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The Bouquet.

"I have here only made a nosegay of culled flowers, and have brought nothing of my own but the thread that ties them."

"

THE GHOST SEER.

-Hence, horrible shadow! Unreal mockery, hence!-Shakspeare.

As the ghost season is either at hand, or fast approaching, (for spectres, like rogues, owls, and bats, still shun the light,) we intend to devote a portion of our miscellany to spiritual concerns; in hopes that such attention on our parts will propitiate their ghostships, and thereby secure ourselves from their nocturnal visitations to chide us for neglecting to pay a proper respect to the tenants of the invisible world, who have, from time immemorial, possessed such fearful influence over the mind of man.

If the story we are about to lay before our readers should, in any degree, tend to lessen that influence, by questioning the reality of the existence of supernatural agents, it will be no fault of ours; and we hope that no ghost, who has any pretensions to good breeding, or who has any sense of justice, will visit the sins of others upon our heads. He or she (for spirits are, we believe, of both sexes) must know that the narrator of the story is the celebrated Schiller; and that we merely act in the subordinate capacity of literary resurrection men, to raise the defunct) body of one of the numerous progeny of the German poet.

We had not recovered from our surprise when the Ar menian stood before us.

We hastened home, and found every thing as the Af menian had told us. Three noblemen of the Republ

excess. He formed his attachments with caution and
timidity, but when once formed they were permanent and
cordial. In the midst of a tumultuous crowd he walked "You are known here, my Prince!" said he. "Hasten
alone. Occupied by his own visionary ideas, he often was to your hotel. You will find there the deputies of
a stranger to the world about him. Sensible of the de- Senate. Do not hesitate to accept the honour they intend
ficiency of his own judgment, he was apt to give an un- to offer you. Baron F forgot to tell you that your
warrantable preference to the judgment of others. Though remittances are arrived." He disappeared among the
far from being weak, no man was more liable to be go-crowd.
verned. When conviction, however, had once entered
his mind, he became firm and decisive; equally courageous
to combat an acknowledged prejudice, and to die for a
As he was the third Prince of his house, he had no
expectation of acquiring the sovereignty. His ambition
had never been awakened; his passions had taken an
other turn. He read much, but without discrimination.
As his education had been neglected, and as he had early
entered the career of arms, his understanding had never
come to maturity. Hence the knowledge he afterwards
acquired, served but to increase the chaos of his ideas,

new one.

because it was built on an unstable foundation.

Like the rest of his family, he professed the Protestant religion, because he was born in it. Inquiry or investigation he had never attempted, although at one period of his life he had been an enthusiast. It is necessary to observe, that he had never been a freemason.

I

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One evening, as usual, we were walking by ourselves, the crowd was dispersing. The Prince observed a mask well masked, in the square of St. Mark. It was late, and which followed us every where. This mask was an Armenian, and walked alone. We quickened our steps, and by different turns endeavoured to lose him. It was in vain; the mask was always close behind us. "You have no intrigue here, I hope?" said the Prince at last, the husbands of Venice are dangerous." "I do not know a single lady," was my answer. "Let us sit down here, and speak German," said he fancy we are mistaken for other persons." We sat down upon a stone bench, and expected the Armenian would have passed by. He came directly up It is our determination, at all hazards, to revive to us, and placed himself close by the Prince. The latter took out his watch, and rising at the same time, addressed the Ghost Seer, who has lain dormant for some years; me thus in French: It is past nine. Come, we forget and our resolution has been taken on these grounds-that we are waited for at the Louvre." either there are ghosts, or there are no ghosts. If This was only a pretence to deceive the Armenian. there are no ghosts, then it is laudable to endeavour Nine," repeated the latter, in a slow and expressive to show to those who believe in them that they only "Congratulate yourself my Prince;" (calling him by exist in imagination. If there be ghosts, they must his real name,) "he died at nine." either be good or evil; either "spirits of health, or goblins damned,"-bringing with them "airs from heaven, or blasts from hell." Now, if they be good spirits, they can have no possible objection to have their pretensions serutinized; nor need they care, though their very existence be questioned, as it has been by the author whose work we are about to revive. If they be evil spirits, they ought to be exposed; and we accordingly defy them and all their works, and so to our task, without further preface,

THE GHOST SEER.

Edit. Kal.

Translated and abridged from the German of the celebrated Schiller, by Merritt.

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In saying this he arose and went away.
We looked at each other in amazement.
"Who is dead?" said at last the Prince, after a long
silence.

"Let us follow him,” replied I, “and ask for an ex-
planation."

were waiting to pay their respects to the Prince, and attend him to the assembly, where the first nobility of the city were ready to receive him. He had hardly an oppor tunity of giving me a hint to be on the watch.

About eleven o'clock at night he returned. On entering the room he appeared grave and thoughtful. He to by the hand, and having dismissed the servants, "Com said he, in the words of Hamlet

"There are more things in heaven and earth Than are dreamt of in your philosophy." "You seem to forget, my Prince," replied I, you are going to bed a great deal richer in prosper." The deceased was the hereditary Prince.

"Do not mention it," said the Prince. "If I should even have acquired a crown, I am now too much eng to think of such a trifle. If this Armenian has not merely guessed by chance"

resign all my hopes of royalty for a monk's habit." Lat "How can that be, my Prince ?" interrupted I. "1 mentioned this purposely, to show how far every ambia idea was then distant from his thoughts.

