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Thou hast bidden farewell to the dark waving woods,
And the glens and gay meadows so fair;
Thou hast ta'en thy farewell of the flower-circled floods,
And thy home, gentle tenant of air.

Thou hast gone ere thy wing had essayed its young flight,
To the heavens above thee so blue;

Thou hast mingled, unconscious, with chaos and night,
Or ere the dread hurricane blew.

Thou hast filed ere rude winter relentless proclaim'd
Despotic, his death-boding reign;

Ere no longer the sun from his chariot bright flam'd,
Or the snow-wreath pale gleamed on the plain.
Thou art gone, and her lost one the parent-bird mourns,
As lamenting she wildly flits round;
All lonely, and hoping, despairing, by turns,
If her wanderer yet may be found.

Oh, happy! thrice happy! she dreams not again,
Her lov'd offspring she may not see more;
What knows she of death, or the half-frenzied brain,
Or the wounds that no leech can restore?
Fond parent-bird, envied amid thy despair,
For thee short the empire of grief;

For thee shall again the white-thorn blossom fair,
For thee the glad morn bring relief.

Not so the heart human, when prone on the sod,
The mourner unceasing deplores;

It knows the pure spirit has passed to its God,
But its peace no glad morrow restores.

It is wedded to grief, the companion of woe,
It shall throb at the call of joy never;

Darkly, and chill'd, must its current aye flow,

It is lost to repose, and for ever.


Again I behold thy beauteous form,

And gaze on thine eye of blue;
Again do I feel thine heart beat warm,
That ever to me was true.

And still, as of old, thou art bright and fair,
And thy step is proud and free,
And thy laugh is light as the wanton air
That plays on the summer sea.
In the calm repose of thy deep blue eye
There is still thy mind's pure shrine,
Nor fled from thy cheek is its roseate dye-
The charms of youth yet are thine.


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The eager pack, from couples freed,

Dash through the bush, the briar, the brake;
While, answering hound, and horn, and steed,
The mountain-echoes startling wake.
The beam of God's own hallowed day
Had painted yonder spire with gold;
And, calling sinful man to pray,

Loud, long, and deep the bell had toll'd.
But still Earl Walter onward rides,-
"Halloo! halloo! and hark again!"
Lo! spurring from opposing sides,

Two stranger horsemen join the train.
Who was each stranger, left and right,

Well may I guess, but dare not tell;
The right-hand steed was silver white,
The left the swarthy hue of hell.

The right-hand horseman, young and fair,
His smile was like the morn of May;
The left, from eye of tawny glare,

Shot midnight lightning's lurid ray.
He waved his huntsman's horn on high,
Cried Welcome! welcome! noble Lord!
What sport can earth, or sea, or sky,

To match the princely chase afford !" "Cease thy loud bugle's clanging knell !" Cried the fair youth with silver voice; "And for devotion's choral swell,

Exchange the rude discordant noise. "To-day the ill-omened chase forbear; Yon bell yet summons to the fane; To-day the warning spirit hear, To-morrow thou mayest mourn in vain." "Away, and sweep the glades along!" The sable hunter hoarse replies; "To muttering monks leave matin song, And bells, and books, and mysteries." Earl Walter spurred his ardent steed,

And launching forward with a bound,"Who for the drowsy priest-like ride,

Would leave the jovial horn and hound? "No! pious fool, I scorn thy lore;

Let him who ne'er the chase durst prove
Go join with thee the droning choir,
And leave me to the sport I love."

Fast, fast, Earl Walter onward rides
O'er moss and moor, o'er holt and hill;
And onward fast, on either side,

The stranger horsemen followed still.
Up springs from yonder tangled thorn

A stag more white than mountain snow;
And louder rung Earl Walter's horn,
"Hark forward! forward! holloo, ho!"

A heedless wretch has cross'd the way,-
He gasps the thundering hoofs below;
But live who can, or die who may,
Still forward! forward! on they go.
See where yon simple fences meet,
A field with autumn's blessings crown'd;
See prostrate at Earl Walter's feet,
A husbandman with toil embrown'd!
(To be continued.)

A schoolmaster once exhibiting his knowledge of fabulous history, described all the rivers in hell until he came

to Styx, which he said was also there. "Sticks in hell!"

cried a young gentleman in holy orders, who wished to confuse the poor man, "Candle-sticks or fiddle-sticks ?""Really, Sir," says the schoolmaster," as to candlesticks or fiddle-sticks being there, I am not sure, but as to Ecclesia-sticks, I am fully certain."

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Minutes of a Feat of Swimming between Liverpool an Runcorn, by Dr. Bedale, of Manchester, on the 10th a July, 1827.

