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sand deposits of earth so extensive and ruinous that levelled every thing they encountered, increasing the tation, and, apparently, the earthquake itself.

manufacture, supply them at a price lower than can be nefited by the purchases of the materials necessary to afforded by the manufacturer, who has his livelihood to form such an accumulation of articles, exceeding any earn by his labour, else it would not be possible to com- former exhibition, both in quantity and variety, mostly of us, my friend, we passed that night, and the six suc-pete with the wary shopkeeper, whose eye and heart are British fabric, too, and none of which would, probably, g ones, in unspeakable anxiety; and I assure you he whole four first days we had only one continual ever on his business. By far the greater portion of ar- have been required had not the desire to contribute to a uake. Afterwards intermissions occurred; but we ticles sent to these institutions are sent under these circum- praiseworthy object been excited. It was also intimated, on this account, fail to experience shocks and stances. Ladies, who, from inclination, for pleasure, or that many wealthy individuals had employed others, in s great as before; for the high hills on each side of for want of other employment, employ themselves in this reduced circumstances, to provide their contributions, iza had become united, and for eleven days this int stream was not able to break through the obsta- way, neither wish, nor seek benefit or remuneration to thereby stultifying the strongest objection that I have to open its passage, so that we consider the cities themselves, their sole object being to benefit the institu- heard urged against bazaars, viz., that they inflict injury fa and La Viciosa as inevitably exposed to inun- tion; how, then, is it possible that the tradesman, who, on deserving females, who depend on their needle or pencil and we anxiously wait to hear the fatal result of having the full price of labour to pay, the profit of the for support; but with such a remedy in their own hands, sting of the barrier. There is not a church re-master-manufacturer to pay, his own heavy rent, and more I hope, ere long, to see all opposition by the wealthy and in the whole of the canton; and only a few habiuses are to be found. The above rapid rivers have than a proportionate share of heavy taxes to pay; how is influential done away. In Suffolk a sale of useful and orfoods equal to the others; as they all appear it possible that he can conduct his business on an equal namental work was lately held, at which titled ladies pre3, and have overwhelmed the property of the in- footing with these bounty-fed institutions? But this is sided at almost every table; and not many months ago our 3, covering the surface with mud and broken not the only evil. Who, I ask, can contemplate, without amiable Diocesan patronized a bazaar at Chester, for the eaving them reduced to the most hopeless wretchbecause there is no earthly power which can relieve sorrow, the consequences which, if carried into effect, it promotion of Infant Schools, in which Mrs. Bloomfield must produce among the industrious poor of Scotland took an active part. this date we have heard of the death of 202 per- and Ireland? he canton, the particulars of which we have not to ascertain, because the water has rendered the ication almost impossible between different places, use the people are so disheartened that they have bandoned themselves to grief, and do nothing at an existence perhaps less desirable than death atter of November 27, from the curate of Jagua, aza was said to be still stopped when the last . assed it from Popayan; and the day before yesie Governor sent to the Commandant, Mayer, to to effect a passage for the waters. The town oupe is inundated, and the place where it is can ered only by the tower of the church, the only is to be seen. The earthquake was very violent but only two young men were lost, who sacrilives in leaving a church.

at the number of the dead amounts to 235. The

Setter received from Cali, we know that the Cauca, ther rivers, bring down into the valley a great al; and that among the Cordilleras, sounds were te the report of cannon of a large calibre.

Correspondence.

POLICY OR IMPOLICY OF BAZAARS.

The poor people of Scotland and Ireland (but more particularly the former) have, for a number of years, been employed in the working, (sewing) tambouring, &c. of muslins, (it is by this branch of business that the institutions are mostly supported ;) hundreds and thousands of families in Scotland are supported by their labour in this way, and although it provides for them but a miserable existence, (a poor argument in favour of taking it away from them altogether) yet, without it, or at times when employment is scarce, they become paupers, dependant on eleemosynary charity.