The next evening we went sooner than usual square of St. Mark. A sudden shower of rain obliga to enter a coffee-house, where we found a party ec at cards. The Prince took his place behind the chairs Spaniard, to observe the game. I went into an adj chamber to read the newspapers. I was soon dis by a noise in the card-room. Previous to the entrance the Prince, the Spaniard had been constantly losing, b since that he had been regularly winning. The fra of the game was reversed in a striking manner, and the bank was in danger of being challenged by the pane who, since this sudden change, had become turous. The Venetian, who kept the bank, ad the Prince in a very rude manner, told him that t sence interrupted the fortune of the game, and ought to quit the table. The latter looked very him, remained in his place, and preserved the s tenance, when the Venetian repeated his demedi French. He thought the Prince understood neither Fri nor Italian; and addressing himself, with a contem sneer, to the company, said: "Pray, Gentlemen, tem how I must make myself understood by this fool?" At the same time he rose, and prepared to seize the Prin the arm. Patience forsook the latter. He grasped Venetian with a strong arm, and threw him viol the ground. The company rose up in confusion. At noise I hastily entered the room, and calling the Pr by his name, "Take care," said I, imprudently;" are at Venice."

"You are underr #

We searched every corner of the place; the mask was no more to be found. We returned to our hotel in disappointment. The Prince did not speak a word to me and, as he told me afterwards, the conflict within him was all the way. He walked on at a little distance by himself, violent. Having reached home, he began at length to The name of Prince caused a general silence, whi speak." It is laughable," said he, "that a madman ended in a whispering that seemed to portend someting should have the power of disturbing a man's tranquillity very disagreeable. All the Italians who were pr by two words." We wished each other a good night, and divided into parties, and went aside. One after the r when in my own apartment, I noted down in my pocket-left the room. We soon found ourselves alone wit book, the day and the hour when this adventure hap- Spaniard and a few Frenchmen. pened. It was on a Thursday. Prince," said these, if you do not immediate The next evening the Prince said to me: "Will you the town. The Venetian whom you have treated go with me to the square of St. Mark, and seek for our lierly is rich enough to hire a Bravo. It costs him be mysterious Armenian? I long to see this comedy unra-zechins to send you out of the world." The S On my return to Courland in the year 17-, sometime velled." I consented. We walked in the place till eleven. offered, for the security of the Prince, to go for the about the Carnival, I visited the Prince of at The Armenian was no where to be seen. We repeated and to accompany us home. The Frenchmen proposed Venice. We had been acquainted in the service, our walk the four following nights, and every time with do the same. We were still standing and considering and we renewed here an intimacy which had been in- the same success. was to be done, when some officers of the Inquisitio terrupted by the restoration of peace. As I wished to see On the sixth evening, as we went out of the hotel, tered the room. They showed us an order of Governm the curiosities of this city, and as the Prince was waiting whether designedly or otherwise, I cannot recollect, I told which charged us both to tollow them immediately. W only for the arrival of remittances to return to his native the servants where we might be found in case we were arrived under a strong escort at the canal, where & af Country, he easily prevailed on me not to depart before asked for. The Prince remarked my precaution, and ap-dola was waiting for us. We embarked, and were bla him. We agreed not to separate during the time of our proved of it with a smile. We found the place very much folded before we landed. They then led us up a larg residence at Venice, and the Prince was so kind as to crowded. Scarcely had we advanced thirty steps, when I stone staircase, and through a long turning valley accommodate me at his lodgings at the Moor. perceived the Armenian, who was endeavouring, to press vaults, as I judged from the echoes that resounded un As the small revenues of the Prince did not permit him through the crowd, and seemed to seek for some person. our feet. At last we came to another staircase, and ha to maintain the dignity of his rank, he lived at Venice We were just approaching him, when Baron F, one ing descended twenty-six steps, we entered a spacious ba incognito. Two noblemen, in whom he had entire con- of the Prince's retinue, came up to us quite breathless, where they took the bandage from our eyes. We f Edence, composed all his retinue. He shunned expenses, and gave the Prince a letter: "It is sealed with black," ourselves in a circle of venerable old men, all dressed however, more from inclination than economy. He said he. We supposed from this that it contained matters black. The hall was hung round with black, and indi avoided all kinds of diversions, and though he was but of importance. I was struck as with a thunderbolt. illuminated. The dead silence which reigned in the a thirty-five years old, he had resisted the numerous at- The Prince went near a torch and began to read. sembly, struck us with horror. One of the old me, tractions of this voluptuous city. To the charms of the My cousin is dead!" exclaimed he. fair sex he was wholly indifferent. A settled gravity and "When?" said I, quickly interrupting him. a profound melancholy were the prominent features of his He looked again into the letter, character. His passions were tranquil, but obstinate to 'night at nine."

66

bably the first Inquisitor, approached the Prince with a awful countenance, and said, at the same moment show. Last Thursdaying him the Venetian, who was just then brought for "Do you know this man to be the same who of

ward;

fended you at the coffee-house?" "I do," answered the Prince Then, addressing the prisoner, "Is this the same person whom you meant to have assassinated this night?" The prisoner teplied, "Yes" In the same instant the circle opened, and we saw, with horror, the head of the Venetian immediately severed from his body. Are you content with this satisfaction ?" said the Inquisitor. The Prince fainted in the arms of his attend. fants. "Go, added the Inquisitor, turning to me, with terrible voice; Go, and in future judge less inconhsiderately of the justice of Venice."