At a quarter before eight o'clock in the morning he en tered a boat off the George's Dock Parade, accompanie by Mr. Robert Rowland, of St. Asaph, Mr. John Gra ham, of Manchester, and Mr. Smith, of Heaton Norris plunged into the water at half-past eight, having bee previously covered with a composition of oil, &c. and hold ing a small flag in his hand; the weather rather cold an gloomy, with a little wind, which in a small degre checked the hopes of the Docter of final success. I twenty minutes, a stimulant, composed of wine and brandy was given by means of a bottle, tied to a cane about te feet in length. Passed the lazarettos, near three miles, 28 minutes; and the snuff mill, near Garston, in exce lent spirits, in 50.

Again took refreshment, and cleared six miles in or hour. Passed Garston Dock and Eastham Ferry, abo seven miles, in one hour and ten minutes. The Doct again gained great confidence. In one hour and thirt seven minutes opposite Speke Woods. Being about b way, the Doctor expressed full confidence of final succes and cheered, waving his hands out of the water. Pass the Dungeon Salt Works, about thirteen miles, in t hours ten minutes, still proceeding on at the rate of s miles per hour, without any appearance of fatigue great muscular exertion. The weather had cleared and become hot.

Passed Ince Hall in two hours and twenty-two minut and gained, for the first time, the sight of Runcorn, Duke's warehouse being the object seen. The Doct again cheered, and cried The day's our own."

Overtaken by the Eclipse steam-packet in two hou and thirty minutes; the deck was crowded with passer gers, who seemed surprised and pleased at what h already been done, and after having accompanied Doctor a little way, gave three cheers, and proceede en its course. The Doctor answered them, and aga took_refreshment. In two hours and forty-five minut the Bridgewater steamer passed, when similar proceeding took place. The Doctor complained of cramp in th calf of his left leg.

Passed the mouth of the Weaver in two hours fifty minutes. A slight breeze sprung up, from whic ill consequences were apprehended, and none experience

Passed Weston Point in three hours and five minutes numbers of persons on the shore. The St. George, beautiful six oared boat, manned by young gentlemen the neighbourhood, here met us, and again gave encou ragement to the Doctor, and animation to the scene.

Passed the church in three hours and thirty minute and in two minutes after arrived off the boat-bouse, and g into the boat, when he was hailed by the acclamations a assembled thousands. The Doctor bowed and answered appeared by no means distressed; expressed an unwi lingness to stop; and declared he could go a dozen mile further. He assisted in dressing himself, went to the in and took a hearty dinner, and returned to Liverpool the Eclipse, accompanied by his friends.

His favourite mode of swimming was on his back; and as in that position he could not see his course, he fre quently got athwart the tide, and unconsciously attempte would, consequently, occasion an increase both of tim to stem it, and proceed again towards Liverpool, which

and distance.

Mr. Vipond, who accompanied Dr. Bedale, must hav undergone much more muscular exertion than his com

panion, if it be true, as the former says, that the latter did ot relieve himself by floating on his back. He has adIresseda note to the editor of the last Manchester Guardian, of which we shall here subjoin a copy, as it forms a part of he proceedings, and contains a challenge, which we fancy

Jr. Bedale must accept.

TO THE EDITOR OF THe manchester guARDIAN. SIR,-Having read an account in your paper of the 14th nstant, under the head" Extraordinary Swimming," take the liberty of addressing you upon the subject, eing one of the parties referred to in it, to correct the atement made, in order that the truth may be known to e public.

t is not correct that Mr. Bedale ever headed me: we

his escape by swimming, in the middle of the night, from
Gibraltar to Algizira, a distance of seven miles, with the
stream rather against him. He escaped from the King's
ship, in company with another impressed man, about a
quarter past twelve at midnight, and reached the coast of
Algizira, about a quarter past four in the morning, in the
most debilitated state. His companion, after having
accompanied him about a mile, returned to the ship.
We are not at liberty to name the gentleman, although
there is not one of our readers who would not applaud an
impressed man for regaining his liberty.

If this gentleman would consent to enter the lists, in a
match at fair swimming, we are of opinion that Dr. Be-
dale would have no chance with him; and we have seen
them both in the water.

We shall, next week, offer some further remarks which will tend to show that any man passing by water from the Prince's Dock to Runcorn, with a strong spring-tide in his favour, cannot, by possibility, swIM above four miles or five, at the furthest. As we have adverted to Lord Byron's swimming in the Hellespont, and in the Mediterranean, we shall here subjoin his Lordship's account of the exploit.