I understand that no less than £409 was received at the Music-hall on the two days the bazaar was held, and that the managers are of opinion that the work unsold (about £60 worth) would all have been disposed of, had not the vast influx of company prevented very many from reaching the tables, and laying out their money; indeed, for a great part of Thursday, the room was a dense mass of welldressed people; and it was a very gratifying reward to those ladies who had, with so much fatigue and anxiety, matured the plan, to be so well supported by the public, though the sale of the work was thereby impeded. To those who obtained access to the orchestra and gallery, the If a missionary bazaar be established in this town, and coup d'œil was most brilliant, and, I apprehend, the imthe example be followed in all other towns of importance pression will not soon be effaced. But my motive is not, throughout the kingdom, to what incalculable consequences were I able, to describe the beautiful spectacle which the will it not lead-to what want of employment, and con-objects, animate and inanimate, afforded. I wish rather sequent distress and misery among the poor, particularly that the benefits should be perpetuated; that the Infirmary the female portion of Scotland and Ireland-to what losses should derive the advantage of such an undertaking; that at home among industrious tradesmen, who are, even now, "hard run" to stand their ground amid so much bankruptcy and ruin ?

To conclude, if the zealous promoters of missionaries will only consider how the people of the United Kingdom now groan, from the continued weight of never-ceasing contributions, which, in their zeal for the promotion of Chrise writers of the following letters (the former ad-tian knowledge, they still pay, pay on, unable to pay, 1 ourselves, the latter to the editor of the Satur-yet unwilling to desist, they will pause, ere they attempt mertiser) differ so widely in their views respecting to levy an additional tax, and one, too, that will be consifor the sale of articles for charitable purposes, dered the most weighty, as well as not the most hojere present their respective opinions, leaving our nourable. form their own judgment on the subject, from ments advanced by each writer.

TO THE EDITORS.

LEMEN. It is somewhat against my will that I upon your valuable space, especially, as in the case, when the subject is not such as is exactly your columns; but without their assistance, I make known what I have to say upon the above

TO THE EDITOR.

P. P.

66

The Kaleidoscope.

THE CANT OF CRITICISM.

0.

the taste and talent of the young ladies, which have been cultivated with so much care and expense, should not be allowed to remain inactive, or only employed on themselves-that they should be made to feel practically that it is really more blessed to give than to receive," and that their acquirements are only valuable in proportion as they conduce to the benefit of their less endowed fellow-creatures. I cannot conclude without expressing my gratification that Mr. Lynn, of the Waterloo, whose liberal conduct has been so often the theme of praise, should, on the present occasion, have afforded such generous aid to the ladies in their arduous undertaking. To these ladies I will not presume to offer any thanks; the praise of others they SIR,-The decided success which has attended the La-seek not: the desire to be useful is their motive, and verily "they have their reward." dies' Bazaar, held this week, though for a peculiar object, and supported, for the most part, by ladies approving that object, induces me to suggest, through you, the propriety of establishing one for the benefit of the new Lunatic Asylum, now in abeyance for the want of funds. This would unite all suffrages, obtain nearly universal support, and, perhaps, his Worship would grant the use of the The editorial paragraph subjoined, which is from erstand that it is now in contemplation to establish noble suite of rooms in the Town-hull, which, indeed, is the Mercury, is here introduced as an appropriate, mary Bazaar, nearly similar in principle, though the only place in Liverpool sufficiently capacious to accom- and, indeed, necessary introduction to the article re extensive scale, to the one already established, modate the numbers who are attracted by such interesting from the Franklin Gazette, which follows it. wn by the name of the Ladies' Charitable Reposi- and splendid exhibitions. I am persuaded that as much hich institution is, I am bound to believe, in every money would be raised by a bazaar, as was awarded to well worthy the support of the public. That it the Infirmary from the proceeds of the festival. I am aployment to many an individual who would other-aware that many entertain serious objections as to bazaars Our readers may recollect that Mr. Cooper, formerly e unemployed, and that the profits derived from altogether; and far be it from me, either to excite angry styled the American Roscius, lately appeared on the Lonmanagement are expended in the most praise- or controversial feelings by my suggestion. We cannot, don boards, and was most ungraciously received. We manner, are facts as well known as they are satis-however, do unmixed good in this world; and I am at a have, on many occasions, expressed our contempt for the As a single institution, its benefit may, and will, loss to know how so much money can be raised in any other majority of Cockney critics; and we have pointed out and acknowledged; but to the consequences which manner, with the same facility, and with so small an d-many instances of their ignorance and disregard of truth e the result of a rivalry of these institutions, I must mixture of injury, if, indeed, any really do suffer by these and candour. We have adduced proofs of their having ve to ask your attention. benevolent efforts of our fair townswomen; for no one that criticised and condemned plays and players, without understood that charity, being the end and object of witnessed the display of taste, ingenuity, and usefulness having seen either; and it is notorious that, in many stitutions, such persons as are in good circumstances, which covered the tables, on Wednesday and Thursday cases, the performance of a particular actor has been o supply the institutions with their own work or last, could doubt that trade had been considerably be- minutely anatomized, when, owing to indisposition, or

