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never rested until it had deprived the Crown of its dearest prerogatives, and established the independence of the people on a firm and permanent basis.

Having thus made all necessary preliminary observations, and after stating, at large, the claims of the Witenagemote and the claims of the feudal system, I shall now proceed to the more historical part of the inquiry. I have hitherto gone on general grounds, but it will now be necessary to examine, with minuteness, the reign of each Norman King,-as from events in these reigns are derived the whole of my facts and arguments. And here, at the close of the second essay, I state, as my opinion, That the liberties of England originated solely in the necessities of the Sovereign, which necessities were occasioned by the insufficient provision made for him by the feudal system. End of Chapter II.

The Bouquet.

"I have here only made a nosegay of culled flowers, and have brought nothing of my own but the thread that ties them."



[Continued from our last.]




Three men of terror, whose names will long remain, we trust, unmatched in history by those of any similar mis ereants, had now the unrivalled leading of the Jacobins, and called the Triumvirate.

Danton deserves to be named first, as unrivalled by his colleagues in talent and audacity. He was a man of gi gantic size, and possessed a voice of thunder. His countenance was that of an Ogre on the shoulders of a Her cules. He was as fond of the pleasure of vice as of the practice of cruelty; and it was said that there were times when he became humanized, amidst his debauchery laughed at the terror which his furious declamation excited, and might be approached with safety, like the Maelstrom at the turn of tide. His profusion was indulged to an extent hazardous to his popularity, for the populace are jealous of a lavish expenditure, as raising their favourites too much above their own degree; and the charge of peculation always finds ready credit with them, when brought against public men.

mature deliberation.

Happily for the Convention, this commandant of jaa national guards, on whose presence of mind and coun the fate of France perhaps for the moment depended, as stupid and cowardly as he was brutally ferocious. suffered himself, without resistance, to be arrested b few gens d'armes, the immediate guards of the Conventi headed by two of its members, who behaved in the em gency with equal prudence and spirit.

But fortune, or the demon whom he had served, afford Robespierre another chance for safety, perhaps eren empire; for moments which a man of self-possess might have employed for escape, one of desperate court a might have used for victory, which, considering the vided and extremely unsettled state of the capital, likely to be gained by the boldest competitor.

while praise is received without gratitude, it is withheld powerful demagogue. Subsequent events seemed for
at the risk of mortal hate. Self-love of this dangerous while to confirm the apprehensions thus excited.
character is closely allied with envy; and Robespierre was
The Convention had declared their sitting permanen
one of the most envious and vindictive men that ever lived. and had taken all precautions for appealing for protecti
He never was known to pardon any opposition, affront, or to the large mass of citizens, who, wearied out by
even rivalry; and to be marked in his tablets on such an Reign of Terror, were desirous to close it at all hazar
account was a sure, though perhaps not an immediate, They quickly had deputations from several of the nei
sentence of death. Danton was a hero, compared with bouring sections, declaring their adherence to the nation
sions, though exaggerated, had, at least, some touch of many (undoubtedly prepared beforehand) were march
this cold, calculating, creeping miscreant; for his pas- representatives, in whose defence they were arming,
humanity, and his brutal ferocity was supported by brutal in all haste to the protection of the Convention. But th
courage. Robespierre was a coward, who signed death-heard also the less pleasing tidings that Henriot, havi
warrants with a hand that shook, though his heart was re- effected the dispersion of those citizens who had obstructe
lentless. He possessed no passions on which to charge his as elsewhere mentioned, the execution of the eighty
crimes; they were perpetrated in cold blood, and upon demned persons, and consummated that final act of m
der, was approaching the Tuilleries, where they had he
Murat, the third of this infernal triumvirate, had at their sitting, with a numerous staff, and such of
tracted the attention of the lower orders by the violence Jacobinical forces as could hastily be collected.
of his sentiments in the journal which he conducted from
the commencement of the Revolution, upon such princi-
ples that it took the lead in forwarding its successive
changes. His political exhortations began and ended like
the howl of a bloodhound for murder; or, if a wolf could
have written a journal, the gaunt and famished wretch
could not have ravened more eagerly for slaughter. It
was blood which was Marat's constant demand, not in
drops from the breast of an individual, not in puny streams
from the slaughter of families, but blood in the profusion
of an ocean. His usual calculation of the heads which he
demanded amounted to two hundred and sixty thousand;
and though he sometimes raised it as high as three hun-
dred thousand, it never fell beneath the smaller number.
It may be hoped, and, for the honour of human nature
we are inclined to believe, there was a touch of insanity in
this unnatural strain of ferocity; and the wild and squalid
features of the wretch appear to have intimated a degree
of alienation of mind. Marat was, like Robespierre, a
coward. Repeatedly denounced in the Assembly, he
skulked instead of defending himself, and lay concealed
in some obscure garret or cellar among his cut-throats,
until a storm appeared, when, like a bird of ill omen, his
death-screech was again heard. Such was the strange and
fatal triumvirate in which the same degree of cannibal
cruelty existed under different aspects.-Danton murdered
to glut his rage; Robespierre, to avenge his injured vanity,
or to remove a rival whom he envied Murat, from the
same instinctive love of blood which induces a wolf to con-
tinue his ravage of the flocks long after his hunger is
Danton despised Robespierre for his cowardice; Ro-
bespierre feared the ferocious audacity of Danton; and
with him to fear was to hate and to hate was, when the
hour arrived, to destroy. They differed in their ideas,
also of the mode of exercising their terrible system of go-
vernment. Danton had often in his mouth the sentence
of Machiavel, that when it becomes necessary to shed
blood, a single great massacre has a more dreadful effect
than a series of successive executions. Robespierre, on
the contrary, preferred the latter process as the best way
of sustaining the reign of terror. The appetite of Marat
could not be satiated but by combining both modes of
murder. Both Danton and Robespierre kept aloof from
the sanguinary Marat.

