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To produce by precedent action (Hooker). 4. To form by meditation; to contrive. 5. (from hacher, French, to cut.) To shade by lines in drawing or graving (Dryden).

To HATCH. v. n. 1. To be in a state of growing quick (Boyle). 2. To be in a state of advance toward effect.

HATCH. 8. (from the verb.) 1. A brood excluded from the egg. 2. The act of exclusion from the egg. 3. Disclosure: discovery (Shakspeare). 4. (heca, Saxon.) A half door (Shakspeare). 5. (In the plural.) The doors or openings by which they descend from one deck or floor of a ship to another (Dryden). 6. To be under HATCHES. To be in a state of ignominy, poverty, or depression (Locke).

To HATCHEL. v. a. (hachelen, German.) To beat flax so as to separate the fibrous from the brittle part (Woodward).

HA'TCHEL. 8. (hachel, German.) The instrument with which flax is beaten.

HATCHELLER. 8. (from hatchel.) beater of flax.

A

HATCHET. 8. (hache, hachette, French.) A small axe (Crashaw).

HATCHET-FACE. 8. A thin ugly face (Dry.) HATCHET-FORM, in botany. See DOLA

BRIFORM.

HATCHING, the maturating fecundated eggs, whether by the incubation and warmth of the parent bird, or by artificial heat, so as to produce young chickens alive. For the natural process, see the Article ORNITHOLOGY.

The art of hatching chickens by means of ovens has long been practised in Egypt; but it is there only known to the inhabitants of a single village named Berme, and to those that live at a small distance from it. Towards the beginning of autumn they scatter themselves all over the country, where each person among them is ready to undertake the management of an oven, each of which is of a different size, but in general they are capable of containing from forty to fourscore thousand eggs. The number of these ovens placed up and down the country is about three hundred and eighty-six, and they usually keep them working for about six months. As, therefore, each brood takes up in an oven, as under a ben, only twenty-one days, it is easy in every one of them to hatch eight different broods of chickens. Every Bermean is under the obligation of delivering to the person who intrusts him with an oven, only two-thirds of as many chickens as there have been eggs put under his care; and he is a gainer by this bargain, as more than two-thirds of the eggs usually produce chickens. In order to make a calculation of the number of chickens yearly so hatched in Egypt, it has been suppos ed that only two-thirds of the eggs are hatched, and that each brood consists of at least thirty thousand chickens; and thus it would appear that the ovens of Egypt give life yearly to at least ninety-two millions six hundred and forty thousand of these animals.

This useful and advantageous method of hatching eggs has been employed in France by

the ingenious Mr. Reaumur, who, by a number of experiments, reduced the art to certain principles. He found by experience that the heat necessary for this purpose is nearly the same with that marked 32 on his thermometer, or that marked 96 on Fahrenheit's. This degree of heat is nearly that of the skin of the hen, and what is remarkable, of the skin of all other domestic fowls, and probably of all other kinds of birds. The degree of heat which brings about the development of the cygnet, the gosling, and the turkey-pout, is the same as that which fits for hatching the canary-songster, and, in all probability, the smallest humming-bird: the difference is only in the time during which this heat ought to be communicated to the eggs of different birds: it will bring the canary-bird to perfection in eleven or twelve days, while the turkey-pout will require twenty-seven or twenty-eight.

Mr. Reaumur invented a sort of low boxes, without bottoms, and lined with furs. These, which he calls artifical parents, not only shelter the chickens from the injuries of the air, but afford a kindly warmth, so that they presently take the benefit of their shelter as readily as they would have done under the wings of a hen. After hatching, it will be necessary to keep the chickens for some time in a room artfully heated, and furnished with these boxes ; but afterwards they may be safely exposed to the air in the court-yard, in which it may not be amiss to place one of these artificial parents to shelter them if there should be occasion for it.

As to the manner of feeding the young brood, they are generally a whole day after being hatched before they take any food at all; and then a few crumbs of bread may be given them for a day or two, after which they will begin to pick up insects and grass for themselves. But to save the trouble of attending them, cas pons may be taught to watch them in the same manner as hens do. Mr. Reaumur assures us that he has seen above two hundred chickens at once, all led about and defended only by three or four such capons. Nay, cocks may be taught to perform the same office, which they, as well as the capons, will continue to do all their lives after.

