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Biographical Notices.

ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE, ESQ.

(From the Edinburgh Weekly Chronicle, July 25.)

THE KALEIDOSCOPE.

may be understood even by those whose attention may not hitherto have been drawn to the class of studies to which our communications may belong.

the Straits of Magellan, so called after the great Spanish In pursuance of this rule, we shall state first, that in navigator, whose name they bear, and formed by the South America, certain nebulæ, of the nature and ap island of Terra del Fuego and the southern extremity of pearance of the milky way, are seen, which have, from the gellan Clouds." They have hitherto been considered as a small portion only of those immense and immeasurable time of their first discovery, borne the name of the "Ma masses of nebula scattered over the face of the heavens, but placed so far beyond the limits of the fixed stars, as to induce the great Dr. Herschell to hazard the opinion that land, in the ship Thames, Captain R. L. Frazer, the fo "their very light had been a million of years in travelling lowing observations were made, when in the lat. of 33 deg to our system!" In a recent voyage from India to Eng to 34 deg. S. and lon. 18 deg. E. of the meridian of Greeti perceived; namely, that the smaller cloud, or supposed cluster of distant stars, constantly preserved the altitudes wich, within which limits the clouds were clearly to be of 50 deg., remaining perfectly stationary, while the larger cloud revolved round the smaller one in the space of 24 hours, constantly preserving the same distance from it o about 22 deg.

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adversity. The hurricane of 1825, which tore up by the roots the tallest trees in the commercial forest, and did not spare even the brushwood, laid him," the loftiest of the lofty," prostrate. The tremendous crash of his downfal, when in his "most high and palmy state," is still fresh With much regret we have to announce the death of and trunk were destroyed, the root continued sound as in the memory of every one. But though the branches this gentleman. He had long laboured under a dropsical ever; and, with preternatural vigour, put forth stoles complaint; but the immediate cause of his death, which which promised to repair the damage done by the blast. occurred on Saturday, at his house in the Park-place, was His Miscellany was a wonderfully grand scheme, which the bursting of a blood-vessel. Few men in modern times, delighted the patriot and philanthropist, and was, in every in any department of business, have occupied a larger way, promising. With regard to Mr. Constable's morale, space in the public eye than Mr. Constable. The exten- it occurs to us, that to have acquired, as he did, the esteem siveness and bold originality of his speculations as a pub- of the most knowing and able men of his day, he must lisher would have conferred a distinction upon any man; have possessed extraordinary powers of mind, a gentlebut when these qualities are viewed in connexion with his manly spirit, and a social disposition. But rather than liberality to authors-a liberality which was unprecedented trust to ourselves on that subject we would refer to the de-which to the cautious might appear profusion, but, as lineations by others, whose opportunities of knowing, and experienced proved, was a proof of his sagacity, it may accurately judging, cannot be questioned. The following be safely pronounced that, in every respect, he was the sketch of his character appeared in the preface to the novel most eminent publisher of his day. Shakspeare makes of the Fortunes of Nigel, whose author is the most distinone of his characters speak of a "royal merchant ;" and guished that can be named as a practical philosopher:-"To considering the vastness, splendour, and utility of Mr. this great deprivation has been added, I trust for a time only, Constable's undertakings, the term royalty, in Shakspeare's the loss of another bibliopolical friend, whose vigorous in- sailing to the northward, the altitude of both clouds sense, may safely be applied to him. Though his business tellect and liberal ideas have not only rendered his native course decreased; but, as long as they were seen, this te As the ship progressively approached the equator b was but that of a handmaid to literature, he may in some country the mart of her own literature, but established volution of the one around the other was uniformly ob measure be said to have been the author of much litera- there a Court of Letters, which must command respect, that they have furnished us with a diagram of the positie ture, by often pointing out untrodden paths to genius, even from those most inclined to dissent from many of its and appearance of the clouds at several periods of obse served; and so satisfied were the observers of the fac which otherwise might have escaped its searching eye; canons. The effect of these changes, operated in a great vation, which we have deemed of sufficient interest to pres by calling into action, by means of his liberality, genius measure by the strong sense and sagacious calculations of sent in a reduced form above. We possess the original which otherwise would for ever have slumbered; and by an individual, who knew how to avail himself, to an un-tudes, distances, bearings, &c. from the latitudes and le the ready patronage which he extended to the productions hoped-for extent, of the various kinds of talent which his gitudes described; and although the rate of motion of genius, the excellencies of which he could discover, but country produced, will probably appear more clearly to the which the larger cloud must revolve round the stationa with the signatures of the observers, and the several which were concealed by fastidiousness or ignorance from generation which shall follow the present.-I entered the one surpasses all human conception, still, when the b the grosser vision of some of his brethren. Indeed, the shop at the Cross, to inquire after the health of my worthy astronomers are agreed that the distance even of many most remarkable trait of his professional character seems friend, and learned with satisfaction that his residence in created, the first beam of light which they emitted has to have been, that, without being profoundly learned, he the south had abated the rigour of the symptoms of his yet arrived within the limits of our system, while othed the fixed stars may be such that possessed an intuitive taste and perception of whatever disorder."-We have been informed that Mr. Constable which have disappeared or have been destroyed for man since they were was excellent, rare, and likely to be popular in literature; had been some time engaged in preparing, at such inter- ages, will continue to shine in the heavens till the last a taste and perception which never deceived him. No-vals as he could command, a memoir of his life, em- which they emitted has reached our earth," no rapid thing worthless-nothing which had not some high and bracing, of course, that vast fund of literary information of motion or extension of space can of themselves just peculiar merit, if we make a very few exceptions, ever and anecdote which his long association with its highest lime and awful truths must annihilate the pride of fi issued from his house; and such was the celebrity he had and best sources must have led him to obtain, and too capacity, and fill the mind of man with wonder and i credulity, while both are infinite. But though such s acquired by the almost uniform excellence of his publi- valuable to sink with himself into the grave. We fear, miration, how must it elevate his conceptions of that g cations, that his name on the title page of a work was an however, that misfortune and ill health must have stopped Source, from which emanates such inconceivable grande almost certain passport to popularity. Many have pub- the progress of the undertaking; but it may still be hoped and hunibles all created beings to the dust! lished more works, numerically speaking, than Mr. Con- that there are materials for its completion, and hands capastable, but none has published nearly so much in sterling ble of arranging and digesting them in proper order. that its very contemplation paralyzes the strongest mir value; his shop was as the centre of attraction to most of the master spirits of the age, however diversified their politics or pursuits might have been; and hence a vast proportion, indeed, of all that is not perishable in the literature of his day, was ushered into the world by him. Mr. Constable, in fact, with less learning than his predecessor, Mr. Creech, but being a better appreciator of genius and talent, had the high merit of having been the first in his profession to give a great impulse, "a local habitation and a name," to the literature of his own country, and of making Edinburgh a “mart of publication," as the Mercury has well expressed it, to the whole of the empire. Among the most conspicuous of his publications, and those which will ever be remembered as forming eras in the history of letters, were the Edinburgh Review and the Waverley novels. The Encyclopædia Britannica was a stupendous undertaking; but, perhaps, the work dearest to the man of philosophy and science, of the whole of his publications, was the supplement to that Encyclopædia, the conception of which exhibits another very prominent trait in his character. Much in his speculations that appeared rash and eccentric to others, was, in truth, the result of the calculations of an original and vigorous mind-calculations too profound to be easily fathomed by the mere tradesman; and such precisely was his undertaking of the Supplement a work which was despaired of by many, but which, notwithstanding, was eminently successful. he latter days of Mr. Constable were clouded by dire

