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To Fowl. v. n. To kill birds for food or game.

FOWLER. s. (from fowl.) A sportsman who pursues birds (Philips. Pope).

see the articles under each particular kind in their proper places. See also SHOOTING.

FOWLING-PIECE, a gun for shooting game of all kinds, whether of course or feather.

On the perfect construction of this depends, in a great degree, the success and even the safety of the sportsman. We shall therefore enter at some length into its form and requisites, whatever be the sport for which it is immediately designed.

FOWLER (Edward), an English prelate, was born at Westerleigh in Gloucestershire, in 112, and educated at Corpus Christi college, Oxford. At the restoration he scrupled conformity, having been bred wholly among the paritans; but at length he complied, and in 1673 he was presented to the rectory of All--To form a gun-barrel in the manner generally hallows, Bread-street. In 1675 he was made prebendary of Gloucester, and in 1681 vicar of St. Giles's, Cripplegate. The same year he Book his doctor's degree. He was a very active promoter of the revolution, for which he was romoted to the see of Gloucester in 1691, He died at Chelsea in 1714. He published several religious books; the best known of which is that intituled, The Design of Christimnity; or a plain Demonstration and Improvement of this Proposition, viz. that the enduing man with inward real righteousness and true holiness was the ultimate end of our Saviour's coming into the world, and is the great intendment of his blessed gospel, 8vo. This excellent book has been frequently printed, and deserves a serious perusal.

FOWLING': a sporting term applied in different counties, and by different sportsmen, to different pursuits. It is equally applicable to land or water birds of certain descriptions, or to the apparatus of net or gun; or to enticement or decoy by pipe, whistle, or call.

Of the manufacture and perfection of a fowling-piece. practised for those denominated common, the workmen begin by heating and hammering out a bar of iron into the form of a flat ruler, thinner at the end intended for the muzzle, and thicker at that for the breech; the length, breadth, and thickness, of the whole plate, being regulated by the intended length, diameter, and weight of the barrel. This oblong plate of metal is then, by repeated heating and hammering, turned round a cylindrical rod of tempered iron, called a mandril, whose diameter is considerably less than the intended bore of the barrel. The edges of the plate are made to overlap each other about half an inch, and are welded together by heating the tube in lengths of two or three inches at a time, and hammering it, with very brisk but moderate strokes, upon an anvil which has a number of semicircular furrows in it, adapted to the various sizes of barrels. The heat required for welding is, the bright white heat, which immediately precedes fusion, and at which the particles of the metal unite and blend so intimately with each other, that, when properly managed, not a trace is left of their former separation: this degree of heat is generally known by a number of brilliant sparks flying off from the iron whilst in the fire; although it requires much practice and experience to ascertain the degree of heat required for weld

Water fowls are naturally the most subtil and cunning of birds, and most careful of their own safety; whence they have, by some authors, been compared to an orderly and well-ing iron, which possesses various qualities, and is governed camp, having scouts on land afar off, eoarts of guards, centinels, and all kinds of other watchful officers, surrounding the body, to give an alarm upon the approach of any seeming danger.

And in fact, you will always find that there are some straggling fowls which lie aloof from the greater number, which will call first.

Now it is the nature of water fowl to fly in great flocks, having always a regard to the general safety; so that if you see a single fowl or a couple fly together, you may imagine they have been affrighted from the rest by some sudden disturbance, or apprehension of danger; but so naturally are they inclined to society, that they seldom leave wing till they meet together again.

And this is occasioned not only by the near approach of man, but also by the beating of haggards upon the rivers, as well as by the appearance of the bold buzzard and ring-tail.

Of water fowls there are two kinds, the one such as live off the water, or on it but without swimming in it; wading, and diving alone with their long legs, constituting the gralla order: the other, the web-footed that are pecuharly formed for swimming, as the swan, goose, mallard, and indeed all the anseres tribe.