MR. COOPER, THE AMERICAN TRAGEDIAN, AND
THE COCKNEY CRITICS.

some other cause, he did not appear at all. In short, with some honourable exceptions, our dramatic censors are corrupt or prejudiced; and, for our own parts, we have seen too much of their system of puffing and cutting up, to pay any attention to their dicta.

From the moment we heard of Mr. Cooper's utter failure on the London boards, we expressed our conviction that

ing Mr. Cooper to be Mr. Price's friend, and that he had or base description. We know one of these fello visited England upon his invitation. National prejudice who had barely the talent to put together a common pa also had much to do in this affair. The manner in which he was hooted down is perhaps graph, who got connected with the London press, int unparalleled in the annals of Billingsgate and blackguard- capacity of critic; and we know it for a fact, that, or ism. This is sufficiently manifest, from private letters, to a pique he entertained towards Mr. Vandenhat and even from the accounts of the public newspapers.- declared, in a letter which he wrote to Liverpool, that From the time that Macbeth goes into the chamber of that gentleman came to London he would take care t the murdered Duncan, until the very close of the act, that gentleman's fate was to be ascribed to some intrigue whenever a hand was raised to applaud, hisses, howls, he should be cried down, or damned, as it is called. or foul play; and we will ask whether it be at all probable forced laughter, &c. accompanied it, and this was reSome persons, seeing how the press is occasionally p that an actor of such reputed eminence as Mr. Cooper, in-newed when the curtain rose. To use Mr. Cooper's own tituted in the hands of ignorant, jealous, or intere vited over to England by so competent a judge of dramatic words: scribblers, have doubted whether it does more b talent as Mr. Price, can be so execrable an actor as to deselves, and we should not have bestowed one line or good. We are far from arriving at this conclusion serve hissing and shouting down by a London gallery? by people who are in the habit of applauding to the skies the those would-be critics, had not Mr. Cooper's late ungus most ridiculous and unnatural stage tricks of any actor reception come across us to ruffle our ordinary patie who happens, at the time, to be the enfant gate of the That the most stupid of the critical tribe should not to be wondered at; because, however ill they public? qualified for the office, they will always find read stupid, or, if possible, more stupid than themse Boileau says,

circumstances, with the occasional hope that, by not being
"I went through, however, as well as I could under such
applauded, I should escape the yelling curs, and gain a
final attention and comparative success; but no-the blood-
hounds were too keen of scent, and too well drilled to lose
their prey, for when they wanted the stimulus to open
the cry, they found it in any exertion that I made.
Through the last act, particularly, where the desperation
of Macbeth seemed to be received as pointed towards
themselves-as

'Bring me no reports! Birnam wood, &c.
'The mind I sway by, and the heart I bear,
Can never sagg with doubt, nor shake with fear.'
Then came hurras!-yells-laughter-and every diabo-

It is true that many years have elapsed since we saw Mr. Cooper's performance; but we hold it impossible that this gentleman, who, when in the prime of life, twenty years ago, was an excellent and favourite actor, can now be so deplorably destitute of talent and judgment, as the Cockney critics would have us believe. They who wit-lical noise; all similar passages were attended by similar nessed his admirable performance of Pierre, of Don John, and a variety of other characters, at the Liverpool Theatre, some years ago, will, with us, be slow to believe that since that period he has lost all pretensions to the public favour; and they will ascribe his recent failure to causes as little creditable to the taste, as they are to the courtesy,

of John Bull.