Robespierre possessed this advantage over Danton; that
he did not seem to seek for wealth, either for hoarding or
expending, but lived in strict and economical retirement,
to justify the name of the Incorruptible, with which he
was honoured by his partisans. He appears to have pos
Bessed little talent, saving a deep fund of hypocrisy, con-
siderable powers of sophistry, and a cold exaggerated strain
of oratory, as foreign to good taste as the measures he re-
commended were to ordinary humanity. It seemed won-
derful that even the seething and boiling of the revolu-
tionary cauldron should have sent up from the bottom, Among the three monsters mentioned, Danton had that
and so long supported on the surface, a thing so miserably energy which the Girondists wanted, and was well ac-
void of claims to public distinction; but Robespierre had quainted with the secret movements of those insurrections,
to impose on the minds of the vulgar, and he knew how to to which they possessed no key. His vices of wrath,
beguile them, by accommodating his flattery to their pas-luxury, love of spoil, dreadful as they were, are attributes
sions and scale of understanding, and by acts of cunning of mortal men the envy of Robespierre, and the in
and hypocrisy, which weigh more with the multitude than stinctive bloodthirstiness of Marat were the properties of
the words of eloquence or the arguments of wisdom. The
people listened as to their Cicero, when he twanged out his
apostrophes of Pauvre peuple! peuple verteux!" and
hastened to execute whatever came recommended by such
honied phrases, though devised by the worst of men, for
the worst and most inhuman of purposes.

Vanity was Robespierre's ruling passion; and, though his countenance was the image of his mind, he was vain even of his personal appearance, and never adopted the external habits of a sans-culotte. Amongst his fellow Jacobins, he was distinguished by the nicety with which his hair was arranged and powdered; and the neatness of his dress was carefully attended to, so as to counterbalance, if possible, the vulgarity of his person. His apartments, though small, were elegant; and vanity had filled them with representations of the occupant. Robespierre's picture, at length, hung in one place, his miniature in another, his bust occupied a niche, and on the table were disposed a few medallions exhibiting his head in profile. The vanity which all this indicated was of the coldest and most selfish character, being such as considers neglect as insult, and receives homage merely as a tribute; so that,

The arrested deputies had been carried from one pr to another, all the gaolers refusing to receive under the official charge Robespierre, and those who had aided in supplying their dark habitations with such a tida successive inhabitants. At length the prisoners were cured in the office of the committee of public safety. by this time all was in alarm amongst the commune Paris, where Fleuriot, the Mayor, and Payan, the cessor of Hebert, convoked the civic body, despate municipal officers to raise the city and the Pauxbourg their name, and caused the tocsin to be rung. Pa speedily assembled a force sufficient to liberate Hent Robespierre, and the other arrested deputies, and to ca them to the Hotel de Ville, where about two thous men were congregated, consisting chiefly of artillerym and of insurgents from the suburb of Saint Antoine, already expressed their resolution of marching against Convention. But the selfish and cowardly characte Robespierre was unfit for such a crisis. He appea altogether confounded and overwhelmed with what passed, and was passing around him; and not one of the victims of the Reign of Terror felt its disabling fluence so completely as he, the despot, who had so l directed its sway. He had not, even though the me must have been in his power, the presence of mind to perse money in considerable sums, which of itself wo not have failed to ensure the support of the revolution rabble.

Meantime the Convention continued to maintain bold and commanding front which they had so sudde and critically assumed. Upon learning the escape of arrested deputies, and hearing of the insurrection at Hotel de Ville, they instantly passed a decree outlaw Robespierre and his associates, indicting a similar do upon the Mayor of Paris, the Procureur, and other m bers of the Commune, and charging twelve of their m bers, the boldest who could be selected, to proceed fiends. Danton, like the huge serpent called the Boa, the armed force to the execution of the sentence. might be approached with a degree of safety when gorged drums of the national guards now beat to arms in all with prey, but the appetite of Marat for blood was like sections under authority of the Convention, while the horse-leech, which says, not enough: and the slaugh- tocsin continued to summon assistance with its iron terous envy of Robespierre was like the gnawing worm, to Robespierre and the civic magistrates. Every t that dieth not, and yields no interval of repose. In glut- appeared to threaten a violent catastrophe, until it ting Danton with spoil, and furnishing the means of in-seen clearly that the public voice, and especially am dulging his luxury, the Girondists might have purchased the national guards, was declaring itself generally ag his support; but nothing under the supreme rule in the Terrorists. France would have gratified Robespierre; and an unlimited torrent of the blood of that unhappy country could alone have satiated Marat. If a colleague was to be chosen out of that most detestable triumvirate, unquestionably Danton was to be considered as the most eligible.


The officers of the Legislative Body were ordered to lay hands on Robespierre: but such was the terror of his name, that they hesitated for some time to obey, and the reluctance of their own immediate satellites afforded the Convention an indifferent omen of the respect which was likely to be paid without doors to their decree against this

The Hotel de Ville was surrounded by about fi hundred men, and cannon turned upon the doors. force of the assailants was weakest in point of nur but their leaders were men of spirit, and night cond their inferiority of force.

The deputies commissioned for the purpose rea decree of the Assembly to those whom they found a bled in front of the City-hall, and they shrunk fro attempt of defending it, some joining the assailants, laying down their arms and dispersing. Meantim deserted group of Terrorists within conducted them like scorpions, which, when surrounded by a circle are said to turn their stings on each other and on


frequently happens (generally, perhaps) that the bitch
seeks a situation at some distance from the main earth to
deposit her cubs, yet it is always in a well sheltered situa-
tion. What are called stub foxes, or those without earth,
frequently deposit their cubs upon the surface of the
ground; yet, owing to the fostering care of the mother,
they are rendered proof against any unfavourable weather.
Cricket, pigeon-shooting, boating, and other manly and
energetic sports, are now also in their noontide glory; or,
in other words, and as our motto has it,-

allurements of man.

