Billeder på siden

Scientific Notices, on prehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improveents in Science or Art; including, occasionally, singalar Medical Cases; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phisophical, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical Phenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History; Vegetation, &c.; Antiquities, &c.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


(From the New London Literary Gazette.)

The food, being received into the stomach, is prepared assimilation with the body by digestion, which we shall ww proceed to consider and explain. This process, to rrow the words of an acute modern writer, taken in its bst general and most proper sense, may be defined the version of dead into living matter; at all events, it is le conversion of dead animal and vegetable substances to an animalized fluid, qualified to enter into the current "the circulation, and then to become part and parcel of e living machine. No other fluid, not even milk from e living udder, can be poured into the blood vessels thout risk of life; and, therefore, we are authorized to onclude, that the chyle (that is, the digested food) is a italized fluid, like the blood itself. If this be a correct epresentation, all inquiry as to how the change is effected ill be just as successful as the inquiry how man was anged from a lifeless clod into a living animal, at his rst creation. But the prying eye of the physiologist has enetrated into some of nature's secret operations, and tere are several very curious and interesting phenomena ttendant on the process of digestion, which we shall glance t in this essay.

There have been various opinions concerning the manner which the digestive process is carried on. The ancients apposed that it was effected by heat; and this opinion was formed from a consideration of the situation of the stomach, which they thought was in the hottest part of the body, being placed in the cavity of the abdomen, and surrounded by numerous soft organs. That heat acts as an uxiliary to digestion, is not to be doubted; but it can never be considered as a principal agent in the process; for cold-blooded animals are known to digest their food sufficiently well to supply the wants of the machine, although their temperature is but little higher than that of he atmosphere.

Another theory was, that digestion was effected by a putrefactive process; but by experiments made on some animals, which were induced to eat putrid meat, and afterwards killed, it appeared, upon examining the contents of he stomach, that the foetor of the food was considerably liminished thereby establishing the direct converse of he position, and proving that the gastric juice possesses in anti-septic quality. Again-Digestion was supposed to be accomplished by rituration. This arose from a knowledge of the action of he gizzard in birds; a similar action having been gratuitously imposed upon the stomachs of other animals. That this opinion is founded upon a false analogy, need not be insisted upon because, the muscular coat of the stomach; in man and quadrupeds, is not of sufficient strength to act on the food in this way

it would be the most agreeable and economical fire whic"
families could wish for, as it may be kindled in a moment.
and extinguished merely by closing a valve. It is free-
from all danger, as the liquid will ignite only in the caul-
dron in which it is used. Experiments are about to be
undertaken for applying it to the boilers of steam engines;
and, if they be favourable, as there is no reason to doubt
that they will be, steam-boats may soon traverse all the
seas on the surface of the globe, as the liquid that supplies
the fire may be contained within a very moderate compass.
This important discovery has as yet been exhibited only
to two or three persons; we were of the number, and re-
only to add, that we have repeatedly seen it in operation,
and that we have no doubt whatever that it will fully
answer the expectations entertained of it. Like all ex-
traordinary things of the kind, this discovery was the result
of accident, and it is so simple, that when it is made public,
every body will be surprised that it has not been in use
since the beginning of the world.-Monthly Review.

solution through the means of a very peculiar solvent.
Rheaumur enclosed alimentary matter in tubes, which
were pervious at both ends, and introduced them into the
stomach of animals: when they were discharged he found
that the substances which he had enclosed in the tubes
were so acted upon by the gastric juice as to be almost dis-
solved. Sometimes a part of the stomach itself has been
found dissolved or digested, after death; but this pheno-
menon is rarely found in those who have died of any lin-
gering malady; it usually occurs in such as die suddenly,
and are, at the time immediately previous to their death,
in good health; it is observable also, that, in these cases,
it is always the upper portion of the stomach which disap-ceived permission to describe it to this extent. We have
pears. The following interesting experiments, made by
Dr. Stevens, will show, in a very torcible manner, the
effect of this peculiar process of solution. The first series
which we shall describe was made upon a man who was
in the habit of swallowing stones. Alimentary matter was
introduced into hollow silver spheres, divided into two
cavities by a partition, and having a number of apertures
on the surface to allow the gastric juice to mix freely with
the food. In one experiment a portion of meat was put
into one of the cavities; and into the other a portion of
fish: when the sphere was discharged, both the substances
were found to have been acted upon by the gastric juice,
but more especially the fish. In another experiment the
doctor wished to ascertain if the cooking of meat retarded
its digestibility. For this purpose he introduced a quan-
tity of boiled meat into one part of the sphere, and some
roasted into the other; when it was ascertained that the
boiled meat was more dissolved than the roasted. The
next discovery he wished to make was the comparative
effect of this extraordinary solvent upon food previously
masticated, and upon that which was swallowed whole.
This experiment was conducted like the former, and the
food, which was previously masticated, was more dissolved
than the other.




SIR,-I was present last Thursday evening, at the Literary and Scientific Society, on the occasion of a discussion as to whether phrenology be founded on truth. Not being a member, I was unwilling to offer my opinion, but request the favour of your insertion of this, that the adversaries of the science may not come off with quite so much eclat as they are inclined to imagine.

The first gentleman who spoke against the subject in debate asserted that there was a great difference between

Finding that animal substances thus submitted to the action of the gastric juice were easily digested, he made the persecutor Saul, and the apostle Paul, although the many similar experiments on vegetables, which were also brain remained the same (admitted ;) but though the digested, but not so speedily as animal matter. Inani-effects were different, was not the cause the same mate substances not being so readily soluble, he next (veneration ?) Does not St. Paul say himself, that preinquired how far living animals were capable of resisting vious to his conversion he was zealous to God as you all the action of the gastric juice. are this day. He persecuted the Christians because he thought he did an acceptable service unto God; and after he found that his zeal was improperly directed, does not his conduct convince us that he had veneration in the

To ascertain this, he enclosed a leech in a sphere to prevent its wounding the stomach. The man swallowed it, and when voided, nothing was found in the sphere but a viscid black miasma-the undefined remains of the digested leech.