Some of our readers will remember that Mr. Cooper's

acting made so powerful an impression upon the audience at our theatre, that the Duke of Gloucester, who was at that time in Liverpool, patronized, without solicitation, the benefit of this very actor, who is now to be cried down as utterly destitute of all professional merit.

In the Kaleidoscope we shall publish an article on this subject from the Franklin Gazette, together with Mr. Cooper's own account of the unhandsome treatment he experienced from the London audience and the dramatic censors, many of whom, in all probability, never saw the man at whose professional reputation they aimed a deadly

blow.

The New York Statesman of March 21, which reached Liverpool two or three days ago, contains the following paragraph:

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I

the last speech, when, of course, friends and foes all con-
accompaniments. But the grand crash was reserved for
spired in the noise, though with different motives.
will not yield to kiss the ground.' &c. and to be baited
with a rabble's curse.' One would have supposed that
the gallery set were foaming with fury: the pit party, which
the full conviction that the work was done. At the speech
had gained the majority by this time, were chuckling with
ofThough Birnam wood, &c.'

"Yet will I try the last-Lay on, Macduff,

And damn'd be he that first cries-Hold-enough!'

I

then, indeed, the confusion was worst confounded: but
will not attempt to describe what is altogether indescri-
bable.'
The acrimony of the scribblers was not confined to the
misrepresentation of his performance, but extended to bely-
ing his personal appearance" a short, stumpy, figure; an
ill-made, corpulent inan, with drawling enunciation, bad
voice, better suited for the conventicle than the stage," and
similar remarks equally founded in truth.

It is absurd longer to deny the existence in England of
bitter prejudice against every thing that partakes of America.
Mr. Hackett's reception is another instance in point. He

Un sot trouve toujours un plus sot, qui l'admire. There's not a blockhead who attempts the lyre, That finds not greater blockheads to admire. are so numerous and complicated, that they cannot al The motives by which these critical vermin are act be detected; but we may, in general, take it for gra that they are actuated by some sinister motive. have either a personal pique against the object of attack, or an undue predilection in favour of the p tain individuals to bespatter with praise, or with para praised;-they are hired by the friends or enemies of ric, favoured or obnoxious public characters;-Day, times they are actuated by even baser feelings. Wh known discarded servants turn critics, and, in that

city, repay the numerous obligations they owed w employer, of a pecuniary or other nature, by every which envy, malice, and ingratitude could suggest. exuberance of their bile, they have not sufficient persons, however, generally overshoot the mark of themselves to conceal the base or sordid ma which they are instigated; and they can only make of incorrigible blockheads.

ANNUITE.

A L'EDITEUR.

was within an ace of being condemned at the very outset.
The critics themselves are at times sensible of their in- MONSIEUR, Dans votre Kaleidoscope du 25 Mm
justice. The following extract is from the London Morn-nier, on demande quelle somme doit donner une pers
de trente ans, et d'un tempérament delicat, pour une
ing Herald :—
In truth, the reception given to Mr. Hackett was not faible constitution, peut compter au plus sur dix and
nuité de £30. Cette personne, ayant trente ans e
generous, considering his first appearance in a strange D'après cela, en consultant la table de M. De Pa
at least have heard him silently, and given him an oppor: il faudrait donner £772. On a donc cette proportions
country. We had thought that a London audience would
on voit que pour une annuité de £100, pendant dix
tunity of showing what he was capable of. He evinced
some courage in withstanding the sort of reception he met
with; but this proves that he is accustomed to the boards d'où l'on tire,
of a theatre. We, however, commend him for it, for an un-
handsome and ungenerous attempt was made to drive him
of Kean."

100: 772=30: *,

Boston Theatre. The Boston Statesman of Wednesday says, Mr. Cooper was received at his first appearance, last evening, with the most enthusiastic applause ever extended to an individual of his profession by a Boston audience. The house was crowded, and, though almost overwhelmed by the effect of his excited feelings in the earlier part of the tragedy, Mr. Cooper sustained the character of Macbeth with a spirit and vigour worthy from the stage, previous to his commencing the imitations pour la somme cherchée.

of his younger days."

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x=231+ 3

= £231 125.

