermometer vos made just to touch the surface of the oil, which was then gradually heated till the pov dir exploded, as the mercury of the fermoact .ca hed the 368th degree.

"Desirous of comparing the street, h of the mercurial compead with that of gun; owder, I made the followarex eriment in the presence of my friend Mr. Marne by.

"Finding that the powder could be fired by flint and steel, without a disagreeable nose, a common gunpowder proof, "ipeble of containing eleven grains of fine gunpowder, was 1.lk: d with it, and fired in the usual way: the report was sharp, but not lowd. The person who held the instru ment in his band felt po rec, 3; but the explosion

laid open the upper part of the barrel, nearly from the touch hole to the muzzle, and struck off the hand of the register, the surface of which was evenly indented, to the depth of 0-1 of an inch, as if it had received the impression of a punch.

The instrument used in this experiment being familiarly known, it is therefore searcy nézessary to describe it: suffice it to say, that it was of brass, mounted with a spring register, the moveable hand of which closed up the muzzle, to receive and graduate the violence of the explosion. The barrel was half an inch in caliber, and nearly half an inch thick, except where a spring of the lock impaired half its thickness,

"A gua belonging to Mr. Keir, an ingenious artist of Camden-Town, was next charged with seventeen grains of the mercurial powder, and a leaden bullet. A block of wood was placed at about eight yards from the muzzle to receive the bali, and the gun was tired by a fuse. No recuil seemed to have taken place, as the barrel was not moved from its position, although it was in no ways confined. The repori was feeble; the bul let, Mr. Keir conceived, from the impression made upon the wood, had been projected with about half the force it would have been by an ordinary charge, or sixty-eight grains, of the best gunpowder. We therefore re charged the gun with thirty four grains of the mercurial powder; and as the great strength of the piece removed any appichension of danger, Mr. Keir fired it from his shoulder, aiming at the same block of wood. The report was like the first, sharp, but not loude • 2 an might have been expected from a charge of gunpowder. Fortunately Mr. Keir was not hurt, but the gun was best in an extraordinary manner. The breech was what is called a patent one, of the best forged iron, consisting of a chamber ofan 10ch thick all round, and 04 of an inch in caliber; it was torn open and flawed in many directions, and the gold touch hole driven out. The barrel into which the breech was screwed was 05 of an inch thick; it was split by a sagle crack three in hes long, but this did not ap ear to me to be the immediate effect of the explosion. I think the screw of the breech, being suddenly enlarged, acted as a wedge upon the barrel. The ball insed de block of wood, and struck against a wa'l, which had already been the receptacle of so many bullets, that we could not satisfy ourselves about the impression made by this last.

"As it was pretty plain that no gun could contine a quantity of the mercurial powder suthcient to project a buliet with a greater force than an ordinary charge of gunpowder, I determined to try its s comparative strength in another way. I proc ned two blocks of wood, very nearly of the same size and strength, and bored the with the sense instrument to the same depth. The one was harged with half an ounce of the best Bartford gunpowder, and the other with half an ounce of the mercurial powder; both were alike buried in sand, and fired by a train communicating with the powders by a small touch-hole. The block containing the gunpowder was s simply split into three pieces: that charged with the mercurial ponder was burst in every direction, and the parts immediately contiguous to the powder were absolutely pounded, yet the whole hung together, whose he block split by the gunpowder had its parts forly separated. The sand surrounding The gunpowder was undoub iy most disturbed in short, the mercurial powder appeared to hav

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