Scientific Notices,

Comprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve
ments in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin-
gular Medical Cases; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi-
losophical, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical
Phenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History;
Vegetation, &c.; Antiquities, &c.

E

REVOLUTION OF THE MAGELLAN CLOUDS.

B

(From the General Chronicle.)

A

D

C

REFERENCES.

A the small cloud, always

stationary.

B the large cloud revolving

round the smaller one;
appearance at the open-
ing of the morning.

C inferred position of the
large cloud at noon, but

not visible during the

broad light of day.
D appearance of the large

cloud at the close of the
evening.

E appearance of the large
cloud at midnight.

As it is our wish to render whatever we have to commuand interesting as possible, we shall carefully avoid the technicate on subjects of art or science as generally intelligible nicalities by which the plainest facts are frequently obscured, and endeavour to express ourselves in terms that

Correspondence.

PHRENOLOGY.

"What varied wonders tempt us as we pass-
Phrenology, tractors, magnetic animals, and gas,
In turn appear to make the vulgar stare,
Till the whole bubble bursts-and all is air."-Byron

TO THE EDITOR.

SIR,-When I had the pleasure of addressing to f (in Kaleidoscope No. 317, vol. 7, July, 1826) the s stance of an essay delivered at a literary society in town, on the fallacy and arrant imposition of this scien and of seeing, in subsequent numbers of your little m cellany, the observations then made confirmed by off correspondents, I little expected that, after the lapse twelve months, this Goliah of folly should again be broug forward by the vulgar or credulous.

I should not consider the observations of your com pondent Cranium, in your last number, worth noticit names and sentiments of individual gentlemen belongi had he not taken the most unwarrantable liberty with t Scientific Society. If he be a member, he deserves e not to a public, but a private association, in town, t titude developed. If he be "the beardless youth in t pulsion; and if a stranger, cannot have the organ of g corner," who advanced Miss M'Avoy's case as an infalli testimony of the truth of phrenology, he ought to ref on the absurdity of his reference, and blush at the fo

ris conclusions. Perhaps the meeting did this for him. | Again, the case of the widows burning themselves is in
was ably shown that the lady in question pretended not complete refutation of phrenology; for the exertions
y to tell colours by the touch, but also the exact time using, and about to be used, by the proper authorities in
ay, by merely putting her fingers on the watch-glass! India, will inevitably put a stop to these horrid sacrifices
s is really too much: mankind may bear specious im- to the manes of superstition; thus again evincing that
ition for a time, without any exertion to expose it; power and influence which education, habit, custom, morals,
when impudence is brought in to support the effusions and religion have on the human soul, without referring to
olly, people are roused from their lethargy, the cry is unchangeable bumps on the head for variable and ever-
and superstition, with its hydra-headed train, is drag- changing effects of moral discipline. The simple instance
to daylight. Your correspondent is determined to of the Brahmins will for ever destroy the truth of phreno-
sure other people's minds by the standard of his own logy, although it is said, modestly, to be established. Sup-
Julity.
pose all the men in India to become Brahmins, would they
vel exertions were made a few weeks ago, both in not have the same scruples? and, in the same manner, all
ic and private, (by Dr. Cameron, at the Lyceum, and those of Africa and all the world, if similarly educated?
wo or three members of the Scientific Society, at their If so, what would become of the bumps of destructive
Is,) to revive this almost totally exploded science in ness? and, consequently, of any bumps which could be
rpool, by repeating a few of the dogmas of its famous not only counteracted in their malign propensities by edu-
setors, (the quacks, Gall and Co.) assisted by a few of cation, but from infancy rendered null and void by a con-
appended absurdities of Mr. Combe, but without trary line of conduct to that which they would indicate?
After a course of lectures at the former, and two But what do organs on the head indicate? Faculties of
de latter place, followed up by two evenings' discussion the mind, truly! and 33 or 40 faculties are thus indicated
ts merits, this modern luminary was declared to be, by by as many real and imaginary, single or connected, half
majority of the members and their friends, "un- or wholly developed protuberances on the skull. Men of
died in truth, and totally useless in its effects," there- the greatest knowledge and experience have fully and ef-
justly consigned to that limbo of vanity, where Mes- fectually refuted the system of dividing and subdividing
animal magnetism, Perry's animal magnetic metal the mind long before Gall or his brother quacks were born,
on; where ghosts, goblins, and the legions of legions and I think that neither Cocker nor Euclid can assist the
mens, fairies, and bugbears of the nursery, have long modern phrenologists to re-establish so preposterous a doc-
y before it. Your correspondent, I fear, has not the trine. It is surely more consonant with reason and ex-
By to bring it back; if he do, I trust he may assume perience to consider the mind as one indivisible power,
cient impudence to maintain it. He complains of the variably or incidentally directed to different pursuits and
ndance of sarcasm used on the above occasion; but occupations, than to divide it into many small compart-
te lam bent beams of wit are powerful in the expulsionments like a pile of barracks for soldiers, or a tract of
bsurdity, the shafts of ridicule are more so, and should
reely employed by those who can wield them against
mology; for no language is too severe, no weapons too
to rid the world of those follies which occupy the
and engage our time, to the exclusion of what is
By rational, useful, and innocently amusing.