An unknown friend, it was evident, had thus saved us from inevitable death, by interposing, in our behalf, the ctive arm of justice, but who it was we could not conjecare. Filled with terror, we reached our hotel. It was 1fter midnight. The chamberlain Z-impatiently ited for us at the door. "You did very well to send us message," said he to the Prince, as he lighted us up. The news which Baron F-soon after brought us pecting you, from the square of St. Mark, would other se have given us the greatest uneasiness."-" I sent a message? When? I know nothing of it."This evening, after eight, you sent us word that we sust not be uneasy if you should come home later than al." The Prince looked at me. Perhaps you have ken this precaution without mentioning it to me?" new nothing of it. It must be so, however," replied Chamberlain, "since here is your repeating watch, hich you sent me as a mark of authenticity." The rince put his hand to his pocket: it was empty, and he ew the watch to be his own. "Who brought it ?" dhe, in amazement. "An unknown mask, in an Aranian dress, who disappeared immediately." We stood oking at each other." What do you think of this ?" id the Prince, at last, after a long silence. I have a cret guardian here at Venice."

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The Queen stood with her eyes fixed on the ground in a
deep stupefaction. On a sudden she started from her re-
verie, with the fury of one inspired, and lookly wildly
around her. "A King is among us!" she exclaimed,
taking her crown from her head, and laying it at the feet
of the Prince. Every one present cast their eyes upon
him, and doubted for a moment whether there was any
meaning in this farce; so much were they deceived by the
impressive seriousness of the actress. Silence was at last
broken by a general clapping of the hands, as a mark of
approbation." I looked at the Prince. He was not a little
disconcerted, and endeavoured to escape the inquisitive
eyes of the spectators. He threw money to the players,
and hastened out of the company.
We had advanced but a few steps, when a venerable monk,
pressing through the crowd, stopped the Prince in his way.
"My Lord!" said he, "give the holy Virgin part of your
gold. You will want her prayers.' He uttered these
words in a tone of voice which struck us extremely, and
disappeared in the throng.

In the meantime our company had increased. An
English Lord, whom the Prince had seen before at Nice;
some merchants of Leghorn; a German Prebendary; a
French Abbé with some ladies; and a Russian officer,
had joined us. The physiognomy of the latter had some-
thing so uncommon, as to attract our particular attention.
Never in my life did I see such various features, and so
little expression; so much attractive benevolence, and so
much repelling coldness, in the same face. Each passion
seemed, by turns, to have exercised its ravages on it, and
to have left it successively. Nothing remained but the
calm piercing look of a person deeply skilled in the science
of man; but it was such a looked as abashed every one
on whom it was directed. This extraordinary man fol-
lowed us at a distance, apparently taking but an indiffe-
rent part in all that had happened.

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rounds me.

(To be continued.)

forming the most prominent objects on the southern promontory of Birkenhead, now give picturesque beauty to the gardens, and break the formal appearance of the front of the elegant hotel, erected by Messrs. Hetherington and Grindrod, on the most commanding situation which the margin of the Mersey can furnish. Elegant cottages are fast springing up on the banks of the river, and the space betwixt the extremities of the points we have men. tioned is undergoing a rapid transition from a plain surface to a newly-created town. It may be asked, and with great propriety too, why this portion of land, lying, as it does, immediately opposite to the town, has lain so long unnoticed and neglected; affording, at the same time, so many facilities to the trade and commerce of this port, and the health and enjoyment of its inhabitants? Why has it all at once sprung into notice and importance? Steam navigation is, doubtless, the agent which has produced so mighty a revolution on the shores of the sister county, by rendering the passage across the Mersey at all times safe and certain. Calculating upon a proportionate increase of the trade of the town for the next twenty years, this portion of the neighbouring shore will stand in a similar relation to Liverpool as Southwark does to London, or Salford to Manchester. There can be but little doubt that the nucleus of a large and populous town has been already formed, which will extend with the extension of Liverpool, not rivalling, but deriving ornament and strength from the increased wealth of the town, and the redundancy of its population.

In 1818 there were only three houses, besides Woodside Ferryhouse and the Priory, and a few straggling cottages, and the population did not exceed 50. In 1822 it was under 200, and now it exceeds 1300. Upwards of £100,000 has been expended on buildings and other improvements during the last and present year. Ninety-four new houses have been built, the rental of which exceeds £3000 per The terrifying adventures of this night brought on the their fortune. We followed their example. The Prince twenty yards wide, extending upwards of a mile from We came to a mountebank's stage. The ladies tried aunum. During the present year, two new streets, of Prince a severe fever, which confined him a week. During himself purchased a ticket. He won a snuff box. I saw Woodside towards the head of Wallasey Pool, have been ats time our hotel was crowded with Venetians and stran-him turn pale in opening it-It contained his lost key. opened, and a great part of one of them is already Maeers, who visited the Prince from a deference to his newly- How is this?" said he to me, as we were for a moment adamized, and several good houses built on each side of iscovered rank. They vied with each other in offers of alone. A superior power attends me. Onnicience sur-it. These main streets are intersected by various cross teir services, and it was not a little entertaining for us to serve, that the last visitor seldom failed to hint some watches over my steps. I must seek for the Armenian, and a formidable rival to Liverpool, is likely to become a An invisible being, that I cannot escape, streets, all of a good width, and placed at right angles. spicions derogatory to the character of the preceding one. and get information from him.” Wallasey Pool, which was formerly a mart of commerce, Wet doux and arcana poured upon us from all quarters. ery one endeavoured to recommend himself in his own very important adjunct to the commerce of the port. PosOur adventure with the Inquisition was no more sessing, in an eminent degree, numerous facilities for the entioned. The Court of, wishing the Prince to construction and accommodation of shipping, and for the ay his departure from Venice for some time, orders general purposes of trade, having sufficient depth of water for the largest class of vessels which frequent the port, it ere sent to several bankers to pay him considerable sums Imoney. He was thus, against his will, enabled to pronight, at a comparatively trifling expense, be converted act his residence in Italy; and, at his request, I also into floating docks, and being in the centre of the trade, would afford additional dock space in a part of the river solved to remain some time longer. the best calculated to promote the interests of the port. The timber trade, for instance, could be carried on here to great advantage, as three-fourths of all the timber imported is sent up the country in flats. The timber could be yarded, and shipped again, at an expense very materially less than that incurred in this town. The advantages of this situation appear not to have been appreciated till very lately. Within the last two years a patent graving-ship, capable of taking on, at the same time, three ships of 400 tons, has been erected, and has proved a great accommodation to trade. A ship-building yard, where vessels of 500 tons may be launched from the green sod, in ordinary tides,