Dr. Stevens, having no longer an opportunity of con-highest degree? The same speaker affirmed that a person ducting his experiments on the man, had recourse to dogs who wanted the organ of colour was employed by "men and ruminating animals. Having previously weighed a milliners and ladies" to match silks, &c. This is not a quantity of animal and vegetable matter, he enclosed case in point; he might have had the organ of comparison; them in different ivory spheres, and made a dog swallow he might have distinguished by the touch; and it has them. Some hours after this the dog was killed, and the been proved that the blind can discriminate between animal food was found to be by far the most dissolved. The gastric juice of these animals has such a strong solvent colours, by the feel, as in the case of Miss M'Avoy."power, that the ivory spheres which were employed were Another gentleman very kindly gave us permission to call found to have been acted upon. He then made several a portion of the brain the os frontis, and this brings me to experiments on herbiverous animals, by giving them ani- a niember who asked if he might judge of the quality ofmal and vegetable substances enclosed in different tubes. When these were discharged, the animal food had under nut by the shape of the shell. If the kernel were not gone no alteration, while, on the contrary,, there were no shrunk, I say he might, but the kernel might have been remains of the vegetable matter. diseased, and so might the brain, and in this case phrenologists do not pretend to judge. Mr. M‘K——————, who evidently paid more attention to wit than argument, and substituted ridicule for reason, commenced by commending, and ended by depreciating the science; he laughed at phrenology, because he said that the passions were first discovered, and then the corresponding protuberances. But I would ask how would any phenomenon be accounted for, but by reasoning from the effect to the cause? Who would ever have discovered the pressure of the atmosphere but byobserving the effect? This gentleman condemns the science, because Dr. Gall was a schoolboy when the idea struck him; but was not the greatest im provement in the steam-engine suggested by a boy? The same speaker says, that because the Brahmins never destroy so much as a fly, they must want the organ of destructiveness: but does the causing the Hindoo widows husbands prove a want of this organ? I do not wish to to burn themselves on the funeral pile of their departed trespass upon your valuable columns, but should this meet your approbation, I shall communicate a few facts that have come under my own eye.

These experiments plainly prove that digestion is not but by solution, in which process the gastric juice is the principal and general agent that acts upon the food, dissolves it, and combines with it previous to its propulsion into the intestines, where the process of assimilation is further advanced. It also appears from these experiments, that some animals can only digest vegetable substances, while others are only capable of digesting animal food-every species of animal having, in fact, its peculiar gastric juice.

The next idea was, that of fermentation; but this, like he other theories, is erroneous; for the food does not re-effected by heat, putrefaction, trituration, or fermentation, ain a sufficient time in the stomach to allow of fermenatson; nay, if this process should take place, we shall find, in the second division of this work, that it may and does induce disease. Sir John Pringle and Dr. Macbride made several experiments upon this subject. By combining alimentary matter with water and saliva, and keeping it in a temperature equal to that of the animal heat, they found, after a time, appearances similar to those prodraced in common cases of chymical fermentation: but it would be foolish to infer from this experiment that the e change takes place in the stomach, because the gastric jice, which is the principal agent in the process of digestion, does not appear to have been employed: besides, w could we ascertain from this whether this fermentative Process were healthy or not? This theory has been comletely negatived by experiments which have been made ith alimentary matter, mixed with gastric juice, instead of water and saliva, and placed in a situation favourable fermentation; and in which fermentation, did not take The best founded theory is that of solution, that is, of • Dr. James Johnson, whose Essay on the Morbid Sensibiof the Stomach and Bowels is one of the best works which has yet been written on that everlasting subject lodgestion, and its consequences. We strongly recommend peal to all our young professional readers.

A New Fire.-Captain Parry, on preparing for the sin gular expedition in which he is now engaged, found great difficulty, we believe, in providing for the necessary process of cooking during the period he and his companions would be likely to be absent from his ship. At length he fixed on the lamp with incombustible wick, which is fed with spirits of wine. This sort of fire is not only very weak, but very expensive, and is of course incapable of being applied upon a large scale. We have very recently seen another description of fire, which is procured from a very cheap and common liquid, without the interposition of wicks of any kind. The heat which it produces is so intense, that it boils a kettle of water in a few minutes, and causes a much greater ebullition than coal fire. It is applicable to all the purposes of cookery, to any extent that may be required. It would, therefore, be peculiarly convenient

the naval and merchant service. In the summer season,

[blocks in formation]

Literature, Criticism, &c.



[Continued from a former number.]

As yet, the literary character of the English language, though full of vigour, riches, and depth, was deficient in refinement and delicacy. As the progress of the tongue, however, and the influence of classical taste, growing out of classical erudition, advanced, literary compositions were freed from the defects. Among the first great authors who contributed to these results is to be numbered the illustrious Locke; and, during greater part of the last century, the process going on upon our literature was a process of gradual improvement in polish, exactness, and system. The natural influence of these changes was much increased in reference to poetical composition, by the prevalence of French tastes and opinions, which followed the Revolu tion. A complete revolution took place in the character of our poetry; and, instead of its former exuberance, freedom, and energy, it became distinguished by a hard and artificial brilliance, weight, and penetration. Towards the end of the last century, the way began to be prepared for a return from art to nature, by the genius of Gray, of Goldsmith, and especially of Cowper. And the revolution has, in our own day, been carried into complete effect by a host of genius, which, in its amount and its activity, is altogether unrivalled in the history of literature. The literature of our day cannot be described by any distinct and definite character, like that of former ages. There is such a quantity, such a restlessness, such a versatility of talent in operation, throughout the literary world, as makes it impossible to fix on any separate name, study, or peculiarity, by which to designate it. There have been men, it is freely confessed, in former ages, whose consecrated names shall be sphered higher in the firmament of renown, and shall blaze with more dazzling lustre through the dark depths of time, than any single star of that galaxy of intellectual splendour which glorifies our horizon. But never before was so thickly clustered a constellation seen in the heavens of literature, and never was the hemisphere so full of light. Nor is it merely the amount of literary talent and general information by which our age is distinguished, that claims our attention. A still more remarkable phenomenon, which, indeed, may be regarded as the cause of the former, is the extreme restlessness of effort with which this talent and this knowledge are operating; "many are running to and fro, and knowledge is increased;" the intellect which is diffused through all classes of society will remain dormant in none, "scribimus indocti doctique;" titled and plebeian, rich and poor, soldiers and sailors, are equally candidates for intellectual fame, and, through the thousand channels of the press, inundate and fertilize the land with ever-flowing thought. Formerly, to print a book used to be an awful thing. The literary adventurer stood full in the eye of the world; he could not hope to pass muster in the multitude of his associates, or to elevate his pigmy intellect on stilts, without being discovered: but now, such are the crowd in the arena, from every side, that no feeling of awe or peril has room to visit the adventurer; and then, if he succeed, what better can he do than try again? If he fail, still what can he do better than try again? Thus it is that the whole em. pire of literature exhibits the spectacle of fierce commotions, canons the most ancient and venerable disregarded, the old paths forsaken, and restless talent wandering over the whole amplitude of things in search of novelty and originality. Nor is the variety of intellectual capacity in our day less striking than its amount or its activity. All the endless diversities of scientific research, and speculative or imaginative literature, are pursued by innumerable votaries. Sciences, whose names were before unknown, are daily added to the vocabulary of philosophy. Poetry