that of others, bids me' pronounce the passage of Leander perfectly practicable: any young man in good health, and with tolerable skill in swimming, might succeed in it from either side. I was three hours in swimming across the Tagus, which is much more hazardous, being two hours longer than the passage of the Hellespont. Of what may be done in swimming, I shall mention one more instance. In 1818, the Chevalier Mingaldo, (a gentleman of Bassano) a good swimmer, wished to swim with my friend, Mr. Alexander Scott, and myself: as he seemed particularly anxious on the subject, we indulged him. We all three started from the island of the Lido, and swam to Venice. At the entrance of the Grand Canal, Scott and I were a good way a-head, and we saw no more of our foreign friend, which, however, was of no consequence, as there was a gondola to hold his clothes, and pick him up. Scott swam on till past the Rialto, where he got out-less from fatigue than chill, having been four hours in the water, without rest, or stay, except what is to be obtained by floating on one's back: this being the condition of our performance, I continued my course on to Santa Chiara, comprising the whole of the Grand Canal, (beside the distance from the Lido) and got out where the Laguna once opens to Fusina. I had been in the water, by my watch, without help or rest, and never touching ground or boat, four hours and twenty minutes. To this match, and during the greater part of its performance, Mr. Hoppner, the Consul-General, was witness, and it is well known to many others. Mr. Turner can easily verify the fact, if he thinks it worth while, by referring to Mr. Hoppner. The distance we could not accurately ascertain; it was of course considerable.

Some time ago, Mr. Bedale undertook to swim for a im of money, from Liverpool to Runcorn, in one tide, it not with me. Being a swimmer myself, a few days fore the time Mr. Bedale had fixed upon to undertake e task, I made a small wager of £5 with him, that I uld swim to Runcorn in a shorter time than he could. le accordingly, on the morning mentioned in your paper, roceeded together in one boat: I entered the river first, nd he followed me in about a minute afterwards. wam nearly together for about an hour and a half, and ading that I could swim faster than he, I pushed forward, ad was at one time a-head of him a considerable distance. was three hours and twenty minutes in swimming from iverpool to Runcorn. I left the boat opposite the Queen's SWIMMING ACROSS THE HELLESPONT AND ON THE tock, and got out of the river opposite the Duke of ridgewater's Warehouse, at Runcorn, ten minutes before I crossed the Hellespont in one hour and ten minutes Ir. Bedale arrived at the same place; but as Mr. Bedale's only. I am now ten years older in time, and twenty in ager was to swim opposite the church at Runcorn, which is constitution, than I was when I passed the Dardanelles, bout three hundred yards further than I swam, he swam nd arrived about fifteen minutes after I landed. The Travels, (which you lately sent me,) it is stated that Lord have continued two hours longer, though I had on a pair DEAR SIR,-In the 44th page, vol. 1st of Turner's and yet two years ago I was capable of swimming four hours and twenty minutes; and I am sure that I could vager I bet was given up to me, and Mr. Bedale swam he same distance I did in three hours and thirty minutes. Byron, when he expressed such confidence of its practi- of trowsers, an accoutrement which by no means assists I have no objection to swim against Mr. Bedale or any cability, seems to have forgotten that Leander swam both the performance. My two companions were also four Prince's Dock, Liverpool, to any given point at Runcorn, only performed the easiest part of the task by swimming of age, Scott about six and twenty. With this experience ther man for a wager of £20, from the north point of the ways, with and against the tide; whereas he (Lord Byron) hours in the water. Mingaldo might be about thirty years

n the next August spring tide. Your publishing this
etter will much oblige your obedient servant,
No. 17, Smith-street, Salford.

July 19, 1827.


In consequence of Dr. Bedale's letter, contained in the ast Mercury, we have been favoured with the following





Ravenna, February 11, 1821.

with it from Europe to Asia." I certainly could not have
forgotten what is known to every scoolboy, that Leander
crossed in the night, and returned towards the morning.
My object was to ascertain that the Hellespont could be
crossed, at all, by swimming: and in this Mr. Ebenhead
and myself both succeeded; the one in an hour and ten
minutes; the other in one hour and five minutes: the
tide was not in our favour; on the contrary, the great diffi-
culty was to bear up against the current; which, so far
from helping us to the Asiatic side, set us down right
towards the Archipelago. Neither Mr. Ebenhead, myself,
nor, I will venture to add, any person on board the frigate,
from Captain (now Admiral) Bathurst, downwards, had
any notion of a difference of the current on the Asiatic

But Mr.

in swimming at difference periods of age, not only on the
make me doubt that Leander's exploit was perfectly prac-
spot, but elsewhere, of various persons, what is there to
ticable? If three individuals did more than passing the
Hellespont, why should he have done less?
Turner failed; and, naturally seeking a plausible excuse
for his failure, lays the blame on the Asiatic side of the
strait. To me the cause is evident. He tried to swim
directly across, instead of going higher up to take the
vantage. He might as well have tried to fly over Mount


SIR-I observe, by your paper of this day, a letter rom Dr. Bedale, containing a challenge to any young entleman to swim from Liverpool to Warrington in one ide, (of course, we all know it cannot be done in two, uccessively;) accompanied by some very judicious obser- side, of which Mr. Turner speaks. I never heard of it he attempted it or not is another question, because he

ations of your own, explanatory of the manner in which he Doctor accomplished his feat. I think that in Liverool there may be many found who will not hesitate to lispute the palm of victory with him.