To facilitate the process of hatching, an ap paratus called an artificial mother has been recently invented, and the inventor rewarded by the Society of Arts.

HATCHMENT, in heraldry, the marshalling of several coats of arms in an escutcheon. ПATCHMENT is also a popular name for an achievement.

By these hatchments or funeral escutcheons, it may be known after any person's decease what rank either he or she held when living; and if it be a gentleman's hatchment, whether he was a batchelor, married man, or widower, with the like distinctions for gentlewomen. See HERALDRY.

HAT'CHWAY. s. (hatches and way.) Tire way over or through the hatches.

To HATE. v. a. (harian, Saxon.) To detest; to abhor; to abominate (Shakspeare). HATE. 8. (hate, Saxon.) Malignity; detestation; the contrary to love (Broome).

HATEFUL. a. (hate and full.). 1. That causes abhorrence; odious (Peacham). 2. Abhorrent; detesting; malignant; malevolent (Dryden).

HATEFULLY. ad. 1. Odionsly; abominably. 2. Malignantly; maliciously (Chap. man).

HATEFULNESS. s. Odiousness. HATER. 8. (from hate.) One that hates; an abhorrer; a detester (South).

HATFIELD, or BISHOP'S HATFIELD, a town of England, in the county of Herts. It takes the latter name for having once belonged to the bishops of Ely, who had a palace here, which with the manor became alienated to the crown, in the reign of queen Elizabeth, who occasionally resided here, and was hence conducted to be crowned, at London. Here is a weekly market on Thursday: seven miles W.S.W. of Hertford, and nineteen and a half N. London. Lat 51. 48 N. Lon. 0. 10 W.

HATFIELD BROAD OAK, or HATFIELD REGIS, a town in Essex, with a market on Saturdays. Lat. 51. 48 N. Lon. 0.20 E. HATHERLY, a town in Devonshire, with a market on Fridays. Lat. 50. 52 N. Lon.

4. 9 W.

HATRED. s. (from hate.) Hate; ill-will; malignity; abhorrence (South.)

To HATTER. v. n. To harass; to weary; to tire out (Dryden).

HATTER. S. (from hat.) A maker of hats. HA'TTOCK. s. (attock, Erse.) A shock of

corn.

HATUAN, a town and fortress of Upper Hungary, 28 miles N.E. of Buda. Lat. 47. 44 N. Lon. 18. 54 E.

HAVANNA, a seaport on the N.W. part of the island of Cuba, opposite Florida, It is famous for its harbour, which is so large that it may hold 1000 vessels; and yet the mouth is so narrow that only one ship can enter at a time. This is the place where all the ships that come from the Spanish settlements rendezvous on their return to Spain. It is near two miles in circumference, and, in 1700, was computed to contain 26,000 inhabitants, Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Negroes; a number which must have been considerably increased since. The entrance into the harbour is well defended by forts and platforms of great guns, The buildings are elegant, built of stone, and some of them superbly furnished; and the churches are rich and magnificent. Here is the residence of the governor and captain-ge neral of Cuba, and of the royal officers, as well as of an assessor for the assistance of the governor and captain-general of the West Indies, of the bishop of St. Jago de Cuba, and of most of the men of fashion and fortune belonging to the island. It was taken by the English in 1762, but restored to the Spaniards

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HAVANT, a town in Hampshire, with a market on Saturdays. Lat. 50. 52 N. Lon. 0, 58 E.

HAUBERC. 8. (hauberg, old French.) A coat of mail; a breastplate (Spenser).

To HAVE. v. a. I have, thou hast, he hath; we, ye, they have; pret. and part. pass. had. (habban, Saxon; hebben, Dutch.) 1. Not to be without (Acts). 2. To carry; to wear (Sidney). 3. To make use of (Judges). 4. To possess (Exodus). 5. To obtain; to enjoy (John). 6. To take; to receive (Dryden.) 7. To be in any state (Samuel). 8. To put; to take (Tusser), 9. To procure; to find (Locke). 10. Not to neglect; not to omit (Shakspeare.) 11. To hold; to regard (Psalms). 12. To maintain; to hold opinion (Bacon). 13. To contain (Shakspeare), 14. To require; to claim (Dryden). 15. To be a husband or wife to another (Shakspeare). 15. To be engaged, as in a task (Addison). 17. To wish; to desire (Psalms). 18. To buy (Collier), 19. It is most used in English, as in other Earopean languages, as an auxiliary verb to make the tenses; have, hast, and hath, or has, the preterperfect; and had and hast, the preterpla perfect. 20. Have at, or with, is an expression denoting resolution to make some attempt (Dryden).