Mutual and ferocious upbraiding took place mong those miserable men. Wretch! were these the jeans you promised to furnish ?" said Payan to Henriot, hom he found intoxicated, and incapable of resolution texertion; and seizing on him as he spoke, he preciitated the revolutionary general from a window. Henot survived the fall only to drag himself into a drain, in hich he was afterwards discovered and brought out to secution. The younger Robespierre threw himself from e window, but had not the good fortune to perish on the pot. It seemed as if even the melancholy fate of the icide, the last refuge of guilt and despair, was denied men who had so long refused every species of mercy their fellow creatures. Le Bas alone had calmness nough to despatch himself with a pistol-shot. Saint Just, fter imploring his comrades to kill him, attempted his is own life with an irresolute hand, and failed. Couthon y beneath the table brandishing a knife, with which he peatedly wounded his bosom, without daring to add ree enough to reach his heart. Their chief, Robes erre, in an unsuccessful attempt to shoot himself, had aly inflicted a horrible fracture on his under jaw. In this situation they were found like wolves in their úr, foul with blood-mutilated-despairing-not able to Robespierre lay on a table in an anti-room, his head adden by a bloody and dirty cloth bound round the shatported by a deal box, and his hideous countenance half The captives were carried in triumph to the Convention, ho, without admitting them to the bar, ordered them, as utlaws, for instant execution. As the fatal cars passed lobespierre, were overwhelmed with execrations, from the a the guillotine, those who filled them, but especially riends and relatives of victims whom he had sent on the ame melancholy road. The nature of his previous wound, rom which the cloth had never been removed till the xecutioner tore it off, added to the torture of the sufferer. The shattered jaw dropped, and the wretch yelled aloud, to the horror of the spectators. A mask taken from that dreadful head was long exhibited in different nations of Europe, and appalled the spectators by its ugliness, and the mixture of fiendish expression with that of bodily agony. Thus fell Maximilian Robespierre, after having been the during which time he governed it upon the principles of rst person in the French Republic for nearly two years, Nero or Caligula.

red chin.

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During this month a great number of races will take place, particularly in the north and west of England, so that, in the indispensible absence of the chase, the proceedings of the turf will be unusually active. We say unusually active, because, generally speaking, the entries are fuller than were ever before known, and because races commence in a regular and legal manner, for the first time, on the 25th of this month, at the second town in the British empire, Liverpool; they commence, too, with spirit rarely excelled, with an entry never surpassed in the infancy of any undertaking. That for the gold cup is remarkable, the greater part of the very best horses of the north being named for it, and hence the struggle will be more than ordinarily interesting.


dead-Oo. I have heard so.-J. His soul is lost, I think. Oo. Why so?-J. He was not a disciple of Christ.Oo. How do you know that? You could not see his soul? J. How do you know whether the root of the mango tree is good? You cannot see it; but you can judge by the fruit on its branches. Thus I know that Mr. J. was not a disciple of Christ, because his words and actions were not such as indicate the disciple.-Oo. And so all who are not disciples of Christ are lost!--J. Yes, all, whether Burmans or foreigners.-Oo. This is hard.-J. Yes, it is hard, indeed; otherwise I should not have come all this "Alike the month to all its influence lends, And sportsmen hail it as the best of friends." way, and left parents and all, to tell you of Christ. [He seemed to feel the force of this, and after stopping a little, Angling. There is, indeed, a choice of sport for anglers he said,] How is it that the disciples of Christ are so forthis month, as almost all kinds of fresh-water fish will tunate above all men ?-J. Are not all men sinners, and now feed. Morning and evening, however, are the periods deserving of punishment in a future state?Oo. Yes; all to be embraced by the fisherman for the exercise of his must suffer, in some future state, for the sins they commit. skill; as in the hours when the sun is most potent, and The punishment follows the crime, as surely as the wheel the atmosphere is unclouded, the piscatory tribe are weary, of a cart follows the footsteps of the ox.-J. Now, accordand, being plentifully supplied with natural flies and fall-ing to the Burman system, there is no escape. According ing insects, reject the neatest artificial bait, or the nicest to the Christian system, there is. Jesus Christ has died in the place of sinners; has borne their sins; and now those who believe on him, and become his disciples, are released from the punishment they deserve. At death Peter Martyr, in his very curious account of Colum- they are received into heaven, and are happy for ever.of Jamaica, he immediately caused mass to be said on ac- principles of misery and destruction.-J. Teacher, there bus's voyages, tells us, that on his landing on the island. That I will never believe. My mind is very stiff on this one point, namely, that all existence involves in itself count of the safe landing of himself and his followers, and are two evil futurities, and one good. A miserable future that during the performance of that sacred mystery, an old Carib, eighty years of age, attended by several of his existence is evil, and annihilation or nigban is an evil, a countrymen, observed the service with great attention. fearful evil. A happy future existence is alone good.basket of fruit in his hand, which he in a very courteous and destruction. Nigban is the only permanent good, After it was over, the old man approached Columbus with. I admit that it is best, if it could be perpetual; but it cannot be. Whatever is, is liable to change, and misery, manner presented to him, and by means of an interpreter and that good has been attained by Gaudama, the last thus addressed him: "We have been told that you have in a very powerful deity.-J. If there be not an eternal Being, you cannot and surprising manner run over several countries which account for any thing. Whence this world, and all that were before unknown to you, and that you have filled the we see?-Oo. Fate.-J. Fate! The cause must always inhabitants of them with fear and dismay. Wherefore I be equal to the effect. See, I raise this table; see, also, exhort and desire you to remember that the souls of men that ant under it: suppose I were invisible, would a wise when they are separated from their bodies, have two pas-Fate is a word, that is all. It is not an agent, not a thing. man say the ant raised it? Now Fate is not even an ant. sages; the one horrid and dark, prepared for those who What is fate ?-Oo. The fate of creatures is the influence have been troublesome and inimical to the human race; those who, whilst they were alive, delighted in the peace If there be a determination, there must be a determiner.the other a pleasant and delightful one, and appointed for which their good or bad deeds have on their future existence.-J. If influence be exerted, there must be an excrter. and quiet of mankind. Therefore you will do no hurt to any one, if you bear in mind that you are mortal, and that Oo. No; there is no determiner. There cannot be an every one will be rewarded or punished in a future state eternal, Being.J. Consider this point. It is a main according to his actions in the present one." point of true wisdom. Whenever there is an execution of Columbus, by the interpreter, answered the old man, a purpose, there must be an agent. Oo, [After a little "that what he had told him respecting the passage of the thought] I must say that my mind is very decided and souls after the death of the body, had been long known to hard, and unless you tell me something more to the purhim and his countrymen, and that he was much surprised Pose, I shall never believe.-J. Well, teacher, I wish you those notions prevailed amongst them, who seemed to be to believe, not for my profit, but for yours. I daily pray living quite in a state of nature. That he and his fol- the true God to give you light, that you may believe. lowers were sent by the King and Queen of Spain, to Whether you will ever believe in this world, I don't know; discover all those parts of the world that had been hitherto but when you die I know you will believe what I now unknown, that they might civilize the cannibals and other say. You will then appear before the God you now deny. wild men that lived in those countries, and inflict proper-Oo. I don't know that. pp. 39-41. punishment upon them, and that they might defend and honour those persons who were virtuous and innocent; that therefore neither himself nor any other Carib, who had no intention of hurting them, had the least reason to fear any violence, and that they would avenge any injury which should be offered to him or any other worthy persons of the island, by any of their neighbours." The old man was so pleased with the speech and the manner of Columbus, that though he was extremely old, he offered to follow Columbus, and would have done so, had not his wife and children prevented him. The old man appeared much surprised to understand how a man of Columbus's dignity and appearance should be under the control of another person, and became much more astonished when the interpreter explained to him the honour, the pomp, and the wealth of the several sovereigns of Europe, and the extent of the country, and the great ness and beauty of the things over which they reigned. He became pensive, and in a flood of tears asked the interpreter repeatedly, whether it was the heavens or the earth which had produced men so superior to themselves as Columbus and his followers.


