Billeder på siden
PDF
ePub
[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]
[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

Azotic gas

Nitrous gas
Ammoniac. gas
Sulphur. acid gas.

1.182 1.4544

7311 27611

317:125 636-333 319-832 1207.978

In this table the weight and specific gravities of the principal gases are given, as they correspond to a state of the barometer and thermometer which may be chosen for a medium. The specific gravity of any one gas to that of another will not conform to exactly the same ratio under different degrees of heat and other pressures of the atmosphere, because the various expansions by

no means follow the same law.

These numbers being the weight of a cubic foot, or 1728 cubic inches, of each of the bodies, in avoirdupois ounces, by proportion the quantity in any other weight, or the weight of any other quantity, may be readily known.

For example. Required the content of an irregular block of millstone which weighs 1 cwt. or 112 b. or 1792 ounces. Here, as 2500: 1792::

1728: 12284 cubic inches the content.
Ex. 2. To find the weight of a block of granite,
whose length is 63 feet, and breadth and thickness
each 12 feet; being the dimensions of one of the
stones of granite in the walls of Balbec. Here

63 × 12 × 12=9072 feet is the content of the

stone; therefore as 1 : 9072:: 3500 oz: 31752000 oz. or 885 tons 18 cwt. 3 qrs. the weight of the

stone.

XI. A body descends in a fluid specifically lighter, or ascends in a fluid specifically heavier, with a force equal to the difference between its weight and that of an equal bulk of the fluid.

XII. A body sinks in a fluid specifically heavier, so far as that the weight of the body is equal to the weight of a quantity of the fluid of the same bulk as the part immersed. Hence, as the specific gravity of the fluid, is to that of the body, so is the whole magnitude of the body, to the magnitude of the part immersed.

XIII. The specific gravities of equal solids are as their parts immerged in the fluid.

The several theorems here delivered are both demonstrable from the principles of mechanics, and are also equally conformable to experiment, which answers exactly to the calculation. 1lYDROSTATICS. See

GRAVY. s. The serous juice that runs from flesh not much dried by the fire (Arbuth

tot).

GRAY. a. (zraz, Saxon; grau, Danish.) 1. White with a mixture of black (Newton), 2. White or hoary with old age (Walton). 3. Dark like the opening or close of day; of the colour of ashes (Gay).

GRAY (Thomas), an eminent English poet, was the son of a reputable citizen, and born in Cornhill in 1716. He received his education at Eton school, and the university of Cambridge. He was originally intended for the law; but had not sufficient fortune to enable him to pursue the sindy. After making the tour of France and Italy with Mr. Horace Walpole, he resided chiefly at the university of Cambridge, where he was appointed professor of modern history. He died of the gout in He was profound in his erudition; his genins was of the highest order; though his and poens are but few. He has been often called, we think not improperly, the English Pindar.

1771.

An edition of his poems, with memoirs of his life and writings, was published in 1775, by Mr. Mason. This gentleman, however, inMr. Gray's character, has adopted one drawn stead of employing his own pen in drawing by the Rev. Mr. Temple, rector of Mamhead in Devonshire, in a letter to Mr. Boswell; to whom the public are indebted for communicating it.