FAYO

veyed his answer in French; but we have giv
We do not know why our correspondent
received it. Instead of translating the note,
it sufficient to state, that the sum, which the a

This practice of praising or condemning what they have Contrast the reception of Americans in England, with neither seen nor heard, is by no means confined to the Lon- that of English adventurers in this country. An actor don paragraph writers, but extends to the minor fry of here, whatever may be his talents, is always courteouly reprovincial critics. We have, on more than one occasion, deceived, and an impartial hearing granted. Though we may tected persons very near home in this very disingenuous not know better than the English, still we never forget cost, is £231 12s.

practice.

MR. COOPER.

[From the Franklin Gazette, Feb. 29.]

what is due to a stranger. There is a way for an andience to inform an actor that he is not liked without disgracing itself, and insulting him; and there is a way of committing these matters to the press without disgracing the press, and The reception bestowed upon this gentleman by a Lon-all who are connected with it; all of which, it appears don audience, we consider the most disgraceful incident that John Bull, old as he is, has yet to learn. to be found in the history of the stage for at least the last century. On the night of his appearance, Kean, a prey The Kaleidoscope, which finds its way to the principal to incurable disease, was brought forward to play at Co. towns in the United States, will serve to show the Ame vent-garden, and performed, according to the theatrical ricans that there is, in England, at least one person who reports with great eclat, and to an immense house," protests against the unhandsome and uncandid treatment whereas the audience was not numerous, and the actor could not be heard beyond the first two or three boxes." which Mr. Cooper lately experienced in this country. We The friends of this man and Macready made common have expressed our opinions unreservedly on the subject, cause against Cooper; for right or wrong, the Yankee because we have a most superlative contempt for nineactor, as he was termed, must be put down. It also ap-tenths of the scribblers who bore the public with what pears that the newspaper writers had taken umbrage against Mr. Price, the Yankee manager, who had curtailed they call critiques on theatricals and the fine arts. Indethem of certain privileges, touching the admission of their pendent of their general incompetency to the task, owing friends, and they awaited a fair opportunity to wreak their to a want of taste or education, their motives, as we have petty malice, and accordingly selected this occasion, know- elsewhere observed, are too often of the most suspicious

To Correspondents.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.-We have been favoured with a
tion entitled,
"An Analogical Analysis of the Proc
for insertion in the Kaleidoscope, and shall give the
or a portion, next week. We know the writer to be
petent to the task he has undertaken; and we ha
doubt that his essay will be perused with pleasure
vantage.
SUPPLEMENTAL SHEET. We shall, probably, next week
our readers with another supplemental sheet; in
case we shall insert the whole of J. C.'s original e
grammar, and some articles upon machines for sw
chimneys.

MUSIC.-The favours of our Welsh correspondent, and
of Manchester, have been received, and shall be attend
Printed, published, and sold, every Tuesday, by E.Sira
and Co., at their General Printing Office, Lord-arm,
Liverpool, and to be had of all Booksellers.

OR,

Literary and Scientific Mirror.

" UTILE DULCI."

familiar Miscellany, from which all religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles; comprehending LITERATURE, CRITICISM, MEN and LANTERS, AMUSEMENT, elegant EXTRACTS, POETRY, ANECdotes, Biography, Meteorology, the DRAMA, ARTS and SCIENCES, WIT and SATIRE, FASHIONS, Natural History, &c. forming handsome ANNUAL VOLUME, with an INDEX and TITLE-PAGE. Persons in any part of the Kingdom may obtain this Work from London through their respective Booksellers.

409.-Vol. VIII.

Literature, Criticism, &c.

[ORIGINAL.)

LIVERPOOL, TUESDAY, APRIL 29, 1828.

TYMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PRONOUN “I."

"What boots the cunning pilot's skill,
To tell which way to shape their course,
When he that steers will have his will,
And drive them where he list per force?
So Reason shows the truth in vain
Where Ignorance or Folly King doth reign.”

Francis Davidson.

that he, she, it, they, &c. are adjective pronouns; a third
ridicules the idea of adjective pronouns; a fourth suspects
own to be a verb; and a fifth pronounces definitely that it
is an adjective.

This jumble of assertions and opinions puts one in mind
of the confusion of tongues at the building of the tower of
Babel. Every thing is uncertain, because every thing is
built upon uncertainty.