HAVEL, a river of Brandenburg, which proceeds from a lake in the duchy of Mecklen burg, and falls into the Elbe.

HAVELBERG, a town of Germany, in the electorate of Brandenburg, with a secularized bishop's see. Lat. 53. 5 N. Lon. 12. 26 E.

HAVEN. s. (haven, Dutch.). I. A port; a harbour; a station for ships (Den.) 2. A shelter; an asylum (Shakspeare).

HAVENER. s. (from haven.) An overseer of a port (Carew).

HAVER. 8. (from have.) Possessor; holder (Shakspeare).

HAVER is a common word in the northern counties for oats (Peacham).

HAVERFORD-WEST, a town of Pembrokeshire, with markets on Tuesdays and Sa turdays. It is a town and county of itself, seated on a creek of Milford-haven, over which is a stone bridge. The town is handsome: it contains three parishes, 613 houses, and 250 inhabitants. It has a considerable trade, with several vessels belonging to it, and sends one member to parliament. The assizes and coun ty gaol are kept here. Lat. 51. 50 N. Lon. 5.0 W.

HAVERHILL, a town of Suffolk, with a market on Wednesdays, and a manufacture of checks, cottons, and fustians. Lat. 52. 6 N. Lon. 0. 28 E.

HAUGHT. a. (haut, French.) 1. Hangh ty; insolent: obsolete (Shakspeare). 2. High; proudly magnanimous (Spenser).

HAUGHTILY. ad. (from haughty.) Proudly; arrogantly; contemptuously (Dry)

HAUGHTINESS. 8. (from haughty). Pride; arrogance (Dryden).

Haughtiness, says Dr. Cogan, is an overt act of pride, manifested by some conduct or expression, indicative of unmerited contempt of others. It may be deemed in this case the swelling of pride into an emotion.

HAUGHTY. a. (hautaine, French.) 1. Proud; lofty; insolent; arrogant; contemptuous (Clarendon). 2. Proudly great (Prior). 3. Bold; adventurous: obsolete (Spenser). HAVING. 8. (from have.) 1. Possession; estate; fortune (Shakspeare). 2. The act or state of possessing (Sidney). 3. Behaviour; regularity (Shakspeare).

HAVIOUR. 8. (for behaviour.) Conduct; manners: not used (Spenser).

To HAUL. v. a. (haler, French, to draw.) To pull; to draw; to drag by violence (Pope).

HAUL THE WIND, in naval affairs, to direct the ship's course nearer to that point of the compass from which the wind arises. Example. If a ship sail south-west, with the wind northerly, and it is necessary to haul the wind farther to the westward: to perform this operation, it is necessary to arrange the sails more obliquely with her keel; to brace the yards more forward, and to haul the lower sheets farther aft, and finally to put the helm over the larboard-side of the vessel. When her head is turned directly to the westward, and her sails are trimmed accordingly, she is said to have hauled the wind four points, that is to say, from south-west to west.

HAUL. 8. (from the verb.) Pull; violence in dragging (Thomson).

HAUM, 8. (healm, Saxon.) Straw (Tusser). HAUNCH OF A HORSE, the hip of the animal. That part of the hind quarter which extends from the point of the hip-bone, down the thigh to the hock. The phrase "putting a horse upon his haunches," implies making him fix the principal weight of his frame upon his hind quarters, by which he bears less upon the bit, and becomes habitually light in hand. HAUNCH OF VENISON, the hind quarter of a fallow deer (buck or doe) cut in a particular form for the table. The hind quarter of a stag, or hind, passes also under the same denomination; but it is more correct to call the former a launch of venison; the latter, a haunch of red deer.

To HAUNT. v. a. (hanter, French.) 1. To frequent; to be much about any place or person (Sidney.) 2. It is used frequently in an ill sense of one that comes unwelcome (Swift). 3. It is eminently used of apparitions that appear in a particular place (Pope).