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four correspondent will oblige me by naming any scific person in Liverpool who believes the immortal d-parcelled out into thirty-three, and recently into ty-six parts. Does Dr. Traill, Mr. Marratt, or Mr. coe? Does any man of known celebrity in literature, ace, or philosophy, in this town, give the least credit ? But, on the other hand, is it not entirely mainad by the learned discussions and elaborate effusions apothecaries' apprentices, deputy assistant surgeons, lance readers, and journey women milliners? In proof this, he wisely proves that Gall must have discovered eral organs of the mind when a schoolboy, because, tooth, a boy incidently discovered, or rather suggested, greatest improvement in the steam-engine. On this enological system of reasoning, the apple that fell in garden where Newton was walking must have had the an of attraction for discovering to that philosopher at he called the system of matter, but the apple was acsory to his investigation only. And really no person could 1 that a Brahmin's skull and that of a Hindoo widow identically the same, but he who could, unblushingly, ng forward, as a person of science, the ridiculous and ile assertions of Miss M'Avoy. The Brahmins must, cording to phrenology, have either no organ of destruc"eness, if it exist, or completely counterbalanced by that veneration, as they do not kill any thing that has sing: but they cannot all have similarly configurated eads yet they have all the same religious scruples, and Bese scruples evince the power of education on the mind. •Combe, I find, has discovered three more organs; no Gubt these organs will double their number in a generation two, and colonize not only the head, but the chin, cheeks, d nose, as there will be no room on the skull, that being

ready fall of bumps.

Fide the Narrative of this female impostor by Dr. Renwick, of Liverpool. When will Johanna Southeote cease to save followers, or the kingdom of Lilliput be fully explored?

transatlantic land for settlers, to be colonized and increased
by time and experience, in certain ratios laid down by the
sage philosophers, Malthus and M'Culloch. Your crudite
correspondent asserts that St. Paul had the same organ
before and after his conversion; this was never doubted;
but had he the same feelings of mind, the same views and
motives to action? At one time he was a cruel, unrelent-
ing persecutor, not following, but breaking the mandates
of the law; at another, he becomes gentle, calm, moral,
humane, and pious; and yet, most astonished reader !
this is merely one and the same feeling. The mur-
derer and the philanthropist; the robber and the honest
man; the canting hypocrite and the stern moralist; the cruel
tyrant, and the inflexible, uncompromising liberally
minded man,-are the same in principle, and owe their
variety to the activity or development of a certain portion
of their skulls being differently directed at different times!
Truly, Mr. Editor, if a man knock you down in order to
rob you, but is obliged to fly by another coming in view,
who would raise and convey you to your house and friends,
would you not reasonably conclude that their motives were
as different as their conduct? Or could you, in your
senses, admit both these actions to proceed from the same
source, namely, veneration? None but your correspon-
dent can make a pure and an impure stream issue at the
same time from one fountain. According to bumpolo-
gists, the sentiments of Nero and Howard were the same;
and yet I should prefer to experience the veneration of the
one rather than that of the other. Were the priest and
the Levite equally venerable with the good Samaritan?
only bumpologically so!

of experience, and the application of reason, they give
way, and leave their positions to be occupied by common
sense and her allies. And although the disciples of South-
cote and Mesmer once exulted in the idea of their bant-
lings being nursed and caressed by all mankind, time has
given proof that the human mind, either strengthened by
the maxims of true philosophy, or confident in its own
legitimate powers, has blown their delusions to oblivion;
thus evincing to the rational and reflecting part of man-
kind that no trivial or plausible object, how speciously
soever represented, or how ardently soever supported by
vanity or interest, is capable of retarding or diverting the
mind when once roused to inquire after truth. Phreno-
logy is on the decline: it never came to the meridian,
and consequently can never culminate; and its retrograde
is in a geometrical ratio to that of its direct motion.
In the Kaleidoscope alluded to, you, yourself, Mr.
Editor, gave a practical example of the vanity, presump-
tion, fallacy, and consummate absurdity of this science,
which is said to be destined to heal the woes of nations.

Yours, &c. AMICUS JUSTITIE. P.S. I see some public prints in town are employed by the antiphrenologists to criticise Dr. Cameron, the great champion of bumps in Liverpool. I shall wait a little to see the issue, before I attempt to put a few queries to that professor of plaster heads, through the medium of your excellent journal, in whose columns superstition soon or late finds, if not a grave, certainly a death wound!