The ardent shooter will, this month, begin to cast a
longing look at the grouse mountains, where, as far as an
pinion can be formed from present appearances, plenty
of birds may be confidently anticipated, well grown, and
ng on the wing. It is not easy to form a correct
opinion as to the abundance or scarcity of young par-
ridges till the sickle is put into the corn; though, as soon
the grass is cut, great numbers will show themselves,
f the breeding time has been propitious.
Young hares were, this year, seen at an unusually early
period: these animals have bred more abundantly this
reason than for many years back; judging, indeed, from
what has fallen under our own observation, we have no Had the following conversation with my teacher. This
besitation in saying that hares will be found more numer Iman has been with me about three months, and is the
as in the ensuing season than they have been known in most sensible, learned, and candid man that I have ever
the memory of the present generation. The breeding of found among the Burmans. He is 47 years of age, and
faxes is not much affected by the weather; though it very his name Oo Oungmeng. I began by saying, Mr. J. is

(From Judson's Mission.)

Unwholesome Mcat.-According to a statement in the Edinburgh Weekly Chronicle, the practice of selling unsound butchers' meat has of late been carried to a great fifty stones, of the most shocking quality, was seized there extent in that city; and, on Saturday week, not less than by the police. Several persons were, in consequence, fined in the penalty of £5 each. We most heartily join with the editor in reprobating so villanous a practice; indeed, we can hardly find an epithet sufficiently strong to express our abhorrence of the unprincipled dealers in carrion, especially when we reflect on the consequences produced by their nefarious traffic. No one need wonder at the prevalence of disease among the people, who considers for one moment how much of their food may, from the existence of such practices, be not only unfit for the purposes of nourishment, but positively injurious to health. Instances have fallen under our own observation, where robust young men were brought to a premature grave by the use of unwholesome animal food and yet we have reason to believe, that the flesh of smothered and diseased cattle is not unfrequently exposed for sale in some of the markets in this town. We are certain, at any rate, that it is customary, in some of the remote streets, to go about with old and tainted butchers' meat, which the needy are tempted to purchase, on account of its cheapness. This practice should be instantly stopped ; and we would further recommend to those who are entrusted with this business, to keep a watchful eye on such persons as are suspected of trafficking in unwholesome provisions of any description; for, however ungracious their interference may be, they are thereby rendering a service of the greatest value to the community at large.



'Twas chaos all-then first th' Almighty spoke,
And chaos trembled as the silence broke;

Th' Almighty spoke: "Let there be light," and light
Burst through the realms of an eternal night,
Burst through the darkness which o'er chaos hung,
And through the void its boundless presence flung;
Th' Almighty spoke-the air, the seas, the land,
Parted, obedient to his dread command;
Its proper bounds retiring ocean knew,
Dry land appeared, the zephyrs gently blew ;
Rivers and streams in devious courses stray'd,
And to the briny deep their tribute paid;
Th' Almighty spoke, and instant on the plain
Uprose the woods, the grass, the waving grain;
There, smiling meadows clothed in vernal green,'
There, trees in full luxuriance deck'd the scene;
In gloomy state the oak its branches flung,
While round its trunk the wanton ivy clung;
In middle air the pine its branches spread,
Half hid in clouds that gathered round its head;
The softer beech its boughs extended wide,
The quivering aspen trembled at its side,
The spreading vine the ash-tree twin'd around,
The weeping willow bending kiss'd the ground;
Unnumber'd flowers in rich profusion glow'd,
Through all the air ambrosial odours flowed.
Next the bright Sun began his course on high,
And roll'd his blazing chariot through the sky,
Warm'd the new air, and sinking to his rest,
Withdrew his brilliant glories to the west;
And Night arose with all her beauteous train,
Unnumber'd stars attendant on her reign;
There, high in heaven, the Moon's fair rays serene,
Shed a mild lustre o'er the awful scene;
There meteors shot, there planets glitter'd bright,
And blazing comets drew a train of light;
Till the fierce Sun appearing in the east,
Lent his strong rays and all their glories ceas'd:
Then o'er the earth the vital essence spread,
Fill'd the pure air, and sought the ocean's bed;
Quick into life astonished myriads sprung,

And grateful murmurs through heaven's concave rung;
Now dash'd th' unwieldy monsters through the seas;
Now sang the feather'd race among the trees;
O'er the vast plains the beasts in wonder strayed,
Or sought the cavern or the cooling shade;
The insect race display'd their brilliant dyes,
Where burnish'd gold with green and crimson vies;
Earth, ocean, air, with various creatures teem'd,
And nature wrapt in adoration seem'd ;
Increase o'er all the land th' Almighty bade,
Pronounc'd it good, and bless'd the work he'd made.
Was it not perfect? No :-thus God ordain'd,
And one last noblest work as yet remained:
"Let us make man :" the Almighty spoke the word,
"Man in our image; man, creation's lord."
Then man stepp'd forth, the last great work of God,
Erect in form, in glowing beauty trod,
Divine, majestic, high above the rest,

With God's own likeness stamp'd upon his breast;
On his high front was fix'd dominion's throne,
And in his eye the light of reason shone :
Pleas'd and entranc'd awhile he gaz'd around,
Then first his tongue its noblest office found;

And while his breast with heaven-born rapture glow'd,
From his warm lips devotion's accents flow'd.
And such was man, for whom th' Almighty Lord
From nothing fram'd creation with his word;
For whom he bade the Sun dart forth his light,
The Moon with paler radiance gild the night,
The seasons roll, and all their treasures bring,
The trees their leaves put forth, the flowerets spring,
Seed-time and harvest, each its goods bestow,
And nature's blessing o'er the world o'erflow.
And such was man, whose power and boundless sway
Th' Almighty bade each living thing obey,
Each living thing that crops its flowery food
On the rich plain, or haunts the cavern'd wood,
That swims the waters, that supinely creeps,
Or through the air with sounding pinion sweeps:
Man! all are thine-ordain'd by His decree,
Whose word, earth, air, heaven, ocean fram'd, and thee.
'Tis perfect all!-increase the Almighty bade,
Saw all was good, and bless'd the work he'd made.