As to the manner of fowling, or taking fowls,

seldom alike. Every time the barrel is withdrawn from the forge, the workman strikes the end of it once or twice gently against the anvil in a horizontal direction: this operation, which the English artists term jumping, the French, estoquer, serves to consolidate the particles of the metal more perfectly, and to obliterate any appearance of a scam in the barrel. The mandril is then introduced into the bore or cavity; and the barrel, being placed in one of the furrows or moulds of the anvil, is hammered very briskly by two persons besides the forger, who all the time keeps turning the barrel round in the mould, so that every point of the heated portion may come equally under the action of the hammers. These heatings and hammerings are repeated until the whole of the barrel has undergone the same operation, and all its parts are rendered as perfectly continuous as if it had been bored out of a solid piece.

The imperfections to which a gun-barrel is liable in forging are of three kinds, viz. the chink, the crack, and the flaw. The chick is a solution of continuity, running lengthwise of the barrel. The crack is a solution of continuity, more irregular in its form than the chink, and running in a transverse direction, or across the barrel. The flaw differs from both: it is a small plate or scale, which adheres to the barrel by a narrow base, from which it spreads out as the head of a nail does from its shank; and, when separated, leaves a pit or hollow in the metal.

With regard to the soundness of the barrel, the

rame leg in K and the same opening describe another are to intersect the former; on this point of intersection as a centre, and wish a radius equal to thirty brims, describe the arc NK; in 6K produced take CB of the larger measure of the scale, or of the brim, and on the same centre with the radius 304 brims describe an arc AB parallel to NK. For the arc BC, take twelve divisions of the scale, or twelve brims in the compass; fiad a centre, and from that centre, with this opening, describe the arc BC, in the same manner as NK or AB were described. There are various yays of describing the arc Kp; some describe it a centre at the distance of nine brims from the ints p and K; others, as it is done in the figure, a centre at the distance only of seven brims from those points. But it is necessary first to find point p, and to determine the rounding of the bell pl. For this purpose, on the point C as a centre, and with the radius C1, describe the arc 1p; bisect the part 1 2 of the line Dn, and, erect. ing the perpendicular pm, this perpendicular will cut the are 1p in m, which terminates the roundglp. Some founders make the bendings K a third of a brim lower than the middle of the line DN; others make the part CID more acute; and, instead of making C1 perpendicular to DN at 1, draw it th of a brim higher, making it still equal one brim; so that the line 1D is longer than the brim C1. In order to trace out the top-part Na, take in the compass eight divisions of the scale or eight brims, and on the points N and D as centres, describe arcs to intersect each other in 8: on this point 8, with a radius of eight brims, describe the arc No; this arc will be the exterior curve of the top or crown: on the same point 8 as a centre, and with a radius equal to 74 brims, describe the arc Ae, and this will be the interior carve of the crown, and its whole thickness will be one-third of the brim. As the point 8 does not fall in the axis of the bell, a centre M may be found in the axis by describing, with the interval of eight brims on the centres D and H, arcs which will intersect in M; and this point may be made the centre of the inner and outer curves of the crown as before. The thickness of the cap which strengthens the crown at Q is about one-third of the thickness of the brim; and the hollow branches or ears about one-sixth of the diameter of the bell. The height of the bell is in proportion to its diameter as twelve to fifteen, or in the proportion of the fundamental sound to its third major: whence it follows, that the sound of a bell is principally composed of the sound of its extremity or brim, as a fundamental of the sound of the crown which is an octave to it, and of that of the height which is a third.

The particulars necessary for making the mould of a bell are, 1. The earth: the most cohesive is the best; it must be well ground and sifted, to prevent any chinks. 2. Brick-stone, which must be used for the mine, mould, or core, and for the furnace. 3. Horse-dung, hair, and hemp, mixed with the earth, to render the cement more binding. 4. The wax for inscriptions, coats of arms, &c. 5. The tallow equally mixed with the wax, in order to put a slight lay of it upon the outer mould, before any letters are applied to it. 6. The coals to dry the mould.

For making the mould, the workmen have a scaffold consisting of four boards, ranged upon tressels. Upon this they carry the earth, grossly diluted, to mix it with horse-dung, beating the whole with a large spatula.

The compasses of construction is the chief instrument for making the mould, which consist of two different legs joined by a third piece. And, last of all, the founders' shelves, on which are the engravings of the letters, cartridges, coats of arms, &c.