To HAUNT. v. n. To be much about; to appear frequently (Shakspeare).

HAUNT. 3. (from the verb.) 1. Place in which one is frequently found. 2. Habit of being in a certain place (Arbuthnot).

HAUNTER. 8. (from haunt.) Frequenter; one that is often found in any place (Wotton). HA'VOCK. 8. (hafog, Welsh.) Waste; wide and general devastation (Addison).

HA'VOCK. interj. A word of encourage. ment to slaughter (Shakspeare).

To HA'VOCK. v. a. (from the noun.) To waste; to destroy; to lay waste (Milton). HAVRE, in geography, the same with haven or harbour.

HAVRE-DE-GRACE, a considerable seaport of France, in the department of Lower Seine, with a strong citadel and good arsenal. Lat. 49. 29 N. Lon. 0. 11 E.

HAUT, in music, high or shrill.

HAUTBOY. A portable wind instrument of the reed kind, adapted to high or shrill notes, consisting of a tube gradually widening from the top towards the lower end, and furnished with keys and circular holes for modulating its sounds. The name is French, haut bois, viz. high-wood, the instrument with which it is compared in the formation of the name being the bassoon, or low wood instrument.

HAUTEFEUILLE (John,) an ingenious mechanic, born at Orleans in 1674. He made a great progress in mechanics in general, but had a particular taste for clock-work, and made several discoveries in it that were of singular use. It was he it seems who found out the secret of moderating the vibration of the balance by means of a small steel-spring, which has since been made use of. This discovery he laid before the members of the Academy of Sciences in 1694; and these watches are, by way of eminence, called pendulumwatches; not that they have real pendulums, but because they nearly approach to the justness of pendulums. M. Huygens perfected this happy invention; but having declared himself the inventor and obtained a patent for making watches with spiral springs, the abbe Feuille opposed the registering of it, and published a piece on the subject against Huygens. He died in 1724, at 50 years of age. Besides the above, he wrote a great many other pieces, most of which are small pamphlets, but very curious: as, 1. His perpetual Pendulum. 2. New Inventions. 3. The Art of Breathing under Water, and the means of preserving a Flame shut up in a small Place. 4. Reflections on Machines for raising Water. 5. His Opinion on the different Sentiments of Mallebrauche and Regis, relating to the Appearance of the moon when seen in the Horizon. 6. The magnetic Balance. 7. A Placet to the king on the Longitude. 8. Letter on the Secret of the Longitude. 9. A new System on the Flux and Reflux of the Sea. 10. The means of Making sensible Experiments that prove the motion of the Earth: and many other pieces.

HAW, a sort of berry, the fruit of several species of mespilus, thence denominated hawthorns. See MESPILUS.

It is among the apophthegms of lord Bacon, that "Store of haws portend a hard winter."

HAW, in the manage, the membrana nictitans of a horse's eye, common to him with several other quadrupeds; but which from its enlargement when in an inflamed state, has

induced some farriers to regard it as a morbid production, and to attempt its removal. Gibson himself has given directions for performing so absurd an operation.

HAW sometimes denotes a small parcel of land.

To HAW. v. n. To speak slowly with frequent intermission and hesitation (L'Estran.) HAW-FINCH, in ornithology. See LOXIA. HAW-MOTH, in entomology. See SPHINX. HAWK. s. In ornithology. See FALCO. HAWK. 8. (hoch, Welsh.) An effort to force phlegm up the throat.

To HAWK. v. n. (from the noun.) 1. To fly hawks at fowls; to catch birds by means of a hawk (Prior). 2. To fly at; to attack on the wing (Dryden). 3. To force up phlegm with a noise (Shakspeare). 4. To sell by proclaiming in the streets (from hock, German, a salesman) (Swift).

HAWK-WEED, in botany. See HIERA

CIUM.

HAWK-WEED (Bastard.) See CREPIS. HAWKED. a. (from hawk.) Formed like a hawk's bill (Brown).