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66

THEATRICAL CRITICISM!!

"Possess but faith, 'twill remove a mountain.

It is really amusing, though absolutely disgusting, to peruse the various, but not less learned, lucubrations of those who profess, (with what pretensions we shall see presently) to direct and regulate public taste. Many men are said to have many minds, and hence it doubtless happens that what one" gentleman of the press" in Liverpool has no hesitation in pronouncing the most perfect racter, that it has ever been his good fortune to witness." representation of an ably-drawn and highly-wrought chaanother characterizes as being, **from beginning to end, false to the true meaning of the author; regardless of propriety, truth, and nature; without ease, and without mixed effrontery of the wiseacre whose very comments discrimination." But what can possibly extenuate the unevince his utter ignorance of the subject on which he is so presumptiously loquacious, and whose impertinent gabble, while it wholly disqualifies him for the office he has arrogated, is too frequently the occasion of injustice to to steal cream," made the wonderful discovery, recently, that Mr. Vandenhoff, of all men," wanted physical power;' and, speaking of Mr. V.'s enactment of Coriolanus, our provincial Solomon, with acumen polished as erudite, observes, that in the scene where, having incensed the people, the tribunes order the ædiles to seize and carry him to the Tarpeian rock, the exclamation, "No; I'll die here!" with the accompanying action of drawing his own sword with which to kill himself, produced a striking effect, and was loudly applauded;" when it is notorious to every thirty-school-boy that Coriolanus could not do any such thing. and most of us have sufficient knowledge of Vandenhoff's judgment, to suppose, for a moment, that he represented by action what would so palpably misrepresent his speech.

In conclusion, I would advise your correspondent Cra-
nium to refrain from any personal or individual allusions;
for although he at present be armed with Combe's
six bumps, and like the Newcastle apothecary,

professing much to wrestle

Even with his mortar and his pestle,

yet he may find antagonists who will not scruple to bring
him from behind the counter, where he thinks himself
secure, to the full blaze of phrenological admiration.
Verb, sat.-Folly may promulgate, and even impudence
tenaciously defend the grossest absurdities; but in process

better men.

Thus a new-fledged sage, "vigilant as a cat

"No; I'll die here.

There's some among you have beheld me fighting;
Come, try upon yourselves what you have seen me."

And yet the contemptible creature, whose unblushing
insult tocommon sense is above recited, prates of "fair
and just criticism;" styling himself, by the way, with
equal truth and modesty, a poor critic !"—his "wisdom

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TO THE EDITOR.

SIR,-This is a queer, unsteady world we live in; above we have sunshine and calm one minute, gloom and storm the next; below we have opinions and feelings as variable; what we praise and admire to-day, to-morrow sees it a bore. All this, you will say, is quite novel, and cannot fail of being interesting to our readers if the rest of the article is of the same quality. None of your irony, Mr. Editor, for I am not in a mood to brook it; my mind is in a state of mortification and vexation for having bothered and puzzled my pericranium in writing an article for a Lady's Album, which, when finished with severe study and great labour of the head, I find is to appear only in a description of Olios, which are gone quite out of fashion. Who could have thought that albums would ever become a bore, when the Scotts, the Campbells, the Montgomerys, &c. &c. gave a value and an interest to them which my poor pen could never do? What then? I wished to be in good company, and have done my best; what man (or woman either) could have done more? To find what the article should be cost me no little pains, as I have not the gift of rhyming, nor of writing blank verse, nor of framing a pretty little plot for a pretty little tale. It would crack my head to write a plot, and the heads of my readers to find it out when written; and for knowledge of character, (which a tale requires,) I verily believe I cannot read my own aright; if I could, I should not at. tempt to occupy the columns of your Kal. Not to keep you nor your readers in longer suspense as to what my brains did produce, be it known that it is neither more nor less than a preface to a Dorothy Scamper that is not yet born, and, for the comfort of my readers, never will be.-Now, Mr. Editor, as albums are quite out of date, do let me cut a figure in your publication, which I hope and trust will never go out of fashion, nor become a bore. Who can tell but my preface, with a little alteration of names, &c. &c. (such things are in the literary world,) may serve some poor scribbler who has his book ready to be launched, but at a dead loss for a preface? If mine sets him afloat he will bless his stars and the Kaleidoscope. I am anxious to finish, but am at a loss how to designate what I am writing. What say you to-a prelude to a preface? I think there is some novelty in this.

PREFACE TO DOROTHY SCAMPER.

It is usual for authors, whether of the masculine or feminine gender, to give their readers some why or wherefore they have sent their bantling (alias, a book) into public notice. Unfortunately for the writer, a good why is not within her reach; the best she has is at their | service, which is neither more nor less than a want of wit; if there had not been a great lack of that commodity, would a poor old woman have ventured to exhibit the interior of her head in an age that can boast of a Walter Scott and a Geoffrey Crayon? If the author of Dorothy Scamper had but had an opportunity of submitting her head for inspection to some knowing craniologist ere she had undertaken the life and adventures of the said Dorothy, perhaps the bumps (or the want of them) on her head would have saved her some bumps from the critics. If the bump of observation only had been wanting, I verily believe it would have sufficed, and Dorothy, with all her pranks and mishaps, would have passed into oblivion. Oblivion! that dreaded oblivion, at which nature shrinks, and which it is heir to, has stimulated the writer (after having seen sixty summers) to try if she can't live a little while after she is

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gone to that "bourne from whence no traveller returns.' Therefore, good critics, kind critics, gentle critics, pretty critics, oh that I knew an epithet that would reach your hearts! have mercy on a poor old woman, who would fain live a little time after she is dead. This is her first offence, and will be her last, as her days are too far spent to give another life, though she possessed the Crayon of a Geoffrey to sketch with. Should those gentlemen alluded to above have no feeling, no compassion on woman kind (especially old ones) and consign my poor Dorothy to oblivion, let it be done with all gentleness and humanity: don't take her to pieces bit by bit, for the nibbling of ducks is a luxury compared to the nibbling of critics. Guillotine her at once, and have done, so prays

THE AUTHOR.