The young knight fell while on the foe
His blows were showering fast;
And the Paynim lance that laid him low,
Quite through his frame had past.
His bright and martial eye grew dim,
As his page knelt by his side;
Yet, though he knew death's hand on him,
He griev'd not that he died.

He fell as he had wish'd-in fame,
On the plain of holy strife;
And he had earn'd a hero's name :
To honour,-what was life?
And thus unto his page he said,

While the youth was sobbing loud,
"Oh! quickly haste, when I am dead,
To my father's castle proud.
And tell him that his son did die,
As noble warrior should,
Unshrinking, and without a sigh,
For his country and his God.
Tell him that grief must not be his,
That here I met a grave;

For say my death was death of bliss-
I die 'midst bold and brave.
And take this ring, my faithful page,
To my young affianc'd bride,
And say that in the battle's rage

Her love was still my pride.
And, pray thee, tell she must not weep,
For tears my fate would shame ;-

I die! yet fear not death's cold sleep;
I still shall live in fame!"
The knight then to his lips he prest,
While sense was fleeting fast,
The cross that hung upon his breast;
His gaze was upwards cast.

The cross dropt from his lifeless hand,
His spirit pass'd away,

And the bravest of the Christian band
In death's embraces lay!



O! he swept his bold lyre, With a bard's holy fire,'

W. M.


And of freedom, sweet freedom he sang;
It was the noblest song
Echo's voice could prolong,
Or to which hill and valley e'er rang.

It was Liberty's voice,
Bidding thousands rejoice,
As her banner triumphant unfurl'd;
It was Liberty's strain,
Bidding Britons proclaim
Theirs the happiest isle in the world.

And the hearts of the brave,
While that banner doth wave,
Shall be noble, be gen'rous, and free;
But, whene'er it is hurl'd
From its height, torn and furl'd,
Then shall shackles and tyranny be!

Then awake! O, awake!
And your stations firm take,
Nor pause-'less you pause for your breath;
For the free and the brave

Are more blest in the grave Than living at Liberty's death.

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The recent aquatic exploit of Dr. Bedale has be the subject of such general conversation, that apology, we presume, need be offered for our givin place in the Kaleidoscope to the following paragra on the subject, from the Liverpool Courier and M cury. We shall, next week, follow up this arti with the account of Lord Byron's great swimmi feat in the Mediterranean, to which we have verted in the subjoined remarks; and as aqu gyninasia is the topic of the day, we shall lay he our readers a series of brief, and, we trust, ent taining articles on the subject.-Edit. Kal.

Extraordinary Swimming.-Our readers will do less recollect the circumstance of Dr. Bedale, of Manch ter, having some time ago announced his intention swimming from this town to Runcorn, a distance of abe eighteen miles, without receiving any aid from the bos which might follow him, or resting in any way whate out of the water. It appears that this offer, on the of the doctor, originated in a wager which he laid Mr. Matthew Vipond, of Manchester, that he wo swim with him from Liverpool to Runcorn in one All preliminaries having been settled, the morning Tuesday last was fixed upon; and, as if to afford eve facility to the adventurers, and grace their daring atten the morning opened out exceedingly auspicious, the shone brilliantly, and every thing seemed to favour t bold experiment which was about to be tried by t aquatic adventurers: great excitement prevailed, and merous spectators, in boats, witnessed the arduous s novel undertaking. About a quarter past eight o'clo in the morning they started from the Queen's Do The Doctor, prodigal of his strength, was anxious give his opponent every advantage by allowing him keep a-head. During their progress, at different tim small quantities of brandy and wine were presente in bottles fastened to the end of sticks, from the boa The swimmers were thus enabled to receive their freshments by treading water. When within a short d tance of Runcorn, the doctor shot a-head of Vipon

who, however, made every possible exertion to regain his his experiment under the most favourable circum-
former station, but his struggles to effect this only over-stances. He had with him all the way a strong flood
sowered him, and, when within half-a-mile of the landing tide, (19 feet 10 inches, by Holden's Tide Table ;)
lace, he was obliged to yield the palm of victory to his the day was unusually warm, and the wind was with
nore robust or more disciplined competitor, and was taken the tide; he was also accompanied by a boat, in which
ato a boat. Just before the swimmers reached Runcorn, there was a person perfectly acquainted with the na-
he Eclipse steamer passed and saluted them with cheers, ture of the stream.
which the doctor returned by waving one hand above his
head. The Doctor was taken up opposite Runcorn church,
at ten minutes to twelve, having concluded this extra
ordinary undertaking in three hours and thirty-five mi-
nutes. The adventurers were hailed, upon their arrival
it Runcorn, by the plaudits of numerous spectators who
rowded the piers and the strand, all anxiously waiting
heir arrival. When the doctor was taken into the boat,
o little was he fatigued, that he declared his ability to
wim twelve miles further. The doctor and his friends,
ho were joined by numerous arrivals from Manchester,
eturned in the steam-packet to Liverpool, where they
rrived about four o'clock in the afternoon, and imme-


fiately proceeded to Mr. Morgan's, Fenwick-street, where number of gentlemen were waiting to receive him. A and of music was in attendance in the lobby, and, on ais approach, struck up the air of "See, the Conquering Hero comes. He appeared to be little worse for his great exertions, described himself as being very warm and comfortable, and expressed his readiness to swim again to the same place at any time. Considerable bets have been pending on the performance of this feat.

If the tide run, as we have heard stated, at the rate of four miles on the average, and the distance from the Queen's Dock to Runcorn be sixteen miles, the action of the tide alone would carry a man from the former to the latter place in four hours, with little or no exertion on his part. Dr. Bedale did actually thus float the greater part of the way, as he informed us that he lay chiefly on his back, which we can readily believe, from the extraordinary effect that the exposure has produced upon his face.