I recollect perusing a paragraph in your paper of last wear, August 4th, recording the feat of a young gentleman; and I think, if we consider that he had partially contend with the tide, he might be induced to attempt the distance mentioned above, particularly as he will have he stream all the way in his favour.-I must apologize to he individual for my freedom; but if this notice should neet his approbation, perhaps he will favour you with a ew lines on the subject. Yours, &c.


With reference to this note of our correspondent, we must observe, that although there may not be found pers in Liverpool who may choose to run the risk of exposure for four hours in the water, we feel confident that there are better swimmers in Liverpool than either of the gentlemen who swam and drifted from the Queen's Dock to Runcorn.

till this moment, or I would have taken the other course.
Lieutenant Ebenhead's sole motive, and mine also, for
setting out from the European side, was, that the little
Cape above Sestos was a more prominent starting-place,
and the frigate which lay below, close under the Asiatic
castle, formed a better point of view for us to move to-
wards; and, in fact, we landed immediately below it.
Mr. Turner says, "whatever is thrown into the stream of
this part of the European bank must arrive at the Asiatic
shore." This is so far from being the case, that it must
arrive in the Archipelago if left to the current, although a
strong wind from the Asiatic side might have such effect

Mr. Turner attempted the passage from the Asiatic side, and failed; "after five and twenty minutes, in which he did not advance a hundred yards, he gave it up from complete exhaustion." This is very possible, and might have occurred to him just as readily on the European side. I particularly stated, and Mr. Hobhouse has done so also, that we were obliged to make the real passage of one mile extend to between three and four, owing to the force of the stream. I can assure Mr. Turner that his success would have given me great pleasure, as it would have added one more instance to the proofs of its practicability. There is one nautical gentleman who frequents the It is not quite fair in him to infer, that because he failed, Floating Bath, and who is an excellent, buoyant, and Leander could not succeed. There are still four instances on record; a Neapolitan, a young Jew, Mr. Ebenhead, powerful swimmer, who has performed a feat which re- and myself: the two last were in the presence of hundreds quired much more muscular exertion, courage, or what of English witnesses. With regard to the difference of in the slang of the fancy is termed " bottom," than the current, I perceived none; it is favourable to the swimmer on neither side, but may be stemmed by plungare necessary to go up to Runcorn with the tide, accom-ing into the sea a considerable way above the opposite point of the coast which the swimmer wishes to make, but still bearing up against it: it is strong; but if you calcucate well, you may reach land. My own experience, and

panied by a boat.

The gentleman to whom we allude having been pressed from one of Mr. Gladstone's vessels, during the war, made

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P. S. Mr. Turner says that the swimming from Europe to Asia was "the easiest part of the task." I doubt whether Leander found it so, as it was the return; however, he had several hours between the intervals. The argument of Mr. T. " that higher up or lower down the strait widens so considerably, that he would have little labour by his starting," is only good for indifferent swimmers. A man of any practice or skill will always consider the distance less than the strength of the stream. If Lieutenant Ebenhead and myself had thought of crossing at the narrowest point, instead of going up to the Cape above it, we should have been swept down to Tenedos. The strait is, however, not extraordinarily wide, even where it broadens above and below the forts: as the frigate was stationed some time in the Dardanelles, waiting for the Firman, I bathed often in the strait subsequently to our traject, and generally on the Asiatic side, without perceiving the greater strength of the opposing stream, by which Mr. Turner palliates his own failure. Qui amusement in the small bay which opens immediately below the Asiatic fort, was to dive for the land tortoises, which we flung in on purpose, as they amphibiously crawled along the bottom this does not argue any greater violence of current than on the European shore. With regard to the modest insinua. tion, that we chose the European side as easier," I appeal to Mr. Hobhouse and Admiral Bathurst if it be true or no (poor Ebenhead being since dead.) Had we been aware of any such difference of current as is asserted, we would at least have proved it, and were not likely to have given it up in the twenty-five minutes of Mr. Turner's own experiment.



Since our last, a work of considerable interest has made its appearance, under the title of Two Years in Ava. Being the journal of an officer who was employed on the staff of Sir Archibald Campbell, in the recent invasion of the Burmese empire, a large portion of the volume is necessarily occupied with details of the operations of the invading and retreating armies. This part of the work abounds with incidents and events of no common interest; but the author also availed himself of the opportunities afforded by the protracted occupation of the conquered territory to collect many curious particulars relative to the manners, customs, and amusements of the singular people with whom the chances of modern warfare have now for the first time made us acquainted. We extract the following passages, which form an appropriate sequel to our paper on the Burmese Musical Instruments, given in vol. iv.