is pouring a thousand streams of inspiration throughout
the land, and learning is enlarging her boundaries on
every side. Yet proud as we are of all this energy
and all this achievement, we must confess that there
is room for apprehension, in reference to the prospects
of our literature. For, let us ask, what is the general taste
of readers, and what the general object of authors of the
present day? Are not both descriptions of individuals,
in a great measure, the slaves of originality, excitement,
poignancy, and effect? From the tales of the nursery to
the addresses of the pulpit, effect is every thing. Never
has it been thought necessary to employ so many artifices,
in order to sweeten the useful and medicinal potion, and
trick men into knowledge and virtue. Our children are
not suffered to have useful truth addressed to them in that
direct and simple manner in which, after all, they appre-
hend it most readily, and feel its influence most strongly;
but they must have it presented to their minds, disguised
under narrative, or enveloped in the mysteries of a game
of tetotum. In the same way are we apparently regarded
as children, and from day to day our admiration is soli-
cited, and too often obtained, by what has nothing of
intrinsic worth to recommend it, and only dazzles us by
its gilding and garnishing. Few, or none, can trust them-
selves to speak simply, and the public do not seem willing
to hear what is simply told them. This hankering after
effect, to the entire exclusion of any thing like substance,
is a very dangerous system, which imperiously requires
to be counteracted. The loss is, that to be extravagant is
so much more easy than to be simply great, that for one
who is the latter, a thousand literary men make them-
selves the former. The simple writers of our age-the
Stewarts, the Halls, the Campbells-are among the least
prolific; and for this simple reason, that for one ingot of
their gold, there is more value condensed than the price
of all the tinsel which an ordinary writer would sprinkle
over whole bales of his flimsy gauze, the
wind" of the ancients. It was a similar taste in ancient
times that gave birth to the conceits of Ovid, the epigram
of Sautus, the coarse dark copiousness of Lucan, and the
insane turgidity of Statius. All these were men of the
loftiest genius, but they prostituted their talents to a
vitiated taste, and the offspring was ill-favoured and ill-
starred. The same danger impends over us. "Moniti
meliora sequamur !"-Yours, &c.

July 3.


J. W-N.

Royal Institution, George L. Craik, Esq. of the Inner Temple,
We had but the other day a lecturer on poetry, at the

a man celebrated as well for his classical learning as for his
original genius for poetry; we are only sorry that he met with
so little encouragement from the public of Liverpool. I can
only account for this by his not being sufficiently known.

The following instance of ingenuity in a spider, which
was witnessed by the writer of this article, will not be un-
interesting:-A web was observed to be tightly stretched
across a garden path, about five feet in breadth, the reti-
culated portion occupying the centre, and one of the prin-
cal direction; upon examining in what manner this was
cipal threads to which this part was attached, had a verti
fastened to the ground, it was found that the ingenious
insect, instead of having permanently fixed it to the gravel
path, had coiled it round a stone a little larger than its
own body, and had raised this about a foot from the walk,
where it was swinging in the air, giving the necessary de-
gree of tension to the net-work of the web, but not afford-
ing a sufficient resistance to the wind to occasion its de-
struction.-Monthly Magazine.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

MISS M'AVOY.-Although we are not at all disposed to t
the M'Avoy controversy, which, in our opinion, ha
completely set at rest, we cannot suffer that female
tended faculty to be adduced as a confirmation of
theory; as it is our decided opinion, founded on no s
grounds, that she could no more distinguish colours by th
touch, than we can distinguish flavour by the ear or the e
If we were once, for a very short time, of a different opin
we assigned reasons for that circumstance, and also for the
change in our opinion, or rather we should say, convicte
on the subject of the pretended phenomenon.

FIRLD SPORTS. Our correspondent Rusticus will perce
that we have adopted his suggestion by introducing
the Kaleidoscope the enumeration of field sports, which
shall continue to do monthly, although field sports
general are not at all to our taste. We feel with Co
on the subject:
"Accursed sports;

That owe their pleasure to another's woes."
It is not affectation on our parts when we say that we
could be reconciled to hunting, coursing, fishing, not
tirely to horse-racing. There are sports in abundans
which inflict no turture upon living creation, and they

more to our taste.

THE CHASE, FROM THE GERMAN.-The first portion of th translation is reserved for the next Kaleidoscope. In t meantime, we shall be obliged to our correspondent for continuation or the remainder.

J. H.'s Stanzas to Miss H. and the Fairy Song, shall have place next week. The delay has been occasioned by cause wholly independent of the merit of the pieces, as we s explain to the writer when we next meet him.

THE PLAGUE in Manchester. Our readers will recollect the

our last volume contained the commencement of this ginal legend. We were not aware of the great length which the story would extend; but when we ascertains that it would probably consist of twenty chapters, thought it advisable not to proceed further until the e mencement of our new volume. Having lately received continuation of the piece, we shall proceed with it fort with, and shall reprint the portion which appeared in of seventh volume; and in order to compensate our reade for the repetition, it shall be contained in a gratuitous suj plement.

labourer on an errand, a short distance into the country;
A few days ago, a gentleman of this town sent an Irish
on his return, Pat was asked what his charge was-" Nine.
pince, Sir," he replied; "Sixpince for going, and three- LITERATURE.-The essay of L. is in the hands of the printer
pince for coming back, Sir,—it was up the hill all the way
there."-Sheffield Iris.