Perhaps (says Mr. Temple) he equally acquainted with the elegant and prowas the most learned man in Europe. He was found parts of science, and that not superficially but thoroughly. He knew every branch of history, both natural and civil, had read all the original historians of England, France, and Italy: and was a great antiquarian. Criticism, part of his plan of study; voyages and travels metaphysics, morals, politics, made a principal of all sorts were his favourite amusement; and he had a fine taste in painting, prints, archiknowledge, his conversation must have been tecture, and gardening. With such a fund of equally instructing and entertaining; but he of virtue and humanity. There is no character was also a good man, a well-bred man, a man without some speck, some imperfection; and I think the greatest defect in his was an affectavisible fastidiousness, or contempt and disdain tion of delicacy, or rather effeminacy, and a of his inferiors in science. He also had, in some degree, that weakness which disgusted he seemed to value others chiefly according to Voltaire so much in Mr. Congreve: though the progress they had made in knowledge, yet merely as a man of letters; and though withhe could not bear to be considered himself out birth, or fortune, or station, his desire was to be looked upon as a private independent gentleman, who read for his amusement. Perknowledge, when it produces so little? Is it haps it may be said, What signifies so much worth taking so much pains to leave no memorial but a few poems? But let it be considered, that Mr. Gray was, to others, at least neficially. His time passed agreeably; he was innocently employed; to himself, certainly be every day making some new acquisition in scied, and his virtue strengthened; the world ence; his mind was enlarged, his heart softenand mankind were shewn to him without a mask; and he was taught to consider every thing as trifling, and unworthy the attention ledge, and the practice of virtue in that state of a wise man, except the pursuit of knowwherein God hath placed us."

ment.of Upper Saone. Its trade is in iron.
GRAY, a town of France, in the depart-
Lat. 47. 28 N. Lon. 5. 41 E.

GRAY'S THURROCK, a town in Essex,
with a market on Thursdays.
Lon. 0. 24 E.
Lat. 51. 26 N.

GRAY. S. A badger (Ainsworth).
old man ((Shakspeare).
GRAYBEARD. s. (gray and beard.) An

of SALMO (which see), as to its zoological ar-
GRAYLING, in ichthyology, a species
rangement and specific character.
country it is often fished for.

In this

Its haunts are

nearly the same as those of the trout; and in fishing for either of them you may catch both. They spawn the beginning of April, when they lie mostly in sharp streams; in December the grayling i in his prime, at which time his head and gills are blackish, and his belly dark grey, studded with black spots. He bites very freely, but is often lost when struck, his mouth being very tender. Angle for him about midwater, he being much more apt to rise than descend; and when you angle for him alone and not for the trout also, use a quill-float, with the bait about six or seven inches from the ground. He takes brandlings, gilt-tails, meadow-worms, gentles, &c. but the most excellent bait for him in March or April is the tag-tail.

The grayling is found in great plenty in many rivers in the north, particularly the Humber, and in the Wye, which runs through Herefordshire and Monmouthshire into the Severn.

GRA'YNESS. s. (from gray.) The quality of being gray.

To GRAZE. v. n. (from grass.) 1. To eat grass; to feed on grass (Shakspeare). 2. To supply with grass (Bacon). 3. To move on devouring (Bacon). 4. (from raser, Fr.) To touch lightly (Bacon).

To GRAZE. v. a. 1. To tend grazing cattle (Daniel). 2. To feed upon (Milton). 3. To supply with grass (Swift).

GRAʼZER. s. (from graze.) One that feeds on grass (Philips).

GRAZIER. s. (from graze.) One who feeds cattle (Howel).

GREASE. s. (graisse, French.) The soft part of the fat (Shakspeare).

GREASE, an inflammation and swelling of the heels of horses, sometimes confined to the neighbourhood of the fetlocks, at other times spreading considerably farther up the legs, and secreting an oily matter, to which the disease is properly indebted for its name. The discharge has a particular odour, owing, we imagine, to the secretion of the heels being of a nature peculiar to them, as in the instance of the axilla of the human subject. Horses of the heavy class, with round fleshy legs, are the most liable to grease, and the white legged more than the rest. The disease is almost exclusively found in the posterior extremities.

Grease is brought on by sudden changes from a cold to a hot temperature: such as removing horses from grass into hot stables; from hastily substituting a generous for an impoverishing diet; from the negligence of grooms, in leaving the heels wet and full of sand; and from constitutional debility. The reason which has been assigned for the hindleg of the horse being particularly the seat of this complaint is, the distance being greatest between that and the heart, in consequence of which the blood's circulation is weakest in these parts, and the pressure of its column overcome with the greatest difficulty by the vessels.

On the approach of this disease, and for several days previously to any striking appear

ances of swelling and inflammation, considerable pain seems to be experienced by the animal in the affected heel, as he is continually raising it from the ground, and cannot rest upon it without much uneasiness.