"The most favourite amusements of the Burmahs are acting and dancing, accompanied by a music which to my ear appeared very discordant, although occasionally a few rather pleasing notes might be distinguished. The principal instrument used in the Burman bands of music is the kiezoop, which is formed of a number of small gongs, graduated in size and tone on the principle of the harmonica, and supended in a circular frame about four feet high and five feet wide; within which the performer stands, and extracts a succession of soft tones, by striking on the gongs with two small sticks. Another circular instrument (the boundah) serves as a bass; it contains an equal number of different sized drums, on which the musician strikes with violence, with a view perhaps to weaken the shrill, discordant notes of a very rude species of flageolet, and of an equally imperfect kind of trumpet, which are usually played with a total disregard of time, tune, or harmony. Two or three other instruments, similar in principle to the violin, complete the orchestra. To Europeans, there was not much to admire in the sounds produced by these instruments; neither did our music appear to have many charms for the Burmalis, whom I have seen present at the performance of some of Rossini's most beautiful airs, and of different martial pieces, by one of our best regimental bands, without expressing, either by their words or gestures, the least satisfaction at what they heard. "In condemning, however, the Burman instrumental music generally, I would observe, that some of the vocal airs have a very pleasing effect when accompanied by the Patola. This is an instrument made in the fantastic shape of an alligator: the body of it is hollow, with openings at the back, and three strings only are used, which are supported by a bridge, as in a violín.

"I chanced one day to meet with a young Burman who had been stone-blind from his birth, but who, gifted with great talent for music, used to console himself for his misfortune by playing on this species of guitar, and accompanying his voice. When I expressed a wish to hear him perform, he immediately struck out a most brilliant prelude, and then commenced a song, in a bold tone, the subject of which was a prophecy that had been current at Rangoon before we arrived. It predicted the appearance of numerous strangers at that place, and that two-masted ships would sail up the Irrawaddy, when all trouble and sorrow would cease! Animated by his subject, his voice gradually became bolder and more spirited, as well as his performance, and without any hesitation he sung with much facility two or three stanzas composed extempore.

"Changing suddenly from the enthusiastic tone, he commenced a soft, plaintive love-song, and then, after striking the chords for some time in a wild but masterly manner, retired. I confess I felt much interested in this poor fellow's performance, he seemed so deeply to feel every note he uttered, particularly at one time, when he touched upon his own misfortune, that it appeared Providence, in ordaining he should never see, had endowed him with this soul-speaking" talent, in some measure to indemnify


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I have sometimes heard a trio sung in parts by three oung girls, with a correctness of ear and voice which ld do credit to others than the self-taught Burmahs. Mamy little songs, amongst others that commencing Tkien Tekien, were composed and sung by the Burfair, in compliment to their new and welcome visitors, The white strangers; but these, of course, are long since or signed to oblivion, unless they recollect with pleasure The grateful breath of song


That once was heard in happier hours;

for it is very certain that the Burmahs considered themeles quite happy, when enjoying the transient glimpse Liberty, and the advantages of a just Government which ere offered them during the short stay of the British army Prome.

The Bouquet.

brought nothing of my own but the thread that ties them." MONTAIGNE.


Further Extracts.


"momentum aere perennius" of his supremacy in pathetic melody and choral harmony. He had a favourite Rucker. I have here only made a nosegay of culled flowers, and have harpsichord, every key of which, by incessant practice, was hollowed like the bowl of a spoon. He continued to perform the Messiah several years for the benefit of the Foundling Hospital; and also by presenting the charity with a copy of the score, and parts of this composition, gave them such a title as almost to impart an exclusive right to its performance. This act of bounty was so ill understood by some of the governors, that they formed a resolution, strange as it may seem, of applying to Parliament for an establishment of their supposed right; and to prohibit, under severe penalties, the performance of the The Burman plays do not appear to be remarkable Messiah by any others than Mr. Handel and themselves. r the number of their dramatis persona. In most, there a prince, a confidant, a buffoon or two, and a due pro- In order to facilitate the passing of such an act, they ortion of female characters, represented by boys dressed thought it necessary to ask for Handel's concurrence; Female attire. The dresses are handsome; and in one but he was so little sensible of the propriety of such a hich I attended, the dialogue appeared to be lively and procedure, that, on its being mentioned to him, he broke ell supported, as far as I could judge from the roars of ughter which resounded from the Burman part of the out into a furious passion " For vat sal de Fondlings nience. One sentimental scene, in which the loving put mein Oratorio in de Parlement? Te teuffel! mein prince takes leave of his mistress, and another where, after music sal not go to de Parlement !"-Dr. Morell took the much weeping and flirtation, she throws herself into his liberty of suggesting to Handel, that the music he had rms, were sufficiently intelligible to us; but some, in written to some lines of his was really contrary to the hich the jokes of the clown formed the leading feature, ere quite lost upon those who did not understand the sense of the passage. Instead of taking this friendly hint nguage. The place chosen for the representation was a from one at least who was a better judge of English pot of ground outside of our houses, the heat being very poetry than himself, he considered the advice as the reat; and here a circle was formed of carpets and chairs, greatest indignity and affront that could be offered to his ghted by torches dipped in petroleum, which threw a talents. With all the violence of insulted pride, he exFilliant flare around, though accompanied by a most un-claimed, "Vat! you teach me music! The music ish "Dancing succeeded, and one or two young women were the performers: like the Hindostanee Nautch, it merely consisted in throwing the body and arms into numerous graceful and rather voluptuous postures; at the same time advancing slowly, with a short steady step, and pccasionally changing it for a more lively figure.

leasant odour.