A gentleman finding his stock of wines and spirits ra-
pidly on the decline, asked his black butler, Sancho,
how is it the last wine has gone so quick ?" Received for
Sancho's friends drink great deal." The difficulty was at
answer, Why, Massa's friends drink great deal, and
once cleared up.

[ocr errors]

and shall appear in our next.
The lines of A. M. shall be attended to.

We shall in our next address notes to S. C. J. and W. B
Birmingham, whose manuscript we have just recovered.

Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAY, by
E. SMITH & Co. 75, Lord-street, Liverpool.




Literary and Scientific Mirror.


his familiar Miscellany, from which all religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles; comprehending LITERATURE, CRITICISM, MEN and MANNERS, AMUSEMENT, elegant EXTRACTS, POETRY, ANECDOtes, Biography, Meteorology, the DRAMA, ARTS and SCIENCES, WIT and SATIRE, FASHIONS, NATURAL HISTORY, &c. forming a handsome ANNUAL VOLUME, with an INDEX and TITLE-PAGE. Persons in any part of the Kingdom may obtain this Work from London through their respective Booksellers.

To. 369. Vol. VIII.

Literature, Criticism, &c.


"Vir bonus et prudens versus reprendat inertes, Culpabit duros, incomtis allinet atrum Transverso calamo signum."-Horace.


SIR,-As your little miscellany seems well adapted to the ptigenuous discussion of literary as well as of scientific sub. xts, I beg to trouble you with the following remarks, in ply to a letter signed Thespis, in the Kaleidoscope of the

5th ult.

The question involved in the essay read before the Scienfic Society, on Thursday, the 14th instant, was, as already tated, "Whether England has produced greater poets efore or since the Revolution ?" and on which occasion the meeting decided, after a long and interesting controswersy, in favour of the latter period, by a majority of snearly three to one! But as Thespis has been, by his own admission, in the minority, it will be but justice to your readers generally, to state here a few of the prominent arguments brought forward by your correspondent, as well as those by the gentlemen who contended the point with him and his colleagues.

TUESDAY, JULY 24, 1827.

since the Revolution.-That the English language has been greatly improved by extricating it from the clogged, ponderous, and cumbrous periods which characterize both the prose and poetry of the Elizabethan age, is quite obvious; and it is no less evident that the writers since the Revolution have effected so desirable a reformation. The names of Addison, Hume, and Johnson, stand pre-eminently high in the list of our improvers, and their writings alone have contributed much to the present state of our language, which will yield to no modern or dead tongue, in either sublimity, harmony, pathos, or energy. This circumstance cannot but directly contribute to render modern poetry more agreeable and instructive. If the reader compare the Davideis of Cowley with the Pleasures of Hope, or The World before the Flood, he will immediately perceive the force of these remarks. The general tendency of the old poets (particularly the dramatic) was always immoral, frequently vulgar, and generally licentious, and even blasphemous. We know that female writers excel in touching and describing the lively and pathetic emotions of the heart, and in giving that transcription of their own minds which displays the delicate sensibilities of the soul, and unites the refinement of social harmony and moral and intellectual intelligence, for which the sex is so remarkably distinguished.


much above the precepts of Horace, Aristotle, and Longinus, as he is generally below them. His plays are neither tragedies nor comedies, but a heterogeneous mass of ludicrous raillery, grovelling buffoonery, sententious sorrow, and sublime passion; he stoops too frequently from the elevation of his grandeur to quote a pun, or inverse a jest: from the mountain top he descends to pen a quibble, or lift a grain of sand. Dryden, his great admirer, corroborates this by his criticism" He is many times flat and insipid; his comic wit degenerating into clenches, and his serious swelling into bombast." And Johnson, a still greater critic and moralist than Dryden, says that "Shakspeare sacrifices virtue to convenience his precepts and axioms drop casually from him; he makes no just distribution of good and evil, nor is he always careful to show in the virtuous a just disapprobation of the wicked; he carries his persons indifferently through right and wrong, and at the close dismisses them without further care, and leaves their example to operate by chance. This fault the barbarity of his age cannot extenuate, for it is a writer's duty to make the world better, and justice is a virtue independent on time and place." We may say with Sophocles, that his lines are,