HAWKERS and PEDLARS, are such dealers or itinerary petty chapmen as travel to different fairs or towns with goods or wares, and are placed under the control of commissioners, by whom they are licensed for that purpose pursuant to stat. 8 and 9 W. III. c. 25, and 29 Geo. III. c. 26. Traders in linen and woollen manufactories sending their goods to markets and fairs, and selling them by wholesale; manufacturers selling their own manu factures, and makers and sellers of English bone-lace going from house to house, &c. are excepted out of the acts, and not to be taken as hawkers:

HAWKESWORTH (John), an ingenious writer, was born at Bromley in Kent, in 1715, and bred to the business of a watchmaker. He afterwards applied to literature, with considerable success. The Adventurer is his principal work, for which archbishop Herring conferred on him the degree of LL.D. He was employed to compile an account of the discoveries made in the south seas, for which he received the enormous sum of 60001. He then became an East-India director, and died in 1773.

HAWKING, the art or exercise of chasing and taking wild fowl, by means of hawks, or birds of prey. Hawking is the same thing with what we otherwise call falconry. The word hawking, in its latitude, also includes the taming and disciplining of hawks, and fitting them for the sport.

In early times, hawking was the principal amusement of the English: a person of rank scarce stirred out without his hawk on his hand; which, in old paintings, is the criterion of nobility. Harold, afterwards king of England, when he went on a most important embassy into Normandy, is painted embarking with a bird on his fist, and a dog under his arm; and in an ancient picture of the nuptials of Henry VI. a nobleman is represented in

much the same manner; for in those days, "it was thought sufficient for noblemen to winde their horn, and to carry their hawk fair, and leave study and learning to the children of mean people." The former were the accomplishments of the times; Spenser makes nis gallant sir Tristram boast,

Ne is there hawk which mantleth her on

pearch,

Whether high towring, or accoasting low, But I the measure of her flight doe search, And all her prey, and all her diet know. B. vi. Canto 2.

In short, this diversion was, among the old English, the pride of the rich, and the privi lege of the poor; no rank of men seems to have been excluded the amusement: we learn from the book of St. Alban's, that every degree had its peculiar hawk, from the emperor down to the holy-water clerk. See FAL

CONRY.

HAWKINS (Sir John,) an English writer and magistrate, was born in London in 1719. After receiving a good education he was articled to an attorney, in which situation he not only acquired a good knowledge of the law, but paid a particular attention to polite litera ture, and formed an early intimacy with Dr. Johnson, which lasted through life. He was also greatly attached to music, and belonged to a society of which Dr. Pepusch was the founder. Hawkins wrote several pieces in the periodical publications, particularly the Gen tleman's Magazine; and in 1760 printed a good edition of Walton's complete Angler, with a Life of the Author and notes. la 1761 he was put into the commission of the peace for Middlesex, and distinguished himself as an active and disinterested magistrate. la 1772 he received the honour of knighthood, on account of his spirit in suppressing a dangereus riot in Moorfields. In 1776 he published his General History of Music, in five vols. 4to.

a work which contains much curious information, but which has been superseded by Dr. Burney. After the death of Dr. Johnson be was employed by the booksellers to write his Life, which he executed, but not much to the satisfaction of the public. He died in 1759, and was interred in the cloisters of Westminster-abbey.

HAWSER, in the sea-language, a large rope or a kind of small cable, serving for various uses aboard a ship, as to fasten the main and fore shrouds, to warp a ship as she lies at anchor, and wind her up by a capstern, &c. The hawser of a man of war may serve for a cable to the sheet anchor of a small ship.

HAWSES, in a ship, are two large holes under the bow, through which the cables rua when she lies at anchor. Thus the hawsepieces are the large pieces of timber in which these holes are made. Hawse-bags, are bags of canvas made tapering, and stuffed full of oakum; which are generally allowed small ships, to prevent the sea from washing in at

these holes and hawse-plugs are plugs to stop the hawses, to prevent the water from washing into the manger.

There are also some terms in the sea-language that have an immediate relation to the hawses. Thus a bold hawse, is when the holes are high above the water. Fresh the hawse, or veer out more cable, is used when part of the cable that lies in the hawse is fretted or chafed, and it is ordered that more cable may be veered out, so that another part of it may rest in the hawses. Fresh the hawse, that is, lay new pieces upon the cable in the hawses, to preserve it from fretting. Burning in the hawse, is when the cables endure a violent stress. Clearing the hawses, is disentangling two cables that come through different hawses. To ride hawse-full, is when in stress of weather the ship falls with her head deep in the sea, so that the water runs in at the hawses. HAWSHEAD, a town in Lancashire, with a market on Mondays. Lat. 51. 24 N. Lon.