"All this time the drums, cymbals, and clarionets were unceasing in their discordant sounds, and, before long, fairly drove me from the field."

Burmans addressed us.


good music! It ish your vords, Sir, ish bad! Here (he
continued) here ish my music (thrumming vehemently
upon the harpsichord ;) go you and make vords to my



The conduct of Napoleon among his companions was that of a studious and reserved youth, addicting himself than seeking the usual temptations to dissipations of time. deeply to the means of improvement, and rather avoiding He had few friends, and no intimates; yet, at different times, when he chose to exert it, he exhibited considerable influence over his fellow students: and when there was any chosen dictator of the little republic. In the time of joint plan to be carried into effect, he was frequently winter, Buonaparte on one occasion engaged his companions in constructing a fortress out of the snow, regularly defended by ditches and bastions, according to the rules of fortification. It was considered as displaying the great powers of the juvenile engineer in the way of his profesdivided into parties for the purpose, until the battle became sion, and was attacked and defended by the students, who so keen that their superiors thought proper to proclaim a truce. The young Buonaparte gave another instance of address and enterprise upon the following occasion. There where the pupils found a day's amusement; but, on acwas a fair held annually in the neighbourhood of Brienne, count of a quarrel between them and the country people. upon a former occasion, or for some such cause, the masters of the institution had directed that the students should not, on the fair-day, be permitted to go beyond their own direction of the young Corsican, however, the scholars had precincts, which were surrounded with a wall. Under the already laid a plot for securing their usual day's diversion. They had undermined the wall which encompassed their It has been often asserted, that the compositions of their operations remained entirely unknown till the morn. exercising ground, with so much skill and secrecy that Haydn are very unequal; that some are replete with ing of the fair, when a part of the wall fell, and gave a elegance and scientific knowledge, whilst others are ex-free passage to the imprisoned students, of which they imPrince! O Prince! This was the title by which the travagant to excess. In illustration of this circumstance, mediately took the advantage, by hurrying to the prohiit has been remarked, that many of these pieces were perhaps, other occasions, Buonapa.te displayed some of bited scene of amusement. But, although on these, and, written at the command of Prince Esterhazy, whose ideas the frolic temper of youth, mixed with the inventive geof music were highly eccentric. It is said that he often nius and the talent for commanding others, by which he chose the plan on which Haydn was to compose particular was distinguished in after time-his life at school was, in symphonies; some, for instance, he ordered to be adapted general, that of a recluse and severe student, acquiring by for three or four orchestres, situated in different apart-derful process of almost unlimited combination, by means his judgment, and treasuring in his memory, that wonments, which were to be heard singly, to respond with of which he was afterwards able to simplify the most diffieach other, and to join together at the will of the Prince. cult and complicated undertakings. His mathematical The following anecdote, if it be founded in truth, though teacher was proud of the young islander, as the boast of his school, and his other scientific instructors had the same it appears very improbable, would seem to have some reason to be satisfied. In language Buonaparte was less a relation to this strange humour of the Prince :-The proficient, and never acquired the art of writing or spelling musicians of his palace are said to have disagreed with French, far less foreign languages, with accuracy or corthe officers of his household, and to have given in their rectness. Though of Italian origin, Buonaparte had not resignations. These were accepted under the impression sition seems to have leaned towards the grotesque and the a decided taste for the fine arts; and his taste in compothat they would soon change their minds. On the even bombastic. At the age of seventeen he became (when a ing of the day they had fixed for their departure, they lieutenant of artillery)" an adventurer for the honours of were to perform their last concert before the Prince. literature also," and was, anonymously, a competitor for Haydn had to compose for the occasion a symphony, the the prize offered by the Academy of Lyons on Raynal's conclusion of which was of a very extraordinary kind. question, "What are the principles and institutions, by It was an adagio, in which each instrument, in succession, pitch of happiness?" The prize was adjudged to the application of which mankind can be raised to the highest played a solo, and at the end of each part, Haydn wrote young soldier. It is impossible to avoid feeling curiosity these words, "Put out your candle, and go about your to know the character of the juvenile theories respecting business." The first oboe and French horn are said to government, advocated by one who, at length, attained the have gone away first; after this, the second oboe and the Probably his early ideas did not exactly coincide with his power of practically making what experiments he pleased. first horn; then the bassoons, and soon with the rest of more mature practice; for, when Talleyrand, many years the performers, except the first and second violins, who afterwards, got the Essay out of the records of the Acawere alone left to finish the symphony. The Prince was demy, and returned it to the author, Buonaparte destroyed astonished at all this, and asked what the meaning of all it after he had read a few pages. He also laboured under this was. Haydn told him that the musicians were about the manner of Sterne, which he was fortunate enough the temptation of writing a journey to Mount Cenis, after to quit his service, and that carriages were then at the door finally to resist. The affectation which pervades Sterne's of the palace waiting to carry them away. The Prince peculiar style of composition, was not likely to be simplisent for those into his presence who had left the room, and fied under the pen of Buonaparte. Sterner times were reproved them severely for the manner in which they were those factions which produced the Revolution. fast approaching, and the nation was now fully divided by about to desert so excellent a master. The men, who had previously repented of their imprudent conduct, expressed their regret at what they had done, and were allowed again to enter into his service.