"Loud sounding blasts, not sweetened by the stop." In the commencement of the dispute it was fully and A gentleman at the meeting ably and justly exposed the In order to arrive at a just conclusion on this point, let levity and absurdity of Hamlet calling his father's ghost clearly explained, that by "the greatest poets" was understood the greatest quantity of good poetry produced in us examine in what species of poetry the writers before the true penny;" and Mercutio, with the buffoonery of a either period, and not the comparative merit of one poet Revolution excelled, and what degree of originality, sub- jester, is made to pun the solemnity of death itself: he with another; as if we were to inquire whether Shakspeare limity, and moral tendency, can be attributed to them. remarks, on getting his wound, that "it is not so deep as was a greater dramatic writer than Rowe, Congreve, or In pastoral poetry can the palm be disputed with the lat- a well, nor so wide as a church-door-that he was pepMorton; or the Paradise Lost a greater poem than the ter writers? The ballads of Shenstone, and the Gentle pered, he warranted, for this world!" thus making this Leonidas. Such queries evidently admit of no discussion; Shepherd of Ramsay, have the natural ease and simplicity pattern of threatrical morality a buffoon during his life, but when we ask if all the dramatic poetry written since of any thing produced by Theocritus or Virgil, and as and a punster even in the shades of death, when he is the Revolution be greater or equal to that of Shakspeare, much originality. The pastorals of Pope and Phillips are about to enter into the invisible world! The tragedy of and other dramatists before 1688, in refinement, delicacy sufficiently known, and The Seasons of Thomson, whe- Humlet opens in describing the stillness of night, with of sentiment, vividness of imagination, and moral tenden- ther considered descriptive, didactic, or pastoral, may be the ludicrous simile that "not a mouse stirring:"—(ridicy, the question immediately assumes a disputable shape. said as having embraced the Georgics and Pastorals of Vir-culus mus.) Should Homer or Sophocles have comVarious definitions were given of what poetry is, and gil, as much as that poet's productions do the Idyllia of menced with such contemptible figures, they would have some of what it is not. Among the rest was given Haz- Theocritus. In lyric poetry I know not any thing in the been justly doomed to sink for ever into the shades of oblitt's definition. Touchstone says that "the truest poetry English language that can surpass or equal Dryden's Ode livion. Timon of Athens is made to live a fool, and die a is the most feigning;" according to which, the poetry to St. Cecilia; and the imitations of it by Pope and Ad- blaspheming misanthrope, cursing himself, the sun, moon, founded on truth is the most untrue. Johnson says, that dison are no mean productions. Gray is another great and all mankind!-Excellent morality! The Rambler, ** to attempt to define poetry shows the narrowness of the original lyric writer, not to mention Collins, Warburton, No. 168, critically exposes the absurdity of bombast in definer." The simplest, and perhaps best definition is, that and many others. Thespis mentioned Wyatt, or Wy. which Macbeth speaks of "Heaven peeping through the it is a species of writing which, by pleasing, instructs. Keep-cherly, as having been the father of English lyrical blanket of the dark." This is even worse, if possible, ang this in mind, I proceed to the following observations. poetry; if so, let him produce his works. In descrip- than Milton's "pavement of heaven." To make the Many of the earliest English poets, as Gower, Chaucer, tive poetry none equals, much less surpasses, Thompson; Omnipresence of heaven "peep" through any thing, saBarbour, and others, are sometimes found in our private and the names of Goldsmith, Akenside, Armstrong, Som-vours too much of the ornamenta ambitiosa; "for who, libraries, but seldom read with pleasure, interest, or in- merville, and others, need no encomium. In dramatic (says Johnson) without some relaxation of his gravity, can struction: to read them we must have a glossary, and poetry it must be confessed that no individual poet ever hear of the avengers of guilt peeping through a blanket ?” when we have obtained a glossary, we must procure an surpassed Shakspeare, yet I am inclined to think that if In Henry IV. we have Boreas playing the piper, as Dean antiquary to instruct us in the meaning and application all the dramatic poetry written within these hundred and Swift judiciously remarks of the obsolete words in which our authors are written. forty years were to be expunged from our language, ShakFrom this, as well as from a general view of the old Eng-speare would badly compensate the loss: the same allulish poetry, I must confess that neither the language nor sion applies to Milton, and the general poetry since his versification (generally) before the end of the reign of time. If we judge Shakspeare by the rules of Grecian Elizabeth, can please, in the present improved state of and Roman criticism, we cannot vouch for his greatness our language. The advocates for the latter period pre- as a writer of taste and judgment; yet he is sometimes as mised the following positions:-1st, The improvement of the English language, and, consequently, of English poetry; 2d, The general moral tendency of our poetry Since 1688; and, 3d, That all the female poetic writers are

Characters and incidents from the sacred Scriptures were

generally the subjects of dramatic representation previous to
the manly attack of Collier, in 1698, in his Immorality of the
English Stage,

"The southern wind Doth play the trumpet to his purposes."

In short, I cannot better represent this fustian and overstrained unnatural poetry better than by the words of Longinus :-" Forced and unnatural images corrupt and debase the style, and cannot possibly adorn or raise it; and whenever carefully examined in the light, their show of being terrible gradually disappears, and they become con temptible and ridiculous.”

See a note to correspondents.

There are several tragedies since 1688 equal, if not make sharps," &c. The mind can never take pleasure in superior, to any that were ever written by Shakspeare. investing the Deity with passions like his creatures; and Cato, Douglas, and Bertram, not to mention Virginius, when he assumes the sceptre of tyranny, cruelty, and opJane Shore, and others, are superior in taste, unity, and pression, and evinces revenge, and other despicable pasdiction to any of the Shaksperian tragedies; no foolery, sions, we fear the poet's fancy has superseded his judgor fustian and ridiculous swellings, are found in them; ment. That Milton copied not only from Continental but they keep their place on the stage, and will in the closet, ancient poets, is very evident; for his Battle of the Angels as long as good taste and morals are found among man-is found, more or less, in every poet, from Homer to the Battle of the Giants of Ovid. We owe our knowledge and our veneration of this poem to my Lord Somers and Mr. Addison, who, being themselves fond of the marvellous in religion, took every opportunity to recommend the work to others. A gentleman ably and critically said of Milton, that, whenever we could not understand him we would be astonished, and, when not astonished, were sure to be amazed.


Thespis, after defending Shakspeare, (for which, by his own confession, he had been subponed, I shall not say hired,) came to the conclusion that this poet was not only the greatest man that England ever produced, but even the greatest man the world ever saw! This assertion was worthy of a Thespian, for none else could possibly have made it. I remember a country squire whose library consisted of a few old classics he had had at Eton, and Shak- Thespis, among other most extraordinary assertions, speare's works, with a few volumes on field sports: he had said that didactic poetry might as well be written in prose; two topics on which he was always eloquent during the so might the tragedies of Shakspeare, as well as those of circulation of the bottle, these were-Shakspeare and the Schiller, Morre, and Lewis: but Dr. Blair, with more chase. When asked who was the greatest historian? he taste, and certainly more judgment, than Thespis, rewould answer Shakspeare. The greatest astronomer? marks, that "it has several advantages over prose treatises, Shakspeare. The greatest general of antiquity? Shak- on moral or philosophical subjects. By the charm of verspeare. What is the most rational amusement? The sification and numbers it renders instruction more agree chase. Who was the greatest mathematician? Shak-able." The Essay on Man would receive little commenspeare. And the greatest agriculturists? Shakspeare and dation, or give little instruction, in prose. Doctors Akenmyself. The assertion thus made by Thespis was unte- side and Armstrong are amongst the first didactic poets; nable, unphilosophical, and injudicious, uttered without nor should Young's name be omitted in the first rank of premeditation, and maintained without judgment. moral and preceptive English poets.

Homer is unquestionably the father of all epic, if not of dramatic poetry, and he has been looked upon as such by every civilized nation; for the plays of Shakspeare are not to the Iliad what Horace's Satires are to the Enead. It was remarked, however, by a person at the meeting, (and, I think, with more correctness than prudence,) that Thespis's opinions were influenced by his interest and professional partialities. This he attempted to refute; but the charge was too true to be repelled: and, whatever fine and sententious speculations are made on human life, they are never so convincing as the practice of it; for we seldom see tax-gatherers or excisemen vote against Government, or a royal pensioner deny the minister his aid: nor do we often see a corrupt minister act up to the golden rule; yet their judgments are said to be quite uninfluenced by their professions."