If pronouns can represent substantives, pronouns must
have been substantives before they became the representa-
tives of substantives, and consequently must have had a
clear and independent meaning of their own, before they
took upon them the office of representing others. To il-
lustrate this, let us select the personal pronoun I, as it is

'persons of liberal education or enlightened minds
eny the utility of verbal criticism, etymological
h, or glossarial illustration. In reading the pro-termed.
is of our early poets, historians, and biographers,
Now Tom, Dick, or Harry, may say "I did so and
re indispensibly requisite; and even in attaining a so;" here, according to rule, I is the representative of
knowledge of many words as they are at present Tom, Dick, or Harry; but will any one say that the
no inconsiderable advantages may be derived from meaning of I, is Tom, Dick, or Harry, or that it has no
ssistance. Uniformity in speaking and writing is meaning unless so employed? If I cannot be applied to
all times, to be expected. Languages have their any other purpose than that of personal representation,
ions as well as empires, and it is as much the pro- then, I think, it may be fairly inferred, that it was ori-
f the grammarian and the lexicographer to note ginally framed and adapted to that purpose, and no other;
iations of the one, as it is the duty of the journalist but if, on the contrary, it can be shown that it has been
#historian to record the changes of the other. It appropriated to purposes totally distinct from personal
owever, be said, that, in the works of the learned, representation, then any argument in favour of its exclu-
ing has been accomplished which a perfect know-sive application falls to the ground.
of our language requires. To this I cannot imagine In fact I is neither a pronoun nor a substantive; it is a
by thing like general assent can be obtained. The word razee, a part and parcel, the residue and remainder
Lare not agreed among themselves; their precepts of the old English verb to ich, now written to eke, that is
diversified as their opinions; and it would not be to add, to join, &c. I then is the contracted second pers.
t to select from their works rules which are at once sing. of the pres. of the imper. of the verb to ich, which verb
pas, contradictory, and absurd. In the grammatical is derived from the Anglo-Saxon GE-ICAN, or ICAN,jungere,
tions already before the public, enough has, per- addere, adjicere, augere, and eke, from eacan, which has
been done for the initiation of youth, more than the same signification. Horne Tooke, in his Diversions
to serve the purposes of communication in the of Purley, collaterally confirms these observations, and
n occurrences of life, but to satisfy the spirit of states, in addition, that the English word yoke, and the
phical inquiry, enough has not been done.
Latin word jugum, are the past participles of the same
rammar," says Campanella, "is twofold-civil verb.
By the change of the characteristic I to O, we
ilosophical: civil grammar is founded on use, have," says he, "the past tense, and P. P. geoc, which,
phical grammar on reason: the former depends by our accustomed substitution of Y for G, we now write
sage, the latter upon its rationality.”
yok, yoke."
istom must govern, let it be in language as it is in
reasonable custom :-" Malus usus," says the law,
bolendus, nam, in consuetudinibus, non diuturnitas
is sed soliditas rationis est consideranda." In
ĝa solid and substantial edifice, is it not customary,
*t absolutely necessary to examine into the nature
foundation, before you commence the superstruc-
To the judicious completion of a whole, is it not
highest importance to have a perfect knowledge of
portion and application of the parts?

yet nothing is more common than to find gramclassifying and defining words of which they have no clear ideas themselves, or have failed in unicating them to others.

be convinced of this, we need only refer to what en written about pronouns in general. In their cation, scarcely two grammarians are agreed. One hat personal pronouns are substantives, and all the pronouns are adjectives; and the personal pronouns mes to be, I, thou, he, she, and it, in the singular, , ye or you, and they, in the plural. Another says,

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In Scotland yoken, that is yoked time, is a common
word, and there is scarcely an old woman from one end of
that country to the other to whom the expression of ichen,
or iken, a broken thread, is not familiar. It is a verb in
general use, even at the present day.

"I speake too long, but 'tis to peize the time,
To ich it and to draw it out in length."
Merchant of Venice, p. 173.
See also Horne Took's Diversions of Purley.
"O mercie, God! (quod iche) I me repent."
Chaucer's Court of Love.

"Do we with our foes therefore,
That are here lyand us before,
As ich heard tell this other year,
That a fox did with a fisher."