We consider this, however, to be a great and memorable exploit, although its merit lies rather in the power of enduring the cool water for hours together, than in any proficiency in the art of swimming.

Singular Dowries.-About 1770, there was living in London a tradesman, who had disposed of eleven daughters in marriage, with each of whom he gave their weight in halfpence, as a fortune. The young ladies must have been bulky, for the lightest of them weighed fifty pounds, two shillings, and eightpence..

An advertisment in an Irish paper, setting forth the many conveniences and advantages to be derived from metal window sashes, among other particulars, observed that "these sashes would last for ever; and afterwards, if the owner had no use for them, they might be sold for old iron.

Choosing a Wife in Turkey.-When a Turk has determined on marriage, he makes his wishes known to his mother, or to any other near female relation, and gives a description of the appearance he would wish his wife to possess. The lady applied to, sets out immediately in search of a bride, calling at the houses of her female acquaintance, where there are unmarried women. Those who are supposed to answer the description contained in her instructions are made to undergo a severe examination. Their hair is regularly combed, that it may be seen Dr. Bedale possesses this power of endurance in a whether it is all their own; their mouth is kept open some most extraordinary degree; in proof of which, on minutes to show whether the teeth be good; the breath is the evening of the day on which he passed to Run- smelt that it may be ascertained if it be sweet; the body corn, he remained in the Floating Bath for nearly an handled all over, for fear of its possessing any hidden hour, apparently without inconvenience; besides deformity; and, finally, they are made to walk up and which, his body, compared with its bulk of water, is down the room, that it may be seen if they are exempt specifically lighter than that of ordinary persons. from lameness. Thus young ladies in Turkey undergo, The Doctor has not exerted himself in vain. Lean-horses in this country when they are to be bargained for. on such occasions, a more scrupulous examination than der swam for love, Lord Byron for glory, and many The good qualities and defects of the ladies visited are men have had to swim for their lives; but the Doctor then reported to the proper quarter; the choice is fixed, has swam for money, and has netted about seventy and the same messenger returns to make formal proposals. pounds by his extraordinary performance. -New Monthly Magazine.

Before we proceed to make any remarks upon this
great feat, we must observe that the editor of the
Courier is incorrect in representing Dr. Bedale as
more robust than Mr. Vipond. The contrary, as we
have been informed by Dr. Bedale, is the fact. Mr.
Vipond is, we believe, about thirty five years of age,
In conclusion, without any disparagement to the
extremely active and athletic; he has fought with powers of Dr. Bedale, we cannot refrain from observ-
Langan, the professional pugilist. Dr. Bedale is up-ing, that if we were in the habit of making wagers,
wards of forty years of age; and, in every respect, we would lay a good round sum that we could pro-
Mr. Vipond had apparently the advantage of his rival. duce fifty or a hundred young men who frequent the
As we have repeatedly ventured to predict that Dr. Floating Bath, who would distance Dr. Bedale in
Bedale would not succeed in reaching Runcorn, we straight-forward, fair swimming; although we be-
shall state the grounds of our opinion. In this cli-lieve that not one of them could stand any chance
mate the water seldom attains a heat of more than with him if the feat to be performed required an ex-
65 degrees, and seldom so much, and it was that cir-posure of three or four hours in water at the tempe-
cumstance that influenced our opinion, not the diffi--
rature of 62 degrees.
culty of floating along with a strong tide to Runcorn.
We told the Doctor, before he undertook the task,
that if he could sustain exposure to the water for
four hours, he would succeed. At that time we under
stood that he would set off somewhere in the vicinity
of the Floating Bath; but he started from the Queen's
Dock, which is a mile nearer to Runcorn.

Judging from our own power of enduring exposure to water of the temperature we have named, we thought it impossible to remain uninjured during the time it would require to reach Runcorn by the combined operations of swimming and floating. We knew that persons could, in warmer climates, remain six hours, and much longer, in the water. Lord Byron swam in the Mediterranean for four hours and twenty minutes, and he asserted that if he had been divested of his trowsers, he could have continued in the water two hours longer, without inconvenience. We do not know the average temperature of the Mediterranean, in summer, but we shall venture to assume that it exceeds 70 degrees by Fahrenheit. In the awful and interesting narrative of the thunderstorm which the ship New York lately encountered in the Gulph stream, it was stated that the temperature of the water was 74 degrees.

Chit Chat.

As Richard Brinsley Sheridan, of eloquent and witty memory, was standing at his window with his first wife, a poor man, selling matches, importuned her very much good fellow, you only lose your time. This lady once to purchase some; on which Sheridan exclaimed, "My made a match herself, and is resolved never to have any thing more to do with another."

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Black Man's Dream.-A number of years bygone, a black man, named Peter Cooper, happened to marry one of our fair townswomen, who did not use him with that tenderness that he conceived himself entitled to. Having The white, with the move, to win in eight moves with the tried all other arts to retrieve her lost affections in vain, pawn, without taking the black pawn. Peter, at last, resolved to work upon her fears of punishment in another world for her conduct in this. Pretending, therefore, to awake, one morning, extravagantly alarmed, his helpmate was full of anxiety to know what was the matter; and having sufficiently, as he thought, whetted her curiosity, by mysteriously hinting that could a tale unfold," at length Peter proceeded as follows:


"Hell ob a dream last night. I dream I go to Hebben and rap at de doa, and a gent man come to de doa wid black coat and powda hair. Whoa dere ?-Peeta Coopa. -Whoa Peeta Coopa? I'm not know you. Not knowa The temperature of the Mersey, on Tuesday last, as Peeta Coopa! Look de book, Sa.-He take de book, an recorded in the log-book kept on board the Floating he look de book, an he no find Peeta Coopa.-Den I say, Bath, was 62 degrees, which, in all probability, was Oh! lad, oh! look again; find Peeta Coopa in a corna. lower by ten or twelve degrees than the Mediterra--He take de book, an he look de book, an at last he find nean, in which Lord Byron and his companions swam for so many hours.

Before we can form a correct estimate of Dr. Bedale's performance as a swimming feat, we ought to know precisely the distance by water from the southern extremity of Liverpool to Runcorn, and also the rate at which the current runs: but neither of these data is ascertained; and we do not know whether the distance be eighteen miles, as stated in the Courier, or twenty miles, as it is generally considered.