N.B.-I have been told, Mr. Editor, that the Scotts, the Campbells, and the Montgomerys have been so pestered by the fair sex for contributions to their albums, that now the sight of one gives them a fit of the spleen.

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MATCH AT CHESS BETWEEN LONDON & EDINBURGH.

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18th,-Very heavy rain during night. 19th,-Rain during night; seven, p.m. heavy showers 20th,-Heavy showers, ten, a.m. and half-past twe, pa 21st,-Nine, p.m. rain.

24th,-Nine, a.m. showers.

To Correspondents.

THE NIGHT SCENE IN THE INTERIOR OF WESTERN A This piece, which was mislaid, has been carefully rea and we find it so extremely irregular that we must de its insertion. Several of the rhymes are quite inadmis and several others have no corresponding rhyme, many of the lines are too long; the following for in "Along the stream and down yon wild waterfall." If W. B. requires it, we will, to justify our decision, some other specimens of the defects which have la rejection of this piece, although it is not a very g task.

THE CHASE, FROM BURGEN.-The conclusion of this t tion, which is prepared in type, is postponed, in afford the writer an opportunity of revising it. ten in a most careless manner, and our composita been compelled to leave out several words, at which could not even guess. If the writer will take the tr to send for the proof, his messenger will find t him at our office, directed J. B-k-r. When be mani it, we hope he will give it a careful general ston which it stands very much in need, as we must ta liberty to observe to the writer, that as it now reads much inferior to the preceding portion. It abounds strange, and, we think, inadmissible expressions, of we could point out a score. What does a "steady s or "a cloud of swarthy fed" mean? and what is "a hand strayer?" &c.; and we put it to the author how ror can chill such nerve and bone? SPECIMENS OF THE ELDER POETS.-As we are of opini our readers will relish the series of literary specim mised us by Percival Melburne, we shall make a begi next week with the preface and the pieces of Care. MRS. MEEK'S INTRODUCTION TO THE MYTHOLOGY OF THE GI AND ROMANS.-We intend, in our next publication, t some account of this very excellent work. MUSIC.-We have by us for insertion in turn, pleces M-x.-S. C. J. of Shrewsbury-S. S. of ManchesterMr. Platt of our Blind Asylum.

The Song of C. Johnson is intended for the next Kaleiden PHRENOLOGY. We have given precedence to the let Amicus Justitia, because we received it first: that B-k-r shall be inserted in our next publication. EDITORIAL QUACKERY.-In compliance with the reque Fair Play, we have given insertion to the letter respe the notable criticism of a cotemporary upon Mr. hoff's Coriolanus; and we assure our correspondent t is quite in keeping with many other specimens from

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same source.

The members of the London Chess Club celebrated their summer festival last week, at the Ship Tavern, Greenwich. Mr. M Gilvray presided on this occasion, and was ably supported by Mr. Domett, the Secretary to the London Club. Among many appropriate toasts given at this meet. ing, one was, The health of their gallant adversaries, the members of the Edinburgh Chess Club," who have now, in the match conducted by correspondence, maintained the field against the united talents of the London Chess Club for upwards of three years. Two games of this singular match have been depending, of which one is in its nature drawn, and the other is in an advanced state, We have further to acknowledge the communications either party. The next game won by either Club will dewithout any material advantage having been gained by cide the match; but as games played with critical circumspection on both sides must frequently be drawn, the contest may still rival the Trojan war in duration, before it is

OUR NEXT SUPPLEMENTAL SHEET will enable us to follow suggestion of A Friend and Constant Reader, to what feel much indebted for the favourable opinion he has pleased to express of our work.

D.-Anon.-A Chess Player.

Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAY, E. SMITH & Co. 75, Lord street, Liverpool.

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familiar Miscellany, from which all religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles; comprehending LITERATURE, CRITICISM, MEN and LANNERS, AMUSEMENT, elegant EXTRACTS, POETRY, ANECDOTES, BIOGRAPHY, METEOROLOGY, the DRAMA, ARTS and SCIENCES, WIT and SATIRE, FASHIONs, Natural HISTORY, &c. forming handsome ANNUAL VOLUME, with an INDEX and TITLE-PAGE. Persons in any part of the Kingdom may obtain this Work from London through their respective Booksellers. NDON-Sherwood and Blackburn-T. Rogerson; Booksellers; E. Marl- Bradford-J. Stanfield; Colne-H. Earnshaw; rough, Ave-Maria-lane; Bristol-Hillyard & Mor-Congleton S. Yates;

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gan; J. Norton;
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Bury-J. Kay;
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1.37 1.-Vol. VIII.

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Scientific Notices, prehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improveents in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin falar Medical Cases; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phisophical, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical henomena, or singular Facts in Natural History; egration, &c.; Antiquities, &c.

ROTCH'S PATENT LEVER fid, INSTANTLY STRIKING THE TOPMASTS OR TOPGALLANTMASTS OF SHIPS.

he Patent Fid, which we are about to describe, is an ention of such obvious utility, both in an individual a national point of view, that we have been induced introduce the following article into the scientific detment of the Kaleidoscope. So highly is this invention reciated, that patents have been taken out for it ghout the maritime countries of Europe, and in the ed States of America. Large models, explanatory of mode of working the Fid, may be seen at the office of Liverpool agent, Mr. Baines, Wellington-buildings,

ne

leid plate.

rest.