BIRKENHEAD.

[From the Liverpool Courier.]

The improvements which have been carried on in this town, within the last seven or eight years, have not been As soon as the Prince had recovered strength enough to unattended with corresponding signs of vigour and enter. it his chamber, he was advised by his physician to take prise in the neighbourhood. Who but has seen, with some aining in a gondola upon the Brenta, to which, as the what more than surprise, the almost magical appearance eather was serene, he readily consented. On going into of buildings which have recently sprung up on the opposite te but he missed the key of a little chest, in which very shore, from the Rock Point to the village of Tranmere? luable papers were incl. We returned back to We shall, however, for the present, confine our obserarch for it immediately. He very distinctly remembered vations to the township of Birkenhead, or that portion of at he had locked the chest the day before, and he had land which is bounded on the south by Tranmere, and ever left the room in the interval. As our endeavours to on the north by Wallasey Pool, and recedes backwards to dit proved ineffectual, we were obliged to relinquish the westward as far as Bidston-hill, and comprisng about search, in order to avoid delay. The Prince, whose 1,500 acres, the entire of which, a few years ago, belonged al was elevated above suspicion, declared the key to be to F. R. Price, Esq., of Bryn-y-Pys. But a brief space, has been established, with sawpits, mould-loft, and every st, and desired that it might not be mentioned any more. comparatively, has elap.cd, since a walk from the Wood-convenience necessary for carrying on the trade of shipOur little voyage was exceedingly agreeable. A pic-side Boat-house, across the fields to Birkenhead Priory, building. An extensive limekiln, timber, slate, and resque country, which, at every winding of the river, was considered a delightful and retired promenade on the flag yard, with various other buildings, have also been emed to increase in richness and beauty; the serenity of margin of the river; commanding to the south an interest-established, where limestone, coals, &c. are landed, withe sky, which formed a May-day in the middle of Fe. ing and extensive prospect of the upper part of the Mer. out incurring the expense of cartage. A steam-packetruay; the delightful gardens and elegant country-seats sey, which opens out into a fine sweeping estuary, bounded boiler manufactory, on an extensive scale, has been erected, hich adorned the banks of the Brenta; the majestic city by the two variegated shores of Lancashire and Cheshire with a sea-wall and basin excavated in front, where steamVenice behind us, with its lofty spires, and a grove of on the cast and west, and by the Helsby Hills on the vessels of the largest class can lie in perfect safety, and asts, rising as it were out of the waves;-all this afforded south, at the head of the river, and embracing a distant have their boilers put on board. On the opposite side of the most splendid spectacle in the world. Wholly view of the venerable Castle of Beeston, which surmounts the Pool, a foundry and steam engine manufactory has also andoned to the enchantment of nature's luxuriant the top of a picturesque and almost perpendicular rock. been established, possessing similar advantages: in short, enery, our minds shared the hilarity of the day. The The river, from this point of view, assumes very much the banks of this Pool, which, three years ago, were with rince himself lost his wonted gravity, and vied with us the appearance and character of an inland lake, not ren-out inhabitants, now assumes the active appearance of a our sports and diversions. On our landing, about two dered the less interesting by the endless variety exhibited place of business, and gives employment to some hundreds alian miles from the city, we heard the sound of sprightly on the surface of the water, from the shipping, steam, of workmen. insic: it came from a small village, at a little distance and other vessels of every description and class, ferry-boats, Mr. James Harrison, we believe, was the first individual on the Brenta, where there was at that time a fair. &c., crossing and intersecting the river in all directions. who, appreciating the probable advance of property in s we advanced, we saw it crowded with company of every Instead of the rural walk above alluded to, from Wood- Birkenhead, became a purchaser of land in Birkenhead in escription. A troop of young girls and boys, dressed in side to Birkenhead, we have now a wide street, running the year 1818. The proprietors of Birkenhead Hotel made seatrical habits, welcomed us in a pantomimical dance. nearly north and south, which is fast filling up with houses an extensive purchase in the year following. Since that The figure was entirely new. Animation and grace aton both sides, many of them of the first class, in ele- period other sales have followed in rapid succession, nded their motions. Before the dance was concluded, gance of appearance and interior convenience. The ve- amounting, in the whole, to nearly one-third of the whole he principal actress, who represented a Queen, stopped nerable ivy-covered priory, which, nine years ago, was estate, or about 500 acres. Particular lots of land have uddenly, as if arrested by an invisible arm. Herself and the only object, with one exception, that graced the field, since risen in value nearly 400 per cent whilst the popu hose around her were motionless. The music ceased. and formed the subject of antiquarian research, is now lation has increased in the ratio of twenty-six to one in the The assembly was silent. Not a breath was to be heard. eclipsed by a handsome Gothic church. The stunted oaks, space of nine years!