His overtures, excellent as some of them are, were composed as fast as he could write them; and the most Laborate of them seldom cost him more than a mornng's labour. Although there seems to be no necesary connexion betwixt those faculties which constitute a composer of music, and the powers of instrumental perrmance, yet, in the person of Handel, all the perfections the musical art seemed to be concentrated. He had ever been master of the violin, and had discontinued the Practice of it from the time that he adopted the harpsichord act Hamburgh; yet his style of performance, even on that instrument, was such as the ablest masters would have been glad to imitate. But, what was still more extraordinary, without a musical voice, he was an excellent singer Of such music as required more of the pathos of melody han quick and voluble expression. At a concert, at the thouse of Lady Rich, he was once prevailed on to sing slow song, which he did in such a manner that Farinelli, who was present, could not be persuaded to sing it after him. Haydn, who is the only one ever put in competition with him, declared, that "this man is the father of us all." Mozart, in the refined majesty of his style, has opened a new path to composers; and Beethoven, and many others, have followed it. But in spite of reformation in taste and style, (for what contrast can be greater than the harmony of the ancient and modern school ?) a few composers, who flourished in the early era of music, still retain their celebrity, and above them all Handel is regarded as the most pre-eminent; and his transcendent Ontorio of the Messiah will descend to latest posterity

NAPOLEON'S LOVE LETTER TO JOSEPHINE. By what art is it you have been able to captivate all my faculties, and to concentrate in yourself my moral existence? It is a magic, my sweet love, which will finish only

with my life. To live for Josephine-there is the history of my life. I am trying to reach you-I am dying to be near you. Fool that I am, I do not perceive that I increase the distance between us. What lands, what countries separate us! What a time before you read these weak expressions of a troubled soul, in which you reign! Ah! my adorable wife, I know not what fate awaits me, but if it keep me much longer from you, it will be insupportable,-my courage will not go so far. There was a time when I was proud of my courage; and, sometimes, when contemplating on the ills that man could do me, on the fate which destiny could reserve for me, I fixed my eyes stedfastly on the most unheard-of misfortunes without a frown-without alarm; but now the idea that my Josephine may be unwell-the idea that she may be illand, above all, the cruel, the fatal thought, that she may love me less, withers my soul, stops my blood, renders me sad, cast down, and leaves me not even the courage of fury and despair. Formerly I used to say to myself, men could not hurt him who could die without regret; but now, to die without being loved by thee, to die without that certainty, is the torment of hell-it is the lively and striking image of absolute annihilation: I feel as if I were stifled. My incomparable companion, thou whom fate has destined to make along with me the painful journey of life, the day on which I shall cease to possess thy heart will be the day on which parched nature will be to me without warmth and vegetation.

I stop, my sweet love! my soul is sad-my body is fatigued my head is giddy-men disgust me-I ought to hate them they separate me from my beloved.

I am at Port Maurice, near Oneille; to-morrow I shall be at Albenga; the two armies are in motion. We are endeavouring to deceive each other; victory to the most skilful! I am pretty well satisfied with Beaulieu. If he alarm me much, he is a better man than his predecessor. I shall beat him, I hope, in good style. Do not be uneasy -love me as your eyes: but that is not enough, as your self, more than yourself, than your thought-your mindyour sight-your all. Sweet love, forgive me I am sinking. Nature is weak for him who feels strongly, for him whom you love!


tuted a point at which he might pause. It might have|
been thought that, satiated with success, and wearied with
enterprise, he would have busied himself more in consoli-
dating the power which he desired to transmit to his ex-
pected posterity, than in aiming at rendering his grandeur
more invidious and more precarious, by further schemes
of ambition. Even the charms which this union added to
his domestic life might, it was hoped, bring on a taste for
repose, which, could it have influenced that fiery imagina
tion and frame of iron, might have been of such essential
advantage to Europe.

Napoleon knew what was expected, and endeavoured to
vindicate himself beforehand for the disappointment which
he foresaw was about to ensue.

"The good citizens rejoice sincerely at my marriage,
Monsieur ?" he said to Decres, his minister.
"Very much, Sire.”

"I understand they think the lion will go slumber, ha ?"
To speak the truth, Sire, they entertain some hopes
of that nature."

Napoleon paused an instant, and then replied, "They are mistaken; yet it is not the fault of the lion; slumber would be as agreeable to him as to others. But see you not that while I have the air of being constantly the attacking party, I am, in fact, acting only on the defensive ?"