They first dig a hole of a sufficient depth to contain the mould of the bell, together with the case or cannon, under ground; and about six inches lower than the terreplain, where the work is performed. The hole must be wide enough for a free passage between the mould and walls of the hole, or between one mould and another, when several bells are to be cast. At the centre of the hole is a stake erected, that is strongly fastened in the ground. This supports an iron peg, on which the pivot of the second branch of the compasses turns. The stake is encompassed with a solid brick-work, perfectly round, about half a foot high, and of the proposed bell's diameter. This they call a mill-stone. The parts of the mould are, the core, the model of the bell, and the shell. When the outer surface of the core is formed, they begin to raise the core, which is made of bricks that are laid in courses of equal height upon a lay of plain earth. At the laying of cach brick, they bring near it the branch of the compasses, on which the curve of the core is shaped, so as that there may remain between it and the curve the distance of a line, to be afterwards filled up with layers of cement. The work is continued to the top, only leaving an opening for the coals to bake the core. This work is covered with a layer of cement, made of earth and horse-dung; on which they move the compasses of construction, to make it of an even smoothness every where.

The first layer being finished, they put the fire to the core, by filling it half with coals, through an opening that is kept skut during the baking, with a cake of earth that has been separately baked. The first fire consumes the stake, and the fire is left in the core half or sometimes a whole day: the first layer being thoroughly dry, they cover it with a second, third, and fourth; each being smoothed by the board of the compasses, and thoroughly dried before they proceed to another.

The core being completed, they take the compasses to pieces, with intent to cut off the thickness of the model; and the compasses are immediately put in their place to begin a second piece of the mould. It consists of a mixture of earth and hair, applied with the hand on the core, in several cakes that close together. This work is finished by several layers of a thinner cement of the same matter, smoothed by the compasses, and thoroughly dried before another is laid on. The first layer of the model is a mixture of wax and grease spread over the whole. After which are applied the inscriptions, coats of arms, &c. besmeared with a pencil dipped in a vessel of wax in a chafing-dish: this is done for every letter. Before the shell is begun, the compasses are taken to pieces, to cut off all the wood that fills the place of the thickness to be given to the shell.

The first layer is the same earth, with the rest, sifted very fine; whilst it is tempering in water, it is mixed with cow's hair to make it cohere. The whole being a thin matter is gently poured on the model, that fills exactly all the sinuosities of the figures, &c.; and this is repeated till the whole is two lines thick over the model. When this layer is thoroughly dried, they cover it with a second of the same matter, but somewha

thicker; when this second layer becomes of some consistence, they apply the compasses again, and light a fire in the core, so as to melt off the wax of the inscriptions, &c.

After this, they go on with other layers of the shell, by means of the compasses. Here they add to the cow's ha'r a quantity of hemp, spread upon the layers, and afterwards smoothed by the board of the compasses. The thickness of the shell comes to four or five inches lower than the millstone before observed, and surrounds it quite close, which prevents the extravasation of the metal. The wax should be taken out before the melting of the metal.

The ear of the bell requires a separate work, which is done during the drying of the several incrustations of the cement. It has seven rings: the seventh is called the bridge, and unites the others, being a perpendicular support to strengthen the curves. It has an aperture at the top, to admit a large iron je bent at the bottom; and this is introduced into two holes in the beam, fastened with two strong tron keys. There are models made of the rings, with masses of beaten earth, that are dried in the fire, in order to have the hollow of them. These rings are gently pressed upon a layer of earth and cow's hair, one half of its depth, and then taken out without breaking the mould. This operation is repeated twelve times for twelve half-moulds, that two and two united may make the hollows of the sx rings: the same they do for the hollow of the bridge, and bake them all, to unite them together.

Upon the open place left for the coals to be put in, are placed the rings that constitute the ear. They first put into this open place the iron ring to support the clapper of the bell; then they make a round cake of clay, to fill up the diameter of the thickness of the core. This cake, after baking, is clapped upon the opening, and soldered with a thin mortar spread over it, which binds the cover close to the core.