The Bruce, by John Barbour.
"Then thought I to frayne the first of these four orders,
And pressed to the preachers to proven her will.
Ich hied to her house, to hearken of more;
And when I came to that court, I gaped about,
Such a build, bold y-built upon earth height,
Saw I not, in certain, sith a long time."

Pierce, the Plowman's Creed.

PRICE 34d.

From the first of these quotations it is perfectly clear, that ich is a verb signifying to join, to add, &c.; and from the other three it is equally clear, that ich and I are identified; that they have the same origin and meaning, however varied in their application, or changed in their orthography.

In the following languages the pronoun, conjunction, and verb run thus:

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ik, ich, ic,

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"

"

ook, oecken. auch, auchon. cac, " eacan.

Danish. Pronoun eg, conjunction og, verb oger.
Dutch.
German.
A. S.
The Icelandic is similar to the Danish.
To the quotations which have been already given, the
following may neither prove useless nor uninteresting:
"Eke eche at other threwe the flouris bright."

Court of Love.
"Aerist, ic an Edwardes, minum eldra suna."
First, I give to Edward, my elder son.
Alfred's Will.
Here an is a verb, from which our indefinite article an,
or a, is taken, and signifies "to give, to grant.”

"An they will take it,-so. If not,
He's plain."-Lear, act. 2, scene 6.

That is, "grant, give, they will take it, &c."

A Dutch child that was not satisfied with sucking one breast, said to his mother,

"Trientjen, jan my t'oor;" that is,

"Kate, give me t'other."-Diversions of Purley. Thus we may see that "out of the mouths of babes and sucklings," knowledge is perfected.

If as much could be said for a few babes of a larger growth," 'twould be something."

"Swilce thaer, eac se froda,

Mid fleame com on his cyththe
Nordh Constantinus.

Saxon Ode on Athelstan's Victory.

"So there, add, the prudent,
The northern Constantine,
With flight, came to his country."
"There n'is baret, nother strife,
Nis there no death ac ever life;
There n'is dunnir, sleet, no hail,
No none vile worm, no snail;
No none storm, rain, no wind;
There n'is man, no woman blind;
Ok all is game, joy and glee,

Well is him that there may be."
Specimens of Ancient Poetry, by G. Ellis, vol. i. p. 86.
Mr. Ellis explains ac and ok, by but. The reader, how-
ever, ought to be aware that but applied here as the sub-
stitute or illustrator of ac and ok, is the imper. of the A. S.
verb botan-to boot, to add, to join, to make up a deficiency;
and not that of the verb beon-utan-to be-out, to leave out,
to except.

To say be out, leave out, or except " ever life," &c.; or, "all is game, joy," &c. perverts the intended meaning; on the other hand, to say boot, add, join, “ever life, game, joy, and glee," conveys the exact meaning.

Hence this etymological corollary may be drawn, that when but is the imper. of botan, it may be used for the imper. of any verb, signifying to add, to join. Ac and ok differ from the words which have been previously quoted, in nothing but, be-out, leave out, except, the spelling.

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"Nu wil ih scriban unser heill."
"Now will I write our health."

(See Preface to Greenwood's Grammar.)
"Li Roi mangea avec les homes,
Et la Reine avec les dames,

O grant deduit, et grant joye,
Come soloit estre à Troie."-Wace's Brut.
The King apart with men did eat,

The Queen, likewise, with dames discreet,
With great pleasure and great joy,
As the custom was in Troy.

Mr. Ellis, in his glossarial notes, translates O by with; but it might, with equal propriety, have been rendered by add or join, as with is here the imper. of the A. S. verb withan, to join, to add,-not the imper. of wyrthan, to be; and whenever with is used as the imper. of withan, it may, in conjunction with other words of the same meaning, be used interchangeably.