To Milton great praise must be given, particularly for his Paradise Lost, although many critics, and even Durnes, have pronounced the subject as unhappily chosen. To give natural organs, common thoughts, and actions of men, to the Divinity, even by personification, may possibly,

sacrificed to the zeal or ignorance of the pious visitors in
the reign of Edward VI. I may enumerate, as particularly
patronized by Humphrey,-Leonard Arctus, Piero
Monto, Titio Livio, and Flors Julii, whom he constituted
his poet and orator, and Antonio Beccario, his secraa
whose translation of six tracts of Athanasius, underatin
by command of the Duke, is among the royal manuscrip
in the British Museum. The first of those Engi
scholars who studied the Greek language in Italy, the
the only school of polite letters, are John Tiptoft, Earl
Worcester, Lord Chancellor to Edward IV., and John
Free (or Freat, as he is called by Leland,) with Gmp,
Fleming, and Gundorp, passed over to Italy from Oxited,
and, either together, or at no great interval of time f
each other, became pupils of Guarini; of which the
brated teacher has related, as a striking evidence s
deeply interested his feelings were in the learned parsio
in which he was engaged, that having, while studying at
Greece, under the celebrated Chrysolorus, collected e
large boxes of manuscripts, the loss of one of them, by
the shipwreck of the vessel in which he was returning
Italy, caused him such profound concern that his ha
became gray in a single night. Tiptoft brought ba
with him to England, (whither he was accompanied it
the Italian scholar Ludovicus Carlo,) a valuable collectis
of manuscripts, intended both for his private use and
enrich the Humphredian Library at Oxford. These, afte
his execution, upon the restoration of Henry VI., folleval
the fate of the rest of Duke Humphrey's library. T
In modern poetry we have the improvement of language left several works in Latin and English; at the end dis
and versification; and the many illustrious names, whe-impression of one of which, (a version of two oration
ther in original productions or excellent translations, are Banatusius Magnastio,) the printer Caxton has paid
sufficient to allow us to give the palm of superiority tribute of enthusiastic affection to the memory of th
wherever it is due. No poetry can possibly be great that accomplished Earl.
is not good; and, to be good, must tend to mend or
enliven the heart; and that poetry, how great soever it
may be, in novelty of images or sublimity of conception,
cannot merit the name of great or good, if it create a blush
on the cheek of innocence, or tend to lead the heart astray
from virtue.

I beg to draw your correspondent Thespis's attention to
my concluding remark, as it may benefit him in his fu-
ture experience in life. We ought always to avoid two
things in disquisition, the folly of exaggeration, and the
prejudice of profession: enthusiasm may prompt the one,
and self-interest will naturally uphold the other. Pre-
suming on the indulgence generally granted to old corres-
pondents for the diffuseness of their remarks, I am,
June 2, 1827.
Yours, &c.


Of Free we are told there remain high encomiums fro the pen of Guarini himself, in the collection of his epistla preserved in the library of Baliol College. Johanne Anglicus (Free was styled; by the bye, he shared the titl with more than one other Englishman of about the sa period) stood so high in the estimation of the accomplish scholars of Italy, that, when time or accident had eff the original monkish epitaph upon the tomb of Petrarc he was requested to compose an inscription, to succeed it. more consonant with the approved latinity of the It was that, the beginning of which is given by Lela and Warton :-" Tuscia me genuit," &c. Several da tinguished panegyrics upon this scholar are collect Some of his works, deposited in Jesus College, Oxford have perished: those which remain are, Cosmograph Mundi, consisting of extracts from Pliny-a translat

and, indeed, frequently does, lead to more evil than good. ON THE FIRST INTRODUCTION OF GREEK LITERA. of some parts of Xenophon-a collection of ten La

The poem is founded on an Italian comedy, which Milton, in his youth, saw acted at Florence, and called Adoma. The subject was the fall of man; the actors God, the devils, angels, Adam, Eve, the serpent, death, and the seven mortal sins. The topic, so improper for a drama, caught the attention of Milton, whose great and sublime mind, enriched by knowledge, and strengthened by contemplation, could build on a few scenes a great epic poem. The play, which was dedicated to Mary of Medicis, opens with a chorus of angels, and a cherubim thus speaks for




Among the first and most liberal encouragers of Greek
learning was Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, brother to
Henry V. This royal
"bibliomaniac of the dark ages"
earnestly laboured to dispel the gloom of barbarism in
which England was in his time involved, by his own

epistles and a little poem, "Carmen ad miraculum uiqu elegans," (says Leland) addressed to Tiptoft. It is opinion that you may reckon among the causes wh operated in the introduction of Greek literature among the intercourse that necessarily took place between the orators, assembled from different nations of Europe, the different papal councils. At the Council of Constan for instance, in 1415, the four eminent ecclesiastics, se out as representatives of England, had an opportuni conversing with Chrysolorus, the father of Greek learnin

the rest: "Let the rainbow be the fiddlestick of the fid- example as an author and a scholar; by munificent and in Italy, and with Poggio Bracciolini, one of its m

dle of the heavens; let the planets be the notes of our

of some individuals among them, it is supposed t ardent restorers; which, from the known literary tast would not wholly neglect.—I am, yours, &c.


music; let time beat carefully the measure; and the wind especially of such as were directed to enrich modern
enlightened patronage of contemporary efforts of learning,
Thepis sneered at the Puritans and Puritanical times; Europe with Latin translations of the Greek classics, (a
but it was the sneer of a comedian only, and had no effect. labour in which the learned in Italy were at that time
He ought, or rather might have known,.that a Puritan (Col- largely occupied ;) but chiefly by forming collections of
lier, in 1698,) reformed the British stage; and that many of the best authors. Of the latter mode, his present to the
the most learned and best men of the present and former ages University of Oxford, of above six hundred splendid
have written volumes on the immoral tendency of the drama.
There are nearly fifty different works on this subject, down volumes, written on vellum, and elegantly embellished
from Collier to the Rev. Rowland Hill. Thespis may rest as- with miniatures and illuminations, is a noble specimen.
sured that mankind would be better if all the theatres were It is deeply to be lamented that a single specimen only
razed to the ground, and if in their stead gymnastie schools, survives of this monument of Humphrey's taste and Thursday..26 0 16 0 33 16

or schools of art, or libraries for the people were erected. At present the public taste seems gradually to be on the decline; but which evinces neither a diminution of good sense

nor of virtue.

munificence: it is a beautiful manuscript, in folio, of
Valerius Maximus: the rest, under suspicion of contain-
ing matter savouring of Popish superstition, having been


Tide Table.