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may be immediately known, because, after the last open tion, it will be the first in the row said to contain it; as each row has a distinguishing character or sign, y may cause them all to be mixed with each other, and st be able to discover it by the sign you have remarked.

Instead of sixteen counters, sixteen cards may be en ployed. After you have discovered the one thought you may cause them to be mixed, which will conceal t artifice.

If a greater number of counters or cards be employe disposed in two vertical rows, the counter or card thoug of will not be at the top of the row after the last tre position: if there are 32 counters or cards, four tr positions will be necessary; if 64, there must be five and so on.

To Correspondents.

BOMBASTES FURIOSO. It is our intention to give this vi sical piece in a gratuitous supplement next week, tog with several articles of amusement for the Christoss day folk.

THE ELDER POETS.-We shall, next week, continue our of this interesting collection. W. R. is informed, th did not conceive the order of the introduction of the pleces to be very material.

We shall comply with our correspondent's directions; shall, next week, give the remaining specimens of Sa poems.

1927, the anticipated number of the Washington Get rather of too political cast for the Kaleidoscope: b shall re-peruse it more carefully than we have yet da If A Traveller will favour us with a few specimens, we better know how to reply to his note.

The Music intended for this week's Kaleidoscope is necess postponed for another week.

GHOSTS. AS we have ventured on this subject, B. may exe

an early insertion of his anecdote.

T. Z. F. is informed that we doubt the originality of the on Life, Death, and Eternity. It may be also necessary apprize him that we are not in the habit of being indu by threats such as he has held out. GREECE.-G. H. must not be offended with us if we that his verses on Greece would do him no ere lished. Let him show them to any judicious fried he deems our sentence harsh. What is the meaning t following verse?

And for the monarch of our isle, His people's hearts possessing, May bounteous Heaven ever smile On him-its choicest blessing. We have heard of invoking blessings, and showoring ings; but "smiling blessings" is entirely new to us. THE GHOST SEER.-Our friends, who have long recommend our revival of this interesting story of Schiller, will per CHESS. We have inserted the letter of W. X. F.2. In ad that we have commenced it this day. We shall foll up unremittingly until completed. column, but must defer our own remarks on the su We believe there is an express law on the subject in some the works on chess; but we cannot immediately tra -We have unluckily mislaid the query of another c spondent respecting queening. We expect to find it, shall give a reply in our next.

SCIENCE AND NATURAL HISTORY.-We shall, next week mence a series of selections from an interesting Ame work on the elements of natural history, with slet

of a new theory of the earth.

3:

OR,

Literary and Scientific Mirror.

" UTILE DULCI."

This familiar Miscellany, from which all religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles; comprehending LITERATURE, CRITICISM, MEN and MANNERS, AMUSEMENT, elegant EXTRACTS, POETRY, ANECDOTES, BIOGRAPHY, METEOROLOGY, the DRAMA, ARTS and SCIENCES, WIT and SATIRE, Fashions, NATURAL HISTORY, &c. forming a handsome ANNUAL VOLUME, with an INDEX and TITLE-PAGE. Persons in any part of the Kingdom may obtain this Work from London through their respective Booksellers.

No. 390.-Vol. VIII.

The Philanthropist.

FETY SHIPS-CERTAIN MODE OF PRE

TUESDAY, DECEMBER 18, 1827.

PRICE 340.

letting in water, or bilging, &c. by H. Evans, Har- for the introduction of air vessels, cork, or othe bour-master, Holyhead, patentee." buoyant matter, without interfering with the stowage We must refer our readers to Mr. Evans's pam- of the vessel. These interstices Mr. Watson would VENTING VESSELS SINKING, FROM LEAK-phlet for a specification of his plan, of which we fill up with copper tubes, of a cylindrical form, herAGE OR THE ORDINARY ACCIDENTS OF shall only here observe, that he recommends parti-metically sealed, and in number sufficient to render tioning and strengthening the vessel. It does appear, the ship and cargo specifically lighter than their bulk however, to us, from an inspection of the diagrams, of water; nor can any reflecting person doubt of the that the advantage will interfere materially with the efficacy of this means of buoying up vessels, and rendering them safe from leakage, and the ordinary stowage.

THE SEA.

"SALUS POPULI LEX SUPREMA."

The preservation of lives and property from deuction at sea, by the sinking of vessels from leakage

d various other causes, is of such immense im

The plan of dividing ships into separate water-accidents of the sea.

tight compartments, has been in use amongst the tance that, we are persuaded, no apology will be Chinese for centuries. These compartments, which are engaged by different merchants, and have sepaquired for transferring to the Kaleidoscope an icle on the subject from the Mercury. It is here rate locks, are found to strengthen the vessels so larged, and the entire letter from the Sphynx is that they will resist shocks, which would tear other so added, to render the details more complete.ships to pieces; and when the water makes over ur gratuitous supplement this week enables us them, these compartments being water-tight, render the vessel buoyant. devote to this subject a considerable portion of columns, without depriving our readers of their te proportion of other matter.-Edit. Kal.

icle.