It ought also to be stated, that Dr. Bedale made

Peeta Coopa in lilly lilly (little) corna.-Peeta Coopa,
cook ob de Royal Charlotte, ob Greenock.' Walk in, Sa.
Den I walk in, an dere was ebery ting; all kind ob vittal,
an collyflower too, an I eat, an I drink, an I dance, an I
ting, an I neba be done; ciga, too, by gum!-Den I say,
On! lad, oh! look for Peeta Coopa wife. He take de
book an he look all oba de book, manny, many, many
time, corna an all; an he no find Peeta Coopa wife-Den
I say, Oh! lad, oh! look de black book; he take de black
book, an he look de black book, an he find Peeta Coopa
wife fost page,-Peeta Coopa wife, buckra-woman, bad to
her husband."-Greenock Advertiser.


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The Traveller.


We copy from the Quebec Gazette, of the 8th of June, which has just reached us, the following interesting extract of a letter, from a gentleman connected with the expedition under Captain Franklin, R. N., dated Great Slave Lake, 12th Nov., 1826 :

"The principal object of the expedition was to discover a navigable passage, westward from the mouth of the Mackenzie to Behring's Straits, and his Majesty's ship Blossom was despatched round Cape Horn for the purpose of meeting it at Icy Cape or in Kotzebue's Sound. If Captain Franklin's means permitted, he was directed also to send a detachment to the eastward, to survey the coast between Mackenzie and Copper mine Rivers, and to return over land from the mouth of the latter to the establishment on Bear Lake.

The smaller parties of Esquimaux, that were subsequently
met with, on the sea-coast, behaved in a friendly man-


dall and the determined attitude assumed by the party,"
without the necessity of having recourse to violence. They
show at least of friendship. The parties of that nation
ever, much courage in opening an intercourse.
which were met afterwards, being inferior in numbers to
gave no farther trouble, and the party left them with the
the expedition, were very civil. They displayed, how

experienced in coasting a shore of a very peculiar nature, s
to lat. 70 deg. 37 min. N. long. 126 deg. 52 min. W. The
"After reaching the sea, considerable difficulty was
skirted by sandy banks running far to seaward, and inter
coast, thus far, consists of islands of alluvial (or perhaps
sected by creeks of brackish water, and separated in par
in the present language of geologists, of diluvial) origin,
by wide estuaries, pouring out at that season of the yea
large bodies of fresh water. These alluvial lands are in
undated by the spring floods, and covered with drift tim
ber, except a number of insulated mounds of frozen earth,
which rise considerably above the highest water mark, and
are analogous to the frozen banks or ice-bergs described
as bounding Kotzebue's Sound. Betwixt them and the
ter, which perhaps communicates with the eastern branch
of the Mackenzie, and receives, at least, one other large
main shore there is a very extensive lake of brackis wa
shore, rounded Cape Parry in lat. 70 deg. 18 min. N. long
114 deg. 45 min. W. and entered George the Fourth
123. W. Cape Krusenstern in lat. 68 deg. 46 min. N. long
"This party subsequently tracked a rocky and bolder
Coronation Gulph, by the Dolphin and Union Straits
which brought them nearly to the 113th deg. of west lo
gitude. They then steered for the Copper-mine River
and entered it on the 8th of August.

"On the 9th of July, Captain Franklin was stopped by took place, and seldom more than a mile or two a day. ice, unbroken from the shore, and from that date up to In this tedious way he reached the 141st degree of longithe 4th of August, he could advance only as the separation tude, by which time the ice had given way so as to give a passage to the boats; but other obstacles of a more serious of the water, that a landing on the main shore was effected nature now opposed themselves to his progress. The coast only once after passing the 139th degree of longitude, was so low and difficult of approach, from the shallowness though it was frequently attempted, by dragging the boats for miles through the mud. On all other occasions he had to land on the naked reefs that skirt the coast, where, after the departure of ice, the party suffered severely from want of fresh water, and once passed two entire days without that necessary article. Thick fogs and heavy gales of wind prevented the expedition from quitting this "From the skill with which Captain Franklin's ar-spot for eight days by a fog so dense, that all objects were rangements were made, he was enabled to descend the obscured at the distance of a few yards, stormy weather inhospitable part of the coast, and it was detained on one Mackenzie and visit the Arctic Sea, last year, within six prevailing all the time. months of his departure from England, and to return insurmountable obstacles, the resolution and perseverance again up the river, to our destined winter quarters at Fort of Captain Franklin and his party enabled them to reach Notwithstanding these almost Franklin, in Bear Lake, by open water. time, I had sailed round Bear Lake, and ascertained the gust. They had then performed more than half the disIn the mean- nearly the 150th degree of longitude by the 18th of Audistance between its eastern extremity and the Copper-tance, along the coast, to Icy Cape had plenty of provi mine River. The knowledge of the country gained by sions, boats in good order, and an open sea before them; these excursions tended much to perfect the plans of and although, from the fatigues they had undergone, the operation for this year, and the liberal supplies of pro- strength of the crews was somewhat impaired, yet their visions furnished by the Hudson Bay Company this spring, spirit was unbroken; but the period had now arrived when enabled Captain Franklin to equip both parties. Three it was Captain Franklin's duty, in pursuance of his inboats were built for the service in England, of mahogany, structions, to consider the probability of his being able to --a wood considered to be well adapted for the purpose. reach Kotzebue's Sound before the severe weather set in; They were necessarily sinall, and of a light construction, and, if he did not expect to attain that object, he was prothat they might be more easily carried over the numerous hibited from hazarding the safety of the party by a longer portages which occur on the route from York Factory, continuance on the coast. Hudson's Bay, to Bear Lake; but, from. the care be- mity of rashness to have attempted to get to Kotzebue's stowed in building them, they reached that place without Sound by traversing an unknown coast at that advanced It would have been the extrematerial injury, and, eventually, answered even better season, even had he been certain that the Blossom had than they were expected to do. A fourth, of a similar reached that place; but the uncertainty attending all size and form, was built at Bear Lake, of fir, and proved voyages in high latitudes made it extremely doubtful as good as the others. The main part of the expedition whether that vessel was actually at the rendezvous or not. which was to proceed to the westward, under Captain It was, therefore, in conformity with Captain Franklin's Franklin's mmediate command, in two of the boats, usual judgment, and the almost paternal anxiety he has which were named the Lion and Reliance, consisted of always evinced for the safety of those who have had the Lieutenant Back, eleven British seamen, marines, and happiness to serve under his command, that he decided landsmen, two Canadian voyageurs, and an Esquimaux in- upon commencing his return to Bear Lake at that period. terpreter. The eastern detachment, comprising Mr. Kendall, assistant surveyor, one seaman, two marines, six his whole party that they turned their backs upon an landsmen, and an Esquimaux, embarked in the Dolphin unsurveyed part of the coast. The only feeling that will "It was a matter of the deepest regret to himself and and Union, and were put under the charge of Dr. Richard-be excited in the minds of others will be surprise that he gress to the extent that he did. The propriety of Capt. Franklin's determination was evinced by a succession of was able to surmount the obstacles opposed to his prostormy weather, which speedily set in; and by intelligence he received from some friendly Esquimaux lads, that their countrymen were collecting in numbers about the mouth of the Mackenzie; and that a large part of the mountain Indians were on the march to intercept him, on account of his having come, as they supposed, to interfere with the trade of the Esquimaux. Had he been only a few days later, it is more than probable that he could not have escaped the numerous enemies without a contest. He arrived with his party in perfect health at Bear Lake on 21st of September, and despatched an express to Government the following morning, with an account of his proceedings. As it was necessary that the express should set out without delay, to enable it to ascend the Mackenzie whilst the navigation continued open, Captain Franklin had merely time to write me a short account of his proceedings. The preceding sketch is, therefore, necessarily very imperfect. I have omitted to mention that the trending of the coast carried the expedi-veyed the coast through upwards of 36 degrees of longi tion into 704 degrees of north latitude. "The two branches of the expedition have thus sin tion, on parting from Captain Franklin, they pursued the Sea pretty well known, as far as the 115th degree of we easternmost channel of the river, which is that by which longitude. There remain only 11 degrees of unknow With regard to the eastern detachment of the expedi-coveries and those of Captain Parry, render the Arch tude, which, together with Captain Franklin's former di Mackenzie returned from the sea, and is accurately and coast betwixt that and Icy Cape, and Captain Beechy t ably described by him. They reached the sea on the 7th of perhaps by this time traced a considerable portion even July, in lat. 69 deg. 29 min. N., long. 183 deg. 24 min. W., that in the Blossom, so that a complete discovery of th having, on that day, fallen in with a horde of Esquimaux, north-west passage, so long an object for which Brita who, whilst the boats were, in a similar situation to Cap- has contended, is now brought within very narrow limi tain Franklin's, aground on the flats at the mouth of the river, endeavoured to seize upon Mr. Kendall's boat, no doubt for the purpose of plundering it. The attempt, however, which was, perhaps, merely the impulse of the moment, was not participated in by the whole horde, and was instantly frustrated by the cool courage of Mr. Ken