The inflammation and enlargement increase, and a great multitude of little exulcerations follow, throwing forth a perpetual discharge of fetid sanies. To these follow, from the irritating nature of the discharge, a great number of warty excrescences, vesicles filled with an acrimonious fluid and cadaverous ulcerations, the caustic sanies from which hangs in the hair as it flows, producing a chain of fresh ulcers, or corrodes and destroys the hair altogether, still adhering to the superincumbent cuticle.

A horse, in such a state, should be separated from others, lest a miasm so excessively noxious should lay the foundation of this or some other disease among horses perfectly sound.

In the incipient state of the disease, the inflammation may be often removed with ease by linseed poultices and purgatives. If ulceration ensue, to remove the inflammation the poultices should still be applied, and the ulcers washed clean and dressed with digestive ointment: when the inflammation has subsided, solutions of alum or borax should be applied liberally, and the horse ridden frequently into the sea, or turned into salt marshes. If the disease, by neglect, become altogether constitutional, it is not easy to exterminate it; and the death of the animal will be generally found the cheapest remedy.

To GREASE. v. a. (from the noun.) 1. To smear or anoint with grease. 2. To bribe; to corrupt with presents (Dryden).

GRE'ASINESS. s. (from grease.) Oiliness; fatness (Boyle).

GREASY. a. (from grease.) 1. Oily; fat; unctuous (Shakspeare). 2. Smeared with grease (Mortimer). 3. Fat of body; bulky (Shakspeare).

GREAT. a. (great, Saxon.) 1. Large in bulk or number (Locke). 2. Having any quality in a high degree (Tillotson). 3. Considerable in extent or duration (Sam.). 4. Important; weighty (Shakspeure). 5. Chief; principal (Shakspeare). 6. Of high rank; of large power (Pope.) 7. Illustrious; eminent; noble (Jeremiah). 8. Grand of aspect; of elevated mien (Dryden). 9. Magnanimous ; generous (Sidney). 10. Swelling; proud (Knolles). 11. Familiar; much acquainted (Bacon). 12. Preguant; teeming (May). 13. It is added in every step of ascending or descending consanguinity: as, great grandson is the son of my grandson (Addison). 14. Hard; difficult; grievous (Taylor).

GREAT. s. (from the adjective.) The whole; the gross; the whole in a lump (Raleigh).

GREATBELLIED. a. (great and belly.) Pregnant; teeming (Wilkins).

To GREATEN. v. a. (from great.) To aggrandize; to enlarge (Raleigh).

GREATHEARTED. a. (great and heart.) High-spirited; undejected (Clarendon).

GREATLY. ad. (from great.) 1. In a great degree (Milton). 2. Nobly; illustrious. ly (Dryden). 3. Magnanimously; generously; bravely (Addison).

GREATNESS. s. (from great.) 1. Largeness of quantity or number. 2. Comparative quantity (Locke). 3. High degree of any quality (Rogers). 4. High place; dignity; power; influence; empire (Swift). 5. Swelling pride; affected state (Bacon). 6. Merit; magnanimity; nobleness of mind (Milton). 7. Grandeur; state; magnificence (Popc).

GREAVE. s. (græf, Saxon.) A grove (Spenser).

GREAVES. s. (from gréves, French,) Armour for the legs; a sort of boots (Samuel).

GREAVES (John), a celebrated mathematician and antiquary, was born at Colmore in Hampshire, in 1602; and educated at Oxford. After visiting several parts of the continent, he went first to Constantinople and afterwards to Egypt, and returned home through Italy, stored with manuscripts, gems, coins, and other antiquities. After his return he was made professor of astronomy at Oxford; but he was obliged to resign the professorship by the persecution of the parliamentary visitors. He died in 1652. He was the author of several learned works.

GREBE, in ornithology. See COLYM

BUS.

GRECISM. s. (græcismus, Latin.) An idiom of the Greek language.