Since the appearance of the first article on this subject in the Sphynx, a correspondent of the British Traveller has suggested the substitution of canvas air bags, instead of copper vessels; and if they would answer the same purpose, they would certainly be infinitely cheaper, whilst they might remain uninflated until they were wanted.-The only difficulty we contemplate, is rendering them completely air-tight.very fine texture, formed into square bags, made air The material recommended is "cord canvas, of a and water-tight, by being saturated in India rubber, &c. and made fast in contact with each other, to the under surface of the under deck.”

the Chinese junks, the form and construction of which are "Their foreign traders are built on the same plan as certainly not to be held out as perfect models of naval architecture; yet, as they have subsisted some thousands of The suggestions to which we are about to call the years unaltered, they are at least entitled to a little respect ous attention of our readers this day, are as deeply from the antiquity of the invention. As these vessels never 1 generally interesting to the public as any sub-were intended for ships of war, extraordinary swiftness It is obviously impracticable to ascertain the average which can be contemplated; and we trust that for pursuit or escape was not an essential quality: se. specific gravity of a laden ship, as it will depend upon time is not far distant when the perils of the sea curity, rather than speed, was the object of the owner. the nature of her cargo. A ship laden with fir timber ll be most materially diminished, by the adoption And as no great capitals were individually employed in will be considerably lighter than sea-water, whilst some of the methods pointed out in the following trade, and the merchant was both owner and navigator, a another laden with ebony or dyewood, will be heavier limited tonnage was sufficient for his own merchandise; than a corresponding bulk of the fluid. As the ship in the Mercury of the 30th of November, advert-the vessel was, therefore, divided, in order to obviate this itself is buoyant without its cargo, and as a great to the alleged invention of Mr. Watson, for pre-ship might separately accommodate many merchants. sume half the actual weight to be the specific gravity inconvenience, into distinct compartments, so that one portion of goods on board would float, we shall asting ships from foundering, we stated, that all The bulk-heads by which these divisions were formed, of entire ship and cargo. A vessel, then, of 400 tons plans which had hitherto been devised for the consisted of planks of two inches thick, so well caulked would require 200 tons of buoyant matter to keep rpose, interfered with stowage and the rate of and secured as to be completely water-tight. Whatever her from foundering. In salt water, about 40 tons iling, which, in a commercial country, would pro- objections may be started against the dividing of ships' bly more than countervail the great desideratum holds, (and the interference in the stowage seems to be of cork would effect this, but as the expense of such the most material one,) it cannot be denied that it gives a quantity would amount to thirteen or fourteen hunto large vessels many important advantages. A ship, thus dred pounds, there is very little likelihood that this fortified with cross bulk-heads, may strike on a rock and material will ever be applied to such use, although yet sustain no serious injury; a leak springing in one there is one circumstance in favour of the applidivision of the hold will not be attended with any damage cation; the cork would be as good and valuable to the articles placed in another; and by the ship being when the ship was broken up as when first put in, thus so well bound together, she is firm and strong enough and the outlay of capital would be in interest rather to sustain a more than ordinary shock. It is well known than in principal. to seamen, that when a large ship strikes the ground, the first indication of her falling in pieces is when the edges of the decks begin to part from the sides; but this separation can never happen when the sides and the deck are firmly bound together by cross bulk-heads. In fact, this old Chinese invention is now on trial in the British navy, as a new experiment."-Barrow's Voyage to CochinChina, p 319.

perfect security.

Such is the rage for "getting on," in the present , that, if the choice in travelling by land lay beeen two vehicles, one of which, although unquesmably safe, was slow, while the other, liable to all e ordinary accidents, got "well over the ground," e preference would, in nine cases out of ten, be

ven to the latter.

If perfect safety to the crews and passengers of ips be a consideration paramount to cheapness ad expedition, there is no question that vessels úght be so constructed as to bid defiance to all the rdinary dangers of the sea; whereas, at present, it notorious, that in our firmest-built vessels there to use a familiar phrase, "only a plank between and eternity."

How far this plan resembles that of Mr. Evans we Since we last addressed our readers on this sub- cannot determine, for want of the requisite skill in ect, a pamphlet has been sent to us for perusal, with naval architecture. We shall, therefore, proceed to he following title :-" Patent safety hold, for ren- the consideration of Mr. Watson's plan, as described ering sailing ships and vessels, either sailing or in the Sphynx of last Sunday.

It is to be regretted that Mr.

Watson has not stated the probable expense of the copper vessels he recommends; but it must be considerable: and the plan of tight canvas bags, if they

quality. In making some experiments with the cork collar jackets, we found that, in fresh water, a pound of cork would

*Corkwood, of course, differs in buoyancy according to its

float rather more than four pounds of iron; and, taking in to

account the material difference between fresh and salt water forty tons of cork would keep afloat a ship of 400 tons at sea. The forty tons of cork would, of course, when not submerged, add just so much to the burden of the vessel;-the copper

we are probably not far from the mark in assuming that

tubes would be liable to the same objection, although in a less degree; and in this respect the canvas bags would have

propelled by steam, more safe in case of leakage, It appears that there is in large ships ample room the decided advantage.

could be easily made air and water tight, would have keep a ship upright, by submerging the keel sufficiently
greatly the advantage in point of economy.*
below the surface of the fluid, and in this state she would
never be liable to sink.