This sophism, by which Napoleon endeavoured to persuade all men that his constant wars arose, not from choice, but out of the necessity of his situation, will be best discussed hereafter.

In the meantime, we may only notice, that the Emperor Alexander judged most accurately of the consequences of the Austrian match, when he said, on receiving the news, "Then the next task will be to drive me back to my forests;" so certain he was that Napoleon would make his intimate alliance with the Emperor Francis the means of an attack upon Russia; and so acute was he in seeing the germs of future and more desperate wars, in a union from which more short-sighted politicians were looking for the blessings of peace.




SIR,-I have frequently read in that excellent little work, the Kaleidoscope, letters signed Observer, reflecting (pretty severely I must say, though too appositely) on the conduct of the drapers' and silk-mercers' assistants of this town. It has, therefore, given me the most sincere pleasure to receive a private communication from Observer, wherein he says that, "in consequence of having received several letters from female correspondents, stating the assiduous and respectful attention they have uniformly met with from the assistants of my establishment, he should consider himself wanting in justice did he not apprize me of the same."

As a domestic occurrence, nothing could more contribute to Buonaparte's happiness than his union with Maria Louisa. He was wont to compare her with Josephine, by giving the latter all the advantages of art and grace; the former the charms of simple modesty and innocence. His former Empress used every art to support or enhance her personal charms; but with so much prudence and mystery, that the secret cares of her toilette could never be traced-her successor trusted for the power of pleasing to youth and nature. Josephine mismanaged her revenue, and incurred debt without scruple. Maria Louisa lived within her income, or if she desired any indulgence beyond it, which was rarely the case, she asked it as a favour of Napoleon. Josephine, accustomed to political intrigue, loved to manage, to influence, and to guide her husband; Maria Louisa desired only to please and to obey him. Both were excellent women, of great sweetness of temper, and fondly attached to Napoleon. In the difference between these distinguished persons, we can easily discriminate the leading features of the Parisian, and of the simple German beauty; but it is certainly singular that the artificial character should have belonged to the daughter of the West Indian Planter; that marked by nature and simI think it right to state, for Observer's information, that plicity, to a Princess of the proudest court in Europe. I have one leading feature in the arrangement of my estaBuonaparte, whose domestic conduct was generally praise-blishment which tends not a little to cultivate the good worthy, behaved with the utmost kindness to his princely conduct of my assistants; and, as I doubt not that the bride. He observed, however, the strictest etiquette, and end and intent of Observer's letters is to lessen or remove required it from the Empress. If it happened, for example, as was often the case, that he was prevented from at- the cause of his animadversions, I shall be most happy if tending at the hour when dinner was placed on the table, he will call upon me to explain wherein my arrangements he was displeased if, in the interim of his absence, which differ from those of my neighbours.-I beg to remain, your was often prolonged, she either took a book, or had reobedient servant, course to any female occupation-if, in short, he did not find her in the attitude of waiting for the signal to take her place at the table.

EFFECTS OF NAPOLEON'S MARRIAGE. As it influenced his political fate, Buonaparte has registered his complaint, that the Austrian match was a precipice covered with flowers, which he was rashly induced to approach by the hopes of domestic happiness. But if this proved so, it was the fault of Napoleon himself; his subjects and his allies augured very differently of its consequences, and to himself alone it was owing that these auguries were disappointed. It was to have been expected, that a connexion formed with the most ancient Imperial family in Christendom might have induced Buonaparte to adopt some of those sentiments of moderation which regard rather the stability than the increase of power. It consti

I have laid Observer's letter before them, and hope it may prove a zest to their exertions to continue to merit Observer's and the public's good opinion.

Liverpool, June 18, 1817.

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been our intention to republish this whimsical piece the poetry of the Anti-Jacobin. It is universally ascribe Mr. Canning, who, in conjunction with several other you men, acquired considerable eclat, by editing the Anti-Ja bin. We select the Rovers from the volume, because i a very clever satire upon the spurious sentiment and exe tionable moral with which the German stage has be taxed. Having at length brought to a termination © reprint of the American Novel of Charlotte Temple, shall have rather more space at our disposal.

The article written in blue ink, and entitled "The Philosopi of Reviews," is illegible.

SHAKSPEARE-If we had the requisite space at our dispos we should have ventured to offer a few remarks upon e tain points in L.'s communication upon Shakspeare, wh with all his faults and absurdities, was, in our opinion, t most extraordinary intellectual phenomenon ever know in any country or in any age with the history of which are acquainted.

We are, at this moment, in the act of transferring of types and press to our new printing rooms in Clarendo Buildings, Lord-street; an operation attendant with much inconvenience and bustle, that we have not time pay the requisite attention to our correspondents, whe names we can merely enumerate this week. The foregoing note is applicable to S. S.-W. B.-J. M W.-Homo.-J. W.-J. B-k-n.-H. D.-W.-J. W.H. B.-W.-P. M. and A. M.

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