Glasgow-Robertson & Co.;
Halifax-N. Whitley;
Hanley-T. Allbut;
Hoddersfield-T. Smart;
Hull-J. Perkins;
Kendal-M.&R. Branthwaite;
Lancaster-J. Miller;
Leeds-H. Spink; J. Clark;
Manchester-J. Fletcher;
T.Sowler; B.Wheeler; and
Gleave and Sons.

Macclesfield-P. Hall;
Mottram-R. Wagstaff
Newcastle-under-Lyme-J.Mort;
Newcastle-u.-Tyne-J. Finley;
Northwich-G. Fairhurst;
Nottingham-C. Sutton;
North Shields-Miss Barnes;
Oldham-J. Dodge;
Ormskirk-W. Garside;
Oswestry-W. Price; Edwards;
Penrith-J. Shaw;

TUESDAY, AUGUST 7. 1827.

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masts of ships, is an invention of the greatest importance to the | the high testimonials of approbation which immediately
interests of navigation, as, by means thereof, the top and top- followed seem the best praise which can be given to the
gallantmasts of any vessel may be struck and raised again in
a few minutes, by the most simple process, without either
invention.
difficulty or danger.

"The Commissioners appointed by the Right Honourable the Lords of the Admiralty, to meet Mr. Rotch, the barrister, on board his Majesty's ship Prince Regent, to

adoption of it by shipowners in general.
And this Committee do therefore strongly recommend the
The Patent Lever Fids have met with the decided ap-witness the effect of his very ingenious invention, the Lever
probation of the Lords of the Admiralty, who immediately Fid, met at Chatham, on Saturday, the 19th February,
ordered several ships of war to be fitted with them, and for that purpose. Mr. Rotch arrived the day before, and
have since determined to introduce them generally into having been introduced by Captain Parry, who commands
the Royal navy.
the Prince Regent, proceeded with Mr. Cole, the first
lieutenant, to inspect the manner in which the Fids had
been fitted. Mr. Rotch having satisfied himself of the
very perfect manner in which that work had been per-
formed, made a variety of experiments, and went through
several manœuvres with the Fids, by way of a preparatory
rehearsal, and on the following day (Saturday) at Twelve
o'clock, the officers named in the commission, together
with several officers of the dock-yard, who were also or-
dered by the Lords of the Admiralty to attend, and some
naval officers of distinction, who were attracted by curiosity,
repaired on board the Prince Regent. The topgallant-
masts were on end, the rigging taught set up, and not a
single man aloft, when Captain Parry gave the order to

The peculiar properties of these Fids are, that when it is required to strike the topmast, the strength of one man is always sufficient to take out the Fids; and when it is required to get the mast on end again, the very act of fidding the mast sets all the rigging taught again, and only requires the strength of two men, unless the ship be of a much larger class than ordinary merchantmen.

This invaluable invention is at once new, useful, neat in its appearance, and so very simple in its construction, that it can never get out of order. One set of fids will probably serve for twenty ships successively, and, consequently, the expense trifling, on account of their durability.

minutes and a half from the time the word was given, the whole six masts were struck. It should be observed, that this included the time required for men to get from the deck to the topmast heads, all hands being on deck when the word was given.

The Patent Lever Fids may be applied to any ship with-strike topmasts and topgallantmasts, and in exactly two out any alteration in her topmast or fid-holes, and may be fitted by any ship's carpenter. It would be endless to name all the various situations in which the Patent Lever Fids would be of important service to navigators; the most prominent, and those of most frequent occurrence, are the following:

1. When a sharp ship catches aground on a rapidly
falling tide, she often falls over before the topmasts can be
F The carriage on which they got down, particularly if the topgallantmasts are on end
at the time; whereas, with the Patent Lever Fids, the
moment it is ascertained that the ship cannot be got off,
LL The cross-trees, with the the topmasts and topgallantmasts may all be struck in one
minute, before the tide can have ebbed an inch.

The ends of the trestle
trees
II The topmast.
Piece of hard oak put un- KKK The lower mast head.

der the fid plate.
The two levers which sup-
port the mast.

te trunnions or axes of
kvers.

top above.
mm The latches which keep
the levers in their place when
the topmast is on end.

ROTCH'S PATENT LEVER FID,

which Ships and other Vessels may Strike their Topmasts, or again in less than five minutes, without slacking a landand, or starting any other part of the rigging attached to them.

Rallantmasts, at any time, in less than one minute, and fid

patentee begs to draw the attention of nautical men others to the following opinions of the Elder Brethren the Trinity House, and of the Committee of the Shiphers' Society in London.

I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of ith instant, and having laid the same before the Board, directed, in reply thereto, to state, that although this Cor. tion has not had an opportunity of witnessing the pracapplication of Rotch's Patent Lever Fid, the Elder thren, from the model submitted by you, are of opinion invention will prove very useful.

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2. In sudden squalls of wind, when ships are riding at anchor, or in any roadsted, they may strike their topmasts, close reef their topsails, and be ready to set them again at a moment's notice should the cable give way, or should it be necessary to slip the cable, on account of other ships driving on board of them. If the ship should only be waiting for the storm to blow over to put to sea, this need not deter the captain from striking his topmasts, as, the moment they are fidded again, the rigging being set up taught by the very act of fidding, he may carry sail on her at once.

3. In gales of wind at sea, the upper masts may be struck and got up again at pleasure with the Patent Lever Fid, while the advantage of this manœuvre to ships that are light handed will be incalculable.