The editor of the Sphynx says of Mr. Watson's airtubes that "they interfere with no room or space now appropriated to the stowage of cargo, stores, or provisions—they offer no impediment to a ship's sailing-they would not depress her an inch lower in the water; and when once fixed, they would require no attention or alteration in any state of wind or weather."

We are not prone to prophecy; but we shall venture to predict that, before many years have elapsed, some of these methods of securing ships from sinking will be partially, if not generally, adopted. Proprietors of steam-boats especially would find it their interest to attend to the suggestion; as there is no doubt that steam-vessels fitted up on the buoyant principle would be so generally preferred to those of the present construction, that an additional sixpence a head passage money would soon remunerate the owners for the extra expense.

Since we wrote the above, we recollected that there was some intimation of the expense of Mr. Watson's apparatus, in the first article which appeared on the subject in the Sphynx, from which we copy the following paragraph:-"It is gratifying to be able to state, that the plan combining these advantages may be applied to every ship or vessel in existence, whatever her age, form, class, or manner of construction, and that without the slightest alteration of her existing frame-work, be it what it may; merely by an addition to it, which will neither reduce her strength, her rate of sailing, nor her capacity of burthen; and which, on an average, will not cost more than about five per cent. on the value of the ship to which it may be applied; an expense not greater than the cost of insuring such a vessel for one voyage only to India and return; or the amount of a single year's insurance on the shorter trips made by coasting vessels

nearer home."

From the Sphynx of the 9th December.

In a former number of this journal we announced the discovery or invention, by Mr. Ralph Watson, of a plan for effectually securing ships against the calamity of foundering at sea, and stated our impressions after seeing its application to the model of an eighty gun ship, which Mr. Watson had prepared for the purpose of demonstrating its safety and efficacy. We shall now redeem our pledge by describing, as intelligibly as we may be able to do, amidst the difficulties of so technical and scientific a subject, the principle on which this invention is founded, and the mode in which it is to be practically applied.

sea.

In addition, however, to the materials of which the ship
for sea, has other substances on board, which counteract
is actually constructed, almost every vessel, when fitted
this floating tendency, and make the balance of total spe-
cific gravity greatly against her safety; or, in other words,
make the ship and all her contents so much heavier than
the bulk of water she originally displaced, that but for the
large quantity of atmospheric,air included in the otherwise
unoccupied parts of her hull, she would sink without an
effort. Her safety, however, from this cause, is liable to
be endangered by any leak which may be sufficiently
powerful to displace this air by water; in which case her
destruction is certain.

the guns, shot, and much of the stores and provisions, are
The iron and shingle ballast in ships of war, as well as
of the description of counterbalancing weights alluded to;
and the cargoes of merchant ships are most frequently of
the same unfavourable nature: so that, with a very few
other materials lighter than water, it may be taken as a
exceptions of ships wholly laden with liquids, timber, or
general position, that all ships sufficiently laden and stored
for voyages of any length, are, from the moment of their
quitting port, liable to the calamity of foundering, should
they sustain an injury to their bottoms, or encounter a
leak which the ordinary power of their pumps could not
subdue.

To prevent this, the following is Mr. Watson's plan:-
It is known to all persons familiar with the construction of
ships, that the cross-beams, on which the decks are laid,
are of considerable thickness and depth, to support the
immense weight which the decks themselves have to bear.
As it is necessary, however, that these beams should not
interfere with the free passage of the seamen between
decks, or the working of the guns in time of action, it is
necessary to make the height from the upper surface of the
lower deck to the under surface of the beams supporting the
deck next above it, at least equal to the average height of
a full-grown man, and, in some ships, even more. There
consequently remains a very large space between the
beams themselves, and beneath each deck supported by
them, which is perfectly unoccupied, and which might
therefore be filled up entirely, without being attended with
any imaginable inconvenience.

In those parts of the ship allotted to the accommodation of the officers and passengers, the lower surface of the beams is generally covered over with a slight ceiling of plank, and painted, for the mere purpose of giving a smooth appearance to the upper parts of the cabins: and, in the Royal Yachts, we believe, the hollow within is filled up with cork, to prevent the tread of those walking on the deck above from being heard by those who occupy the cabin below. In all other parts of the ship, however, the space between the beams of every deck is entirely open, and unappropriated to any purpose whatever.

over thousands of miles of space, in the midst of temp
and hurricanes that, in their fury, destroy the strong
ships.
It is then by the same application of this simple
them all to repose as it were upon rafts of air-filled tub
powerful law of nature to the decks of vessels, wak
that Mr. Watson proposes to secure them from the pa
bility of sinking as long as any portion of the ship's tra
holds together, or these tubes remain unbroken."
This leads us to speak of the safety of the tubes fr
such an accident. Those who have at all understood a
previous description of their position between the bear
will see at a glance, that if security from injury were
only object, there is no part of the ship in which they c
be placed where they would be so safe as here. If cor
with an under-lining, or thin ceiling of plank, they v
surfaces would be a sufficient protection against the
not be liable even to a scratch or a blow. Their
forced in, by the mere pressure of water, in caserm
mersion,-for stout copper may well withstand wha
thin glass will resist. No shot in action, the direc
of motion, would be likely even to touch them;
which is chiefly horizontal, while it retains any grew
violence of pitching or rolling of the ship itself com
danger their safety, if fitted in with ordinary care by
builder. Nothing, therefore, could be more secure fr
injury than the air-filled tubes in question.