The hollow of the model is filled with an earth, sufficiently moist to fix on the place, which is strewed at several times upon the cover of the core; and they beat it gently with a pestle, to a proper height; and a workman smooths the earth at top with a wooden trowel dipped in water.

same interval between that and the core; and be fore the hollows of the rings or the cap are put on again, they add two vents, that are united to the rings, and to each other, by a mass of baked cement. After which they put on this mass of the cap, the rings, and the vent, over the shell, and solder it with thin cement, which is dried gradually by covering it with burning coals. Then they fill up the pit with earth, beating it strongly all the time round the mould.

Upon this cover, to be taken off afterwards, they assemble the hollows of the rings. When every thing is in its proper place, they strengthen the outside of the hollows with mortar, in order to bind them with the bridge, and keep them steady at the bottom, by means of a cake of the same mortar, which fills up the whole aperture of the shell. This they let dry, that it may be removed without breaking. To make room for the metal, they pull off the hollows of the rings, through which the metal is to pass before it enters into the vacuity of the mould. The shell being ualoaded of its ear, they range under the mill-stone five or six pieces of wood, about two feet long, and thick enough to reach almost the lower part of the shell: between these and the mould they drive in wooden wedges with a mallet, to shake the shell of the model whereon it rests, so as to be pulled up and got out of the pit.

When this and the wax are removed, they break the model and the layer of earth, through which the metal must run, from the hollow of the rings, between the shell and the core. They smoke the inside of the shell, by burning straw under it, that helps to smooth the surface of the bell. Then they put the shell in the place, so as to leave the

The furnace has a place for the fire, and another for the metal. The fre-place has a large chimney with a spacious ash-hole. The furnace which contains the metal is vaulted, and its bottom is made of earth, rammed down; the rest is built with brick. It has four apertures; the first through which the flame revibrates; the second is closed with a stopple that is opened for the metal to run; the others are to separate the dross cr scoriæ of the metal by wooden rakes: through these last apertures passes the thick smoke. The ground of the furnace is built sloping, for the metal to run down.

Foundery of Great Guns and Mortar- Pieces. The method of casting these pieces is little different from that of bells: they are run massy, without any core, being determined by the hollow of the shell; and they are afterwards bored with a steel trepan, that is worked either by horses, a watermill, or a steam engine. See farther the article GUNNERY.

Letter-Foundery, or Casting of Fypes for Printing. In the business of cutting, casting, &c. letters for printing, the letter-cutter must be provided with a vice, hand-vice, hammers, and files of all sorts for watch-makers' use; as also graveis and sculp ters of all sorts, and an oil-stone, &c. suitable and sizeable to the several letters to be cut: a flat gage made of box to hold a rod of steel, or the body of a mould, &c. exactly perpendicular to the dat of the using file: a sliding-gage, whose use is to measure and set off distances between the shoulder and the tooth, and to mark it off from the end, or from the edge of the work: a face-gage, which is a square notch cut with a file into the edge of a thin plate of steel, iron, or brass, of the thickness of a piece of common tin, whose use is to proportion the face of each sort of letter, viz. long letters, ascending letters, and short letters. So there must be three gages, and the gage for the long letters is the length of the whole body supposed to be divided into 42 equal parts. The gage for the ascending letters Reman and Italic are 3, or 30 parts of 42, and 33 parts for the English face The gage for the short letters is, or 15 parts of 42 of the whole body for the Roman and Italic, and 22 parts for the English face.

The Italic and other standing gages are to mea sure the scope of the Ialic steins, by applying the top and bottom of the gage to the top and bottom lines of the letters, and the other side of the gage to the stem; for when the letter complies with these three sides of that gage, it has its true shape.

The next care of the letter-cutter is to prepare good steel punches, well tempered, and quite free from all veins of iron; on the face of which be draws or marks the exact shape of the letter with pen and ink, if the letter be large, or with a smooth blunted point of a needle if it be small; and then with sizeable, and proper shaped and pointed gravers and sculpters, digs or sculps out the steel between the strokes or marks so made on the face of the punch, and leaves the marks stand

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