3. 6 W.

HAWTHORN. See CRATEGUS. HAWTHORN (Black American). See Vi

BURNUM.

HAY, Grasses of any kind, mown, tedded, and dried as fodder for cattle. See Hus

BANDRY.

To dance the HAY. To dance in a ring (Shakspeare).

HAY. s. (from haie, French.) A net which encloses the haunt of an animal (Mortimer).

HAY, a town in Brecknockshire, with a market on Saturdays. It has a castle nearly in the centre of the town; and about two miles distant are the ruins of the once famous Clifford Castle, where fair Rosamond was born. Lat. 51. 59 N. Lon. 3. 4 W.

HAYE, a town of France, in the department of Indre and Loire. It is the birth-place of Des Cartes, and seated on the Reuse. Lat. 46. 56 N. Lon. 0. 46 E.

HAYES (Charles, Esq.), a very singular person, whose great erudition was so concealed by his modesty, that his name is known to very few, though his publications are many. He was born in 1678, and died in 1760, at 82 years of age. He became distinguished in 1704 by a Treatise of Fluxions, in folio, being, we believe, the first treatise on that science ever published in the English language; and the only work to which he ever set his name. In 1710 came out a small 4to pamphlet, in 19 pages, intitled, A new and easy Method to find out the Longitude from observing the Altitudes of the Celestial Bodies. Also, in 1723, he published, The Moon, a Philosophical Dialogue; tending to shew, that the moon is not an opaque body, but has native light of her

own.

To a skill in the Greek and Latin, as well as the modern languages, he added the knowledge of the Hebrew: and he published several pieces relating to the translation and chrono logy of the scriptures. During a long course of years he had the chief management of the late African company, being annually elected

sub-governor. But on the dissolution of that company in 1752, he retired to Down in Kent, where he gave himself up to study; from whence, however, he returned in 1758, to chambers in Gray's Inn, London, where he died in 1760, as mentioned above. He left a posthumous work, that was published in 8vo. under the title of Chronographia Asiatica et Egyptiaca, &c.

Lon.

HAYLSHAM, a town in Sussex, with a market on Saturday. Lat. 50. 55 N. 0.20 E.

HA'YMAKER, s. (hay and make) One employed in drying grass for hay (Pope).

HAYNEA. In botany, a genus of the class syngenesia, order polygamia æqualis. Receptacle chaffy, fleshy; down simple; calyx ovate, imbricate. One species; an herbaceous plant of Guinea, with blue sessile flowers.

HAYWARD, a manorial officer, appointed to preserve the privileges, and protect, the rights, immunities, and cattle, of those who are entitled to commonage of certain lands, wastes, &c. He also derives from his appointment, authority to drive his district at stated periods; to impound strays, and prevent nuisances of diseased cattle; as well as to adjudge in the case of trespasses, in the case of cattle breaking bounds or destroying fences. To all which concerns there are certain local fees attached, according to the custom of the country. It is a beneficial office when properly conducted.

HAZARD. 8. (hazard, French.) 1. Chance; accident; fortuitous hap (Locke). 2. Danger; chance of danger (Rogers). 3. A game at dice (Swift).

To HAZARD. v. a. (hazarder, French.) To expose to chance (Hayward).

To HAZARD. v. n. 1. To try the chance (Shakspeare). 2. To adventure (Waller).

HAZARD, a fashionable and fascinating game of chance, played with a box and pair of dices, and of considerable antiquity, as we know from the following distich in Shakspeare's Richard III.

"Slave, I have set my life upon a cast, "And I will stand the hazard of the die."

In its decision it is the most rapid of all chancing, and fair enough in itself when played honourably. The person holding the box is called the caster, who having been set as much money by the surrounding company, or by any single individual, as he proposes to throw for, and the stake or stakes being deposited within a centrical circle upon the table, throws the dice from the box, when whatever number appears upon the surface is termed "the main ;" and is so vociferated publicly by a person called the groom porter, who stands above the rest, and whose business it is to call the main and chance, to furnish fresh dice when demanded, and to receive the money for a box-hand when due. As soon as the main is declared, which, in fact, is the number by which the caster's opponents must abide for themselves, the caster throws a second

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