Morn. Even. Height.
h. m. h. m. ft. in.

Tuesday..24 11 29 11 4415
Wednesday25 11 59



Festivals, &c.

5 New Moon, Oh.31m. mor 2 St. James. 7 St. Anne. Friday 27 0 50 1 516 9 Saturday..28 1 23 1 39 16 Sunday...29 1 58 2 16 16 Monday 30 2 37 2 58 15 Tuesday..31 3 21 3 47 14


17th Sunday after Trinity 6 Moon's first quarter.




letter from Huntingdon, written on Tuesday se'nnight, tains the following interesting particulars of the ecceni habits of this unfortunate gentleman: di*The deceased was a gentleman of eccentric and not try dignified habits, though he at one time offered himas a candidate for the Mastership of Catharine Hall, inbridge, of which college he was the oldest remaining chelor of Divinity. He was for many years a Fellow of atharine Hall, and discharged, with credit to himself, larious offices connected with the University, such as Proc. inter Taxer, &c. His latter years presented a woful conist to the honourable scenes amongst which his youth

ing in this propensity that the death of the reverend gentle- | Wylie interested the owner's feelings by relating the
man may be indirectly attributed. After the perpetration wonderful escape he had made, and before tasting a mor-
of the sanguinary deed, he was first discovered by two of sel himself, saw his steed rubbed down, and suppered in a
these boys, lying in a mash-tub, groaning deeply, with his style that would do honour to the grooms at Kew Palace.
legs hanging over the side of the vessel. The boys imme- The animal had always been a great favourite, but the
diately quitted the house, and acquainted a neighbour with above adventure tended so much to enhance his value,
the circumstances, when they were answered that their that his master was often heard to say, that no vile dog or
master only did it on purpose to frighten them. Screams carrion crow should ever tear the flesh from his bones.
were also heard issuing from the house; but from the And this resolution he kept so religiously, that "Rattler,"
singular character of the deceased, or from culpable negli on his death, was buried at the bottom of a sunny knoll,
gence, they were in like manner disregarded. Assistance and the decent ceremony honoured with a tear, as grateful
at this moment might have saved the life of the unhappy as ever dropped from a human eye.
man, and prevented the full accomplishment of a crime
which can only be paralleled in atrocity by the kindred
horrors of the murder of Weare."


(From the Dumfries Courier.)

dmanhood were spent, and furnish ample matter for riking ection to those who love to study the various phases the end aberrations of human nature. For the last twenty or wty years of his life, the reverend gentleman might be rasidered no bad representative of a certain class of the The following very remarkable circumstance has been glish clergy of the last century, who sat as models for communicated to us by a correspondent, who has nothing pen of Fielding and other satirists, but who are happily credulous or gossiping in his nature, and who, from the Lew fast disappearing. In dress and manners he was sim-numerous inquiries he has made on the subject, is willing ole as Abraham Adams himself, though it must be con- and able to attest its accuracy. statssed, in some parts of his character, he bore a closer remblance to Parson Trulliber. The land attached to his tory at Stakeley, which was worth about £400 per an im, he retained in his own occupation, and busied himprif incessantly, though often very unprofitably, in the danagement of his rural affairs. As he would seldom y his labourers the wages usually given in the parish, ground remained uncultivated, if work was to be ob. ined elsewhere, and last year he had not completed his -ay-harvest till considerably after Michaelmas. The large #nd elegant rectory-house he converted into a sort of grasary for his long-hoarded grain; and at one time loads of porn, sacks of wool, and bushels of fruit, the produce of xis farm and orchards, might be seen in rooms decorated with Turkey carpets, and the other insignia of refined ociety. Consistent with this plan of utility, in utter conmpt of taste and ornament, Mr. Waterhouse had nearly the windows of his house blocked up, to save the pay. ment of the window tax. Out of twenty in front, two nly were suffered to remain. He lived constantly in the itchen, without any regular female domestic, and perdrmed the office of cook for himself and workmen. Every Saturday the reverend gentleman walked to Huntingdon market, a distance of between three and four miles, freuently driving his pigs before him; and after transacting is farming business, he used to carry home, in a basket, is tea and sugar, and other necessaries for the week. If Mr. Waterhouse's habits were such as are not often found mongst the clergy, his dress was equally uncanonical: coarse blue great coat, with metal buttons, corduroy reeches, and light grey stockings, formed his usual cosame. The following passage in the life of this singular dergyman is worthy the pencil of Cruikshank. He had a trong, insuperable aversion to beggars of all descriptions; and, as in most small villages, the domicile of the rector is ly inferior in importance to the mansion of the 'squire, umbers of these itinerants contrived to way-lay the path the rector of Stukeley; of course they were always realsed with scorn and indignation; and not unfrequently eteran tars and soldiers might be seen at his gate shoulmering their crutches, not to show how fields were won, but attempt the achievement of fresh victories. One Sunday, while performing divine service, the rector perceived, from window in the church, a sturdy mendicant prowling about his grounds, whom he instantly determined to renove, in the most prompt and efficacious manner. Waiting for an opportune moment, the reverend gentleman descended from the desk after prayers, as the clerk was giving out the psalm, and throwing off his surplice at the church-door, he attacked the graceless intruder, and fairly thrushed him off the premises. Having performed this feat, Mr. W. quietly re-entered the church, at the conclusion of the psalm, and proceeded to read the lessons of the day. In one point, the rector of Stukeley was a careful shepherd of his flock: he would not suffer any of his parishioners to appear in church dressed in a smock-frock, the usual garb of our agricultural labourers; and if a hapless rustic chanced to drop in, arrayed in the prohibited toga, he was instantly ordered by the pastor to quit the church! Amongst the most amiable of the peculiarities which marked the wayward, ill-regulated mind of Mr. Waterhouse, may be reckoned a peculiar fondness for the company and amusements of children, which contrasted strangely with his usually selfish, violent, and even morose temper. He delighted also in teasing and frightening his poor uncouth farm-boys; and it is, perhaps, to his indulg.