Next, they interfere with no room or space now priated to the stowage of cargo, stores, or provi they offer no impediment whatever to a ship's rate ing,-they would not depress her a single inch the water,-and, when once fixed, they would reg attention or alteration in any state of the wind or

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Greater advantages than these, we conceive, it wra literally impossible for any invention to possess: sa the end to be attained by it-the preservation of lives and property now every year sacrificed by foundering at sea-there can be but one opinion am disinterested part of the community as to the impuraa of its accomplishment.

Supposing, however, a ship to be literally torn top and separated beam from beam, and plank from p till not a single part of her hull remained the very disseveration of her frame would at one a life-buoy for every man on board; and any port deck that still hung together, even in fragme make the safest and most buoyant raft that could structed for those who might take refuge on it. Here, in the river Thames, are to be seen, every ships' buoys made of copper, floating simple by filled with air, and continuing tight against bearing the weight of heavy buoy-ropes, and the p of a tide running often with great violence. Anyt such buoys would support two or three men from and every one of Mr. Watson's air-filled copper c in the event of a total separation of the wreck, however, can never happen in case of mere founder would serve the same purpose.

This waste space Mr. Watson proposes to fill up entirely with copper tubes, of a cylindrical form, reaching Another vast advantage arising from the p from beam to beam, either in straight or diagonal lines, this certain security against sinking, would be It is well known that the mere bulk or size of any sub-as the beams may best admit, terminating at each extre- in the event of fire, another awful calamity at sea, stance will neither occasion it to sink, nor swim on the sur-mity by convex or semi-globular ends, and every part of unsparing use might be made of water from al face of the water; the whale, whose weight is often near the cylinder or tube hermetically sealed. These tubes which often cannot now be done without dar 100 tons, floating as certainly and securely on the bosom would vary from eight or ten to four or six feet in length, opposite fate of sinking. In an Indiaman, or of the deep, as the lightest nautilus that skims its surface; and from two feet to eight or ten inches in diameter, ac- battle ship, for instance, in case of fire, a ship and the raft, formed of a thousand logs of oak or fir, being cording to the depth of the beams, the largest tubes hauled close to the wind under a heavy press of S as buoyant as the thinnest shaving or splinter that can be being required for ships of the largest beams, and the her lee-ports and scuttles opened purposely to per separated from the mass; while the minutest grain of smaller ones being amply sufficient for ships whose beams to fill, and thus overpower the flames. When sand that can be gathered by the sea-shore is as sure to are or smaller dimensions. is felt that, beyond a certain point, she could not sink, when thrown into the water, as a granite moun- It has been calculated that, supposing all the under sinking her to that point would be boldly undert b tain would be, if rooted from its base and hurled into the parts of any ship's decks to be fitted with such tubes, thus every danger averted. and these filled with even atmospheric air only, (though It is the difference of specific gravities, or relative weights still lighter air could, if necessary, be employed,) they curate reports collected for a series of years, When it is remembered, that, according to the in the substance and the elemess with which it is brought would contain, in their aggregate number and capacity, British ships are lost by wreck, fire, and founderin... into contact, that alone causes this difference. Whatever a bulk of air equal to counterbalance the specific gravity day in the year, and that this appalling calant is specifically lighter than the quanti y of water which its or contents of any ship, however constructed, or however almost made to disapp cut entirely from the cate own buik will displace by immersion in the fluid, will laden, and, consequently, to prevent her sinking beyond human ills, at so small an expense as five per co swim; and whatever is specifically heavier than the same bulk of water, will sink: a law of nature, which is as un-with the water. the point at which these tubes would come in contact actual value of any ship that can be named,-while t security can be applied to vessels of any form or con erring in its application to the lightest grain of dust, as to the largest mass of iron or lead,-to the nut shell shailop say, that b The principle of supporting great weights by bladders tion, without detriment to their strength, their spec of the playful infant, as to the floating fortress of a hun. to swim. The floating of ships from off shoals or rocks by but the most bigoted adherence to old things, means of empty casks, or, more strictly speaking, casks defective, could prevent its immediate and universal quantity of materials used are of much less specific gravity and pilot in the world. The impossibility of a glass bot- We cannot conclude this imperfect sketch of an taan water; and even in the modern and improved system the sinking while filled with air, leads to the constant tion, which we have endeavoured to render inte of naval architecture, in which iron and copper have suc-employment even of that most fragile of all materials, for to those least acquainted with nautical afairs,

dred guns.
In the construction of every ship that is built, the largest filled with air, is operation known to every seaman tion.

sheathings of the largest vessels, the whole of the hull, often waiting a slip of paper, corked up in its interior, sive privilege for his plan-offering it to the world at large ceeded to oak and fir, in the knees, bolts, fastenings, and conveying intelligence of Discovery Ships in unknown seas, mentioning that Mr. Watson seeks for no patent or c much less specific gravity than the bulk of water which shores of England, and riding buoyantly triumphant over enter at once on the free and full enjoyment of sai!

masts, yards, sails, and rigging, taken together, is of so

their weight displaces, that these alone require ballast to

from some remote point in the Pacific Ocean to the very desiring that every nation, and bis own
every danger, for the space of a full year in time, and tages.

especially, said

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