"We left our winter quarters on the 21st of June, descended the Mackenzie till the 2d July, and as far as latitude 67 deg. 38 m. N. long. 103 deg. 53 m. W. At this place, named Parting Point by Captain Franklin, the river dívides into a number of widely diverging branches separated from each other by low and partially flooded lands. It was determined that the two divisions of the expedition should separate here, and that each party should follow the channel which accorded best with their respective routes. Captain Franklin, in the preceding autumn, had descended a middle channel, and reached the seat at Garry's island, in lat. 69 30. deg. N. long. 135 45. W. He now entered the most westerly arm which winds round the base of the rocky mountains, and reached its mouth on the 7th of July. Its outlet is so barred by sand-banks, that the crews were compelled to drag the boats for miles, even at the top of high water. In this unpleasant situation they were visited by a large party of Esquimaux, who at first behaved quietly, and carried on a barter in an amicable manner, but at length, prompted by the desire of plunder, and confiding in the superiority of numbers, on a preconcerted signal, upwards of 250 stout fellows, armed with long knives, rushed into the water at once, and seizing on the boats, dragged them on shore. The judicious measures pursued by Captain Franklin, however, well seconded by the prompt obedience and determined conduct of Lieutenant Back and the crews of the boats, rescued the provisions and all the property of consequence from the hands of these freebooters, and the boats were ultimately got afloat without a shot having been fired, or any personal injury received on either side. The same party came twice that night and next day with hostile intentions, when the expedition had put ashore to repair the rigging of the boats which had been cut in the affray, but the posture of defence in which Captain Franklin drew up his small force, deterred them from renewing the attack.

bad weather, and had, on several occasions, to cut a p sage through tongues of ice with the hatchet, and to for a way for the boats with much labour and some hazmess They suffered some detention on this voyage, front The ice attains a great thickness in that sea, some of th foes being aground in nine fathoms water, but under in the summer months, it decays with an almost incred ble rapidity. powerful radiation of a sun constantly above the horizo of water, the party were on several occasions enabled sail through shallow canals, worn on the surface of the floes by the action of the waves, when, from the ice beits As the boats drew only twenty inch closely packed on the shore, they could find no passa betwixt the masses of which it was composed. They h fortunately clear weather for these attempts. Had th experienced the fogs which Captain Franklin met with the westward, they must of necessity have remained shore. Notwithstanding the quantity of ice they that towards the end of August there is a free passage a ship along the northern coast of America, from the 100 countered thus early in the season, they were convinc to the 150th degree of west longitude; and to the eas harbours, although there are none on the part of the con surveyed by Captain Franklin to the westward. T ward of the Mackenzie there are some commodio whole difficulty in performing the north-west passage a ship seems to be in attaining the coast of the continet through the intricate straits which lead from Baffin't Hudson's Bays. The flocd tide was found setting every where along the coast from the eastward.

per-mine, prevented them from bringing their boats abo eight miles from the sea, and they therefore abandone them there, with the remainder of their stores, tents, & The rapids, which obstruct the navigation of the Cop a present to the Esquimaux, and set out overland to Fo Franklin, carrying (exclusive of instruments, arms, an ammunition, and a few specimens of plants and mineral merely a blanket, and ten days' provision for each pers They arrived on the eastern arm of Bear Lake on the 180 of August, and at the Fort on the 1st of September, afte an absence of seventy-one days, in excellent health a condition.

Hudson's Bay Company's ship, with the exception
Captain Franklin and Dr. Richardson, who propose to
home by the way of Canada and New York.
"The expedition returns to England next year by th
Franklin intends to travel the winter on the ice, he hop
to reach Montreal towards the end of August, 1827."
As Capta

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