GREE. s. Good-will; favour (Spenser). GREECE. s. (corrupted from degrees.) A flight of steps: obsolete (Shakspeare).

GREECE, the present Rumelia, and in many respects one of the most deservedly celebrated countries in the world, was anciently bounded on the north by Macedonia and the river Strymon on the west by the Ionian sea; on the south by the Mediterranean, on the east by the Egean sea, and Archipelago. It extended from the Strymon, by which it was parted from Thrace, to the promontory of Tenarus, the southmost point of the Peloponnesus, now the Morea, nearly 440 English miles, and in breadth from east to west about 359 miles.

The general names by which the inhabitants of this country were known to the ancients were those of Graioi, or Graicoi, from whence the name of Greece is plainly derived. These names are thought to come from Græcus, the father, or (according to some) the son, of Thessalus, who gave name to Thessaly; but some modern critics choose to derive it from Ragau, the same with Reu, the son of Peleg, by the transposition of a letter to soften the Sound. These names were afterwards changed for Achæi and Hellenes; the first, as is supposed, from Achæus, the son of Xuthus, the son of Hellen, and father of Ion; or, according to the fable, the son of Jupiter: the other from Hellen above-mentioned, the son of Deucalion, and father of Dorns, from whom came the Dores, afterwards a famous nation among The Greeks. Another name by which the Greeks were known in some parts of the coun

try was that of Pelasgi, which the Arcadians, the most ancient people in Greece, deduced from their pretended founder Pelagus; who is said to have got such footing in Peloponnesus, that the whole peninsula from him was called Pelasgia. But the most ancient name of all is universally allowed to have been that of lones, which the Greeks themselves derived from Ion above; or, as the fable hath it, the son of Apollo, by Creusa, the daughter of Erichthens. Josephus, however, affirms that their original is of much older date, and that Javan, the son of Japhat, and grandson of Noah, was the first who peopled these coun tries. It is true, indeed, that among the Greeks themselves, only the Athenians, and such colonies as sprung from them, were called Jones: but it is also plain, beyond exception, that other nations gave this name to all the inhabitants.

We cannot attempt within the bounds of this article to give even a sketch of the Grecian history and manners; we must therefore refer to the standard authors upon these subjects, Gillies, Goldsmith, Mitford, Potter, De Pauw, &c. We merely remark that after their conquest by the Romans they made no united effort to recover their liberty. They continued in quiet subjection till the beginning of the 15th century. About that time they began to suffer under the tyranny of the Turks, and their sufferings were completed by the taking of Constantinople in 1453. Since that time they have groaned under the yoke of a most despotic government; so that all traces of their former valour, ingenuity, and learning, are now in a manner totally extinct.

Modern Greece comprehends Macedonia ; Albania, now called Arnaut; Epirus; Thessaly, now Jana; Achaia, now Livadia; the Peloponnesus, now Morea; together with the islands on its coast, and in the Archipelago. The continent of Greece is seated betwixt the 36th and 43d degrees of north latitude; and between the 19th and 27th degrees of longitude, east of London. To the north it is bounded by Bulgaria and Servia, from which it is divided by a ridge of mountains; to the south by the Mediterranean sea; to the east by Romania and the Archipelago, and to the west by the Adriatic, or gulf of Venice. Its length is said to be about 400 miles, and its utmost breadth about 350 miles. The air is extremely temperate and healthy; and the soil fruitful, though badly cultivated, yielding corn, wine, delicious fruits, and abounding with cattle, fowls, and venison. As to religion, Christianity was planted in Greece soon after the death of our Saviour, and flourished there for many ages in great purity; but since the Greeks became subject to the Turkish yoke, they have sunk into the most deplorable ignorance, in consequence of the slavery and thraldom under which they groan, and their religion is now greatly corrupted. See GREEK CHURCH.

As to the character of the modern Greeks, they are said to be very covetous, hypocritical, treacherous, great pederasts, and at the same time revengeful to the highest degree, but very

« ForrigeFortsæt »