Permission was recently given the patentee to make an experiment upon the Prince Regent, (of 120 guns) Captain Parry, who, together with several other competent officers, were appointed to examine into its effects. An account of the proceedings which then took place is subjoined, and

"It really appeared like magic: at one moment, every mast was in its place, and every rope strained tight, and, the next, the masts were down, and the rigging in complete confusion; and, what rendered the effect the more imposing, was the fact, that only four men in each top, and one at each topmast-head, went aloft to perform this sudden manœuvre. The instantaneous striking of the topmasts is all that Mr. Rotch professes to perform by his very ingenious invention: but such is the immense power of his Fid, that, at the request of Captain Parry, the maintopmast was fidded again in three minutes, without starting a landyard, the Lever Fids straining the rigging as taught as it was before, and bringing every thing to its proper place again, as if the mast had never been struck. The Committee and every competent judge on board the Prince Regent expressed their unqualified approbation of the invention.

With Mr. Rotch's Lever Fid, ten men are sufficient, in the worst weather, to unfid the maintopmast of the largest first-rate line-of-battle-ship in the English navy; a m neuvre, which, with Fids on the ordinary plan, requires the united exertion of the whole ship's company, and instances have been known where even their joint efforts have proved unavailing.

"The naval officers named in the commission were Captain Parry, of the Prince Regent; Captain Mingay, of the Hyperion; and Captain Clavering, of the Red Wing; and the officers of the dock-yard, who attended by order

of the Lords of the Admiralty, were, Mr. Payne, master attendant, Mr. Millions, assistant master attendant, Mr. Weekes and Mr. Hawke, master shipwright's assistant,

and Mr. Lair."

The Patentee has received many letters from the cap tains of ships, fitted with Rotch's Lever Fids, expressing their decided approbation of them. The following is one:

"Ship Emerald, London, July 19, 1826.

"SIR,-The patent Fids which you lately fitted on board the Emerald, for striking topmasts, were found to be of such essential service, that I fully believe they were the preservation of the above ship, in the Rio de la Plata, in January last.

"She was coming out of Ensenada Creek, with her cargo on board, when a gale came on from the north-west, at the top of the tide, which falls immediately with that wind. The ship took the ground on the bar: a heavy swell setting in rendered her situation very dangerous. We had only seven men on board at the time, with which small number the fore and maintopmasts were struck with great ease, in less than fifteen minutes. The ship being relieved from so much top weight, did not strain nor make any water. I am convinced that, without those fids, we could not have struck the masts, which, in all probability, would have been the loss of the ship, as she lay much upon her sides.

| most universal and lasting renown, are, in fact, little else novelty I introduce, is a different arrangement of the
than a collection of fables, in which the agency of these matter, which is, as much as the elenients of nature, com
beings is uniformly recognised, animated by the spirit,
mon property, to be used when and how we please.
Although my resolution was taken, and the nature
and embellished with the graces of poetry. Every step my task foreseen, I still had not confidence enough in m
which the youthful student takes in the attainment of clas-own ability to produce a book that should so far command
sical lore, makes him more familiar with their names and the public opinion as to cover the charges of publication
actions; but if he has had no previous acquaintance with I was not in a situation to encounter risk, and I, there
fore, solicited and obtained, what I deemed a sufficie
their history, there is the greatest danger that his imagi- number of subscribers to indemnify me from loss. M
nation will be excited, while his judgment will suffer in a next step was to put my papers, for revision, into th
corresponding degree. To remedy this defect, several small hands of gentlemen whose education and studies had mad
works have been published on ancient mythology, which, them familiar with every branch of heathen mythology
been useful in preventing, to a certain extent, many bad observations required the tact of experience to give the
with the assistance of judicious teachers, have, doubtless, They were unwilling to discourage me; but I quicki
discovered that my mass of detached extracts and cast
effects on the minds of the young, from the cause above an attractive form. I had reduced them to a certain de
stated. But these sources of information have been gene-gree of order, but much was yet wanting, both of matte
rally of so meagre a character, as to lead to confusion and and method, to complete them. I had proceeded too fa
doubt, where it was desirable to obtain a satisfactory solu- to give up my design; nor did I think it creditable to
shrink from difficulties. Benefiting, therefore, by the
tion of difficulties. We have therefore much pleasure in hints I had received, I set about my work anew, enlarged
introducing to the notice of our readers a work which con- my plan, and modelled it so as to admit of the improve
tains the most ample information on this subject, written ments suggested to me.
by a lady, and executed in a manner highly creditable to

"I should, therefore, recommend all ships going to open her talents and taste. It is preceded by a copious intro./elated at the progress I made, I began to print as soon a

roadsteds to be provided with them, so much depending on
their utility.
"I remain, &c.

"C. W. NOCKELLS,
"Master of the Emerald."
DIRECTIONS FOR FITTING THE PATENT LEVER
FIDS.

1st. Fit the Fid-plate in the topmast, the turned-up ends to be let in, flush with the side of the mast; fit a piece of hard oak, end ways of the grain, in the middle of the Fid-hole, to be nearly as large as the nose of the Lever 2d. Fit the carriage to the trestle-tree, flush with the inside of it; let the carriage lie firm on the trestle-tree, with a piece of patent felt or tarred paper under it.

will allow.

3d. Fit a small carlin, from cross-tree to cross-tree, to receive the latch, which is to keep the Fid down, about 3 inches by 24, and this should be as near the rings as con

venient.

4th. Be careful to give each Fid an equal bearing. When the Fid-plates are sent turned up only at one end, any blacksmith can turn up the other, when the diameter of the heel of the mast is exactly known.

It sometimes happens that the old fid-hole, having had a wooden Fid, is too large, in which case, two pieces of hard oak may be put in, one at each side, so as not to allow the Fid too much play; and, if necessary, a piece of wood may be put on the trestle-tree, under the carriage: but in no case whatever must a loose piece of wood be put

upon the Fid-plate.

When one of the rails at the head of the topmast is not long enough to fix the latch in the usual way, a bar of iron, bent as in the annexed drawing, may be used.

Literature.

