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of love to God, so the ground-form of sin is the spirit of opposition; the carnal mind is enmity against God.

In this analysis of holiness and sin, I maintain that the Scriptures have rendered a real contribution to the philosophy of our nature. The fact, that there was an essential unity in each, had been previously felt and distinctly asserted by the Peripatetics and the Stoics, but in what that unity consisted, their ignorance of God and of all true communion with Him precluded them from the possibility of answering. The unrenewed man is destitute of those elements of consciousness, out of which alone an answer could be reflectively extracted. It was reserved for Christianity, in revealing the true God, to reveal, at the same time, the moral excellence of man. The Scriptural account of holiness resolves a difficulty which, I apprehend, every young man has felt, in explaining the effects which the history of the fall attributes to a single sin upon a nature originally upright. If we were left to conjecture and speculation, we

might suppose that, as a habit is not likely to be formed from a single act, the principle of rectitude would still remain, though weakened in its power, and by vigourous and systematic efforts might recover from the shock which, to some extent, had disordered the moral constitution. Bishop Butler* speaks with hesitation in relation to the degree of injury which might be expected to accrue from the first full overt act of irregularity, though he has no backwardness in regard to the natural results of a confirmed habit. The difficulty is created by overlooking the reality of government and the peculiarity of holiness. In contemplating the effect of the first transgression on the part of an upright creature, we are not to confine our view to the tendency of the act to form a habit, as if the law of habit were the only law under which it does its mischief. We are to bear in mind, that as we are under government, as well as possessed of a moral constitution, it has also judicial consequences, which must enter into

* Analogy. Part i., chap. 5.

the estimate of the extent of injury sustained by the inner man. Now, as holiness, which is the foundation of the virtuous principle, the key-stone of the arch which maintains an upright nature in its integrity, consists essentially in union with God, whatever alienates Him, must destroy it. This is precisely what every sin does; it provokes His curse, breaks the harmony of the soul with Him, and removes that which is the fundamental principle of all true excellence. The sinner must die; the moment that God frowns in anger, death invades the soul. It is the judicial

consequence of sin.

3. The third and last point to which I shall advert, as distinguishing the ethical teaching of the Bible, is the answer which it gives to the question: How shall man accomplish the end of his being? How shall he acquire that perfection of nature, that holiness of state, without which he can never see God and live? There is evidently a double work to be done -a change to be effected in his judicial relations, and in the temper and dispositions of

the soul. As to the method of achieving the first, philosophy is completely dumb. The scheme of redemption, by which pardon and acceptance are secured, is necessitated by no principles of natural light-it is the offspring of infinite wisdom, begotten by infinite grace. But philosophy may aspire to institute a discipline by which the sinner shall restore his shattered constitution to integrity, and attain the perfection to which he was originally destined. There is a strong feeling in us all, that though damaged, we are not ruined by the fall; that we still possess the elements of our ancient greatness, and that, by care and diligence on our part, we can repair the mischief that has been done.

I am far, very far from detracting from the benefits of a moral education, or saying aught to depreciate the importance of the most scrupulous self-culture. We can accomplish much by energy of purpose, by fidelity to conscience, by sensibility to honour. We can employ the principles of our nature, fallen though it be, in the consummation of a char


acter, which shall be distinguished by habits of nearly every specific virtue. The virgins, who went up and down in quest of them, might have gathered all the limbs of the mangled body of Osiris, and put them together in their order, but it would not have been Osiris himself. We can form habits of nearly all that is materially right, and yet be wanting in the true principle of holiness. is a great mistake to suppose that total depravity means devilish wickedness. Death is one thing, and the putrefaction of the body another. Now, the Scriptures teach us that the highest attainments of nature are only dead works. Left to itself, without check or hinderance to its spontaneous developements, it would produce nothing but wicked works; but modified by education, by example, by society, and the thousand influences which co-operate in the formation of character, it may exhibit the loveliness of life on the features long after life has fled. Man can only act in obedience to his nature; from the very definition of the term, it is the law of

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