[From the London Weekly Review.]



As a young officer of the Bengal army was proceeding up the Ganges, on his way from Berhampore to Patna, he beguiled the tedium of his voyage by exercising his fowling-piece on the innumerable feathered tribes which haunt the sunny banks of that noble river. Though not a first-rate marksman, his skill was by no means conIn the year 1796 or 7, the late Mr. John Wylie, in temptible. In the course of his sporting adventures, Wylie's parish of Dornock, paid a visit to a friend on the however, he met with an accident which had nearly made English side of the Solway Frith, and while returning him curse the fidelity of his aim during the remainder of home, attempted to cross by a well-known ford, about a his life. One sultry day, in pursuance of his accustomed mile or so to the eastward of Bowness. He travelled on pastime, he threw up the venetian window of his budge horseback, was well-mounted, and knew the time pre- row, and perceiving, as he imagined, a very numerous cisely of low water; but an intense frost lay on flood and assemblage of dark-coloured birds on the opposite shore, field, and in the course of a very few hours, the process of he levelled his gun with more than ordinary caution, crystallization had gone forward so rapidly, that the ice, and pulled the trigger, under the firm conviction that which deeply incrusted the sand-banks, and crackled he should at all events disturb their levee. He watched under his horse's hoofs, stretched even far into the mid- the ball leap along the glassy surface of the water, dle of the frith. With much difficulty he groped his way until it seemed to penetrate into the very midst of through the river Eden, and, on reaching the Esk, the them; but strange to relate, not a wing stirred! Anair became so cold, and the atmosphere so hazy, that his other shot-and another-and another; but the little senses were not a little bewildered. His gallant steed, dark figures remained as stationary as ever. His head unlike his wont, evinced great reluctance to proceed, and throbbed, and his eye ached from the intensity of the heat though admonished by both whip and spur, went forward and glare. The distant shore appeared at times as a dizzy at a very lagging pace. This, to the rider, seemed an mist: the broad smooth river reflected intolerable radiance; ominous circumstance, and while pausing to reflect on his and the hot air seemed composed of glimmering masses of situation, the sagacious animal turned gently round of its ever-moving atoms, like the sun-illumined sands of the own accord, and appeared much more willing to retreat Desert. Under these circumstances, the appearance of than advance. This incident, trifling as it was, determined distant objects might have deceived the strongest vision; Mr. Wylie to resign himself entirely to the guidance of and he began to suspect that what he had taken for birds his horse; but he had not proceeded far in the backward might be nothing more than a quantity of scattered stones. route, when he heard the distant sound of waters, and He addressed himself to the boatmen, some of whom conascertained, by more than one indication, that the flood firmed his suspicions, while others assured him that his tide, unstayed and unrebuked by the frost, was advancing bullet never reached the shore. Vexed, and weary, and with its usual fearful rapidity. His situation was now half ashamed, he gave another fire, when lo! to his utter perilous in the extreme. Placed, in a dark night, be- astonishment, up rose a group of human beings, and aptween two rivers, neither of them deep, yet sufficiently palled him with their extravagant gestures. It happened dangerous-with an ocean-tide in the rear that has over- that the extraordinary heat of the weather had induced a whelmed hundreds in the course of centuries, he literally large crowd of natives to throw themselves on the cool lap knew not where to flee or look for aid: to reach the of the goddess Gunga.+ Being up to their necks in the English coast by out-galloping the tide, was an utter im-"sacred stream," they presented the curious spectacle possibility, even if the Eden had not intervened; and which misled the now agitated sportsman. He lost not a after commending his soul to Divine Providence, the be- moment in directing the Maunjeet to make the shore, wildered traveller took his station on the largest and and learn if any serious wound had been inflicted. On thickest sheet of ice he could find, in the hope, rather than his landing he found, to his great satisfaction, that the the expectation, that it would haply float him to dry land. people, though sufficiently alarmed and irritated, were The poor animal proved by its trembling that it shared wholly uninjured, with the exception of one man, who deeply in the fears of its master, and endangered the had received a spent ball in the palm of his hand. It safety of both by its restlessness, as the wind whistled occasioned, however, so slight a pain, that, on covering louder and louder, and the waters approached nearer and the wound with a few rupees, the patient seemed immenearer, until spray and head-wave foamed, and rushed, diately relieved. and lashed around its sides. Still Mr. Wylie, who had previously dismounted, stood unmoved at the extremity of the reins, and after a very brief space, he not only heard the ice" break up," but felt that he was fair under weigh. The strong swell impelled the voyagers rapidly forward, but before they arrived at Tardoff point, a distance of at least three miles, the slippery raft unfortunately separated, leaving the yeoman standing upon one fragment, and his companion upon another. When the tide began to ebb, the ice-bergs floated in a contrary direction, and while again sailing rapidly with the stream, the horse passed his master at a little distance, and neighed so loud, that it was perfectly obvious he saw and recognised him. His share of the ice-berg was either the largest, or from some other cause, it floated fastest; but both at length were safely landed on the Cumberland coast, about half way between Bowness and Cardornack, and at the distance of a quarter of a mile from each other. Their meeting was necessarily a very happy one, and though they had drifted altogether above eight miles, neither had sustained the slightest injury, beyond what arises from numbness and cold. On finding his way to the nearest inn, Mr.

• A pinnace. + Ganges.

Master of the budgerow.

Velocity of Cannon Balls.-Lieutenant Helwig, of Prussia, has invented a process for measuring the time occupied by a ball or bullet in passing through a certain space. His process consists in making the ball liberate the works of a time-keeper at the moment when it quits the mouth of the piece, and in making it also stop the time-keeper at the moment when it strikes an obstacle.The numerous experiments which he has made already, offer interesting results. He finds, for instance, that a light body, of the same calibre with the bullet, moves, at the commencement, with much greater velocity than the latter, equal charges being used. He finds also, that small bodies move more promptly-a circumstance which causes a considerable deviation of the ball, when there is sand or any light body within the piece used.-Bulletin Universel.

Lately, a dentist of Nottingham extracted from the jaws of an elderly female, at Sneinton, who was suffering excruciating pains from the tooth-ache, no less than sixteen teeth!

« ForrigeFortsæt »