An Introduction to the Mythology of the Greeks and
Romans, intended for the Use of Young Persons of both
Sexes. By Mrs. MEEK. Pp. 364. Manchester, 1827.

12mo. 7s. 6d.-See adv.

Although the mythology of the ancient heathen, or, in other words, the worship of fabulous deities, has for many ages ceased to exist, yet an accurate acquaintance with the nature and origin of that singular system is indispensible to a right understanding of ancient history, and to a proper conception of the numerous allusions which are made to it in almost every thing connected with literature and the arts. The elementary treatises employed in the classical instruction of youth, are often records of the exploits of those fictitious characters whom the superstition of mankind had invested with supernatural powers; and even those works of antiquity which have obtained the

duction, sketching the origin and progress of idolatry in
various parts of the world, particularly among the Greeks
and Romans; showing its influence on the habits and
character of ancient nations, and its association, in modern
times, with painting, sculpture, architecture, poetry, and
music. The work itself is divided into three chapters,
which, again, are subdivided into a number of sections.
The first chapter, extending to sixty pages, relates to what
is usually termed the Golden Age, and comprises the
history of Saturn, Atlas, the War of the Giants, &c. &c.
with an account of Elysium and the Infernal Regions.
The second chapter, which forms the body of the work,
gives a complete view of the principal deities of the Greeks
and Romans, and is peculiarly interesting to both the
classical and the general reader. The last chapter is of a
miscellaneous character, and presents an outline of the
rural divinities-the Graces-the Muses-the gods of Peace,
War, Victory, Fame, Medicine, &c. and of the demi-
gods and heroes. A copious index to the whole is added.
On a general perusal, we have no hesitation in de-
claring it to be the most attractive as well as the most
instructive work of the kind that has fallen under our
notice; and we strongly recommend it to those parents
and guardians who are desirous that the objects of their
care should learn something more than bare names, or
the meaning of words. We would gladly make some in-
teresting extracts, as a specimen of the manner in which it
is executed, but for the present must content ourselves
with giving the preface, only premising that the fair author
apologizes for defects which will be perceptible to few be

sides herself.-Edit. Kal.

It is now many years since I began to make selections from books of Mythology for the instruction of my own children. I little imagined, at that time, that the matter thus collected would, thereafter, form the basis of a book to be written by me. It has since been my fortune to become a public teacher, and in that capacity I have found these extracts very serviceable to me. All persons I have conversed with, especially teachers both public and private, have lamented the want of an unobjectionable elementary book on the Grecian mythology, which might with safety be placed in the hands of young persons. Had I the troublesome business of separating, for the informaformerly met with such a book, I should have been spared tion of my daughters, the useful parts of mythological knowledge, from that which is of a contrary tendency, and which does not of necessity belong to it. But I have not, those offensive details, which wound delicacy, and do not to the present hour, seen a compilation wholly free from improve the understanding.

These considerations induced me to examine more minutely my own selections. and the result was, a determination to arrange them for publication. The desire My present attempt will scarcely deserve the reproach of to produce a useful work is in itself a laudable feeling. presumption, when it is perceived, that my chief aim is the humble one of removing defects; and that the only

I commenced under favourable circumstances, and I had copy enough ready for a few sheets of letter-pres But I had, unfortunately, overrated my leisure and strength. Grievous interruptions came in the shape sickness, anxieties, and embarrassments of various de scriptions. These produced alternately delay and burry so that, although my book has been very long in hand, is, in reality, the offspring of haste, brought forth amit disquietudes which are utter foes to accuracy both i thought and expression.

I do not, by any means, intend this statement as a apology for the imperfections of my book. Apologies such cases are vain and foolish things; but I have thoug it due, as a mark of respect to my friends, several of who have long ago paid their subscriptions; nor could I, wi satisfaction to myself, have acknowledged my obligatio to my subscribers generally for the kindness of their su port, without an explanation of the causes which ha delayed the appearance of the work.

There is yet another, and to me, I fear, a serious caus which has had its full share in the delay. In this ca whatever may be the consequences, the blame is wh with me. The truth is, I went hastily to press with having duly estimated and compared the size and getti up of the volume with the price I had originally put up it. Sometime afterwards, I learnt, in a conversation my bookseller, that, from the probable extent to whi the subject would run, he thought the price of five shillin alarming and discouraging difficulty, and certainly not could not clear the charges of publication. This was all less mortifying for being the effect of my own prec tancy. I had no right to raise the amount of the subscri tion, and the only way left, partly to obviate this emb rassing circumstance, was, by compressing the remaini matter into as small a compass as possible, which I accor ingly did, though not without much additional labo But what gave me most vexation, was, the unavoida abandonment of my original plan; for I was obliged break into the classification of my subjects, to omit sou and to shorten others. Yet, notwithstanding these u toward occurrences, I venture to express my belief, th the work is calculated to convey, to the class of readers! whom it is intended, a competent insight into the subje of which it professes to treat; and that it will prove useful auxiliary in the school-room both of public teache and private families.

One word more on the sources from whence my mat rials are drawn. In compiling a volume that may give clear conception of the nature of the heathen gods, and t general principles of their worship, it is not indispensi requisite to know the languages of ancient Greece at Rome, or to be master of all the learning which is ext the destroyers, time and barbarism, and that give on these topics. The ancient writings that have escap most direct and soundest information on pagan mytholog are very few. The great mass of learning on the subje is purely incidental, and chiefly composed of the conje sent day, very ample stores for such an undertakin tures and opinions of individuals. There are, in the pr books of our own language, the compositions of learn and ingenious men, who have taken care to authentica their facts from the best authorities. These have been guides; and as all writers on mythology are, necessari used the general privilege without limit and within copiers of each other, I, in imitation of my betters, bas scruple.

Didsbury, Dec. 28, 1826.

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