been entailed on families and individuals through the sion, but nothing that has had the least tendency ei
intrigues and villany of unprincipled lawyers, or from their inform the judgment or improve the taste. The
own neglect of timely professional advice, will consider forte of this writer, and others of the same stamp,
this a small matter. “I wish," says Lord Bacon, "that in putting down whatever enters their heads, (
every man knew as much of the law as would enable him to how ridiculous) so as to fill a large quantity of pape
keep out of it." And it is remarked by the author of the work to raise the laughter of little masters and misses, off
before us, that the great mass of litigation results not more annuated noodles, and toothless tabbies, for whose
from the uncertainty of the law, than from the ignorance or decayed capacities their talents seem peculiarly
of the parties on those points respecting which they should They are ambitious, withal, to shine as wits; but,
have been previously instructed. The ignorant are always genuine wit runs in too deep a channel to find a ca
the dupes of impostors, whether in law, physic, or divinity. their shallow brains. If we want to find wit, we mu
It cannot, however, be denied, that there are many per- for it elsewhere,-in the pages of such writers as a
sons of extensive general information, and who move in a and Sterne, and Swift. For ourselves, we must say,
respectable sphere of life, whose acquaintance with the thing so much excites our disgust as the miserable
laws of their country is, nevertheless, very defective. of these writers to shine in borrowed plumes, a
Now, to such persons, we would, in the strongest manner, fudge they resort to when their limping senten
recommend the Cabinet Lawyer, as a work which may, at to be helped out, or when an edge is needed for the
any time, be perused with pleasure and profit. How sarcasms, in dovetailing the fag-ends of odd
much more honourable to themselves, and beneficial to of extracts, little scraps of poetry, and Latin q
others, is the conduct of those individuals who store their from the list of phrases subjoined to Johnson's Ma
minds with useful knowledge, than is that of the vulgar Dictionary.-But to return to our author, whom we
herd, who are crammed and surcharged with the twaddle, must now dismiss with a very short notice.
and scandal, and low buffoonery of many of our weekly
and monthly journals. In a sequestered neighbourhood,
where, in too many instances, might constitutes right, and
where official insolence meets with none of those whole-
some checks which it is sure to feel in more populous dis.
tricts, the value of such a work, in the hands of a few in
telligent men, can hardly be estimated. It does not, like
most other law books, abound in hard and uncouth terms;
but is, throughout, simple and perspicuous, conveying
much curious information, in a style that is perfectly in-
telligible to the meanest capacity.

From what we have already stated, our reade readily perceive that we consider the Cabinet La be a work of great merit, and deserving of a plaza library of every man who is desirous of obtaining a we had almost said, indispensible-information a subjects. To the mercantile and manufacturing of the community, in particular, we think it a mas able adviser. We have only to add, that the h tion comprises the latest alterations in the laws, by the labours of Mr. Peel and others, and has, the a decided superiority over its predecessors, as val

Before concluding, we are tempted to indulge in a re-every other work of the kind. We could have mark or two, suggested by what the author says respecting very curious and interesting extracts from the h our limits will permit only the following on t the brevity he has studied in every part of his publication. It will scarcely be credited, by many persons, that the mon, but little understood phrase," Benefit of Cy substance of the voluminous laws of England could be of clergy may at once be stated to have origina "1. The origin of the Benefit of Clergy compressed into a single duodecimo volume, however great power and influence of the priesthood, dunia closely it might be printed. But the thing has been done, of ignorance and superstition, when both the p and we shall hear how he accounts for it. It has often," their rulers were disposed to treat with pecular he says, "been remarked, into how small a compass which, they obtained two extraordinary and honour the ministers of religion; and, in co human knowledge might be compressed, by confining it privileges: 1. Places consecrated to religiess datt to a simple enunciation of fact and inference: it occurred exempt from criminal arrests, which was the found to me that this principle might be applied, with peculiar ad- sanctuaries; 2. The persons of clergymen wat vantage, to a digest of the English laws, and it is by ri- in certain cases, from criminal process before th judge, and made amenable only to ecclesiastic gorously adhering to it, that I have been enabled to accom- and jurisdiction. The first of these immunit plish the present undertaking. My aim throughout has abridged by 29 Hen. VIII. and finally abolis been to concentrate, in an aphoristic form, facts and legal Jac. I. c. 22. The second, after undergoing va points only; exhibit them in simple language under such tions, descended to our own time, and was arrangement and classification as would afford the utmost abolished, as an exclusive privilege, by the OR, A POPULAR DIGEST OF THE LAWS OF ENGLAND, &c. &c. facility for turning to, and obtaining, all the information

Having extended these remarks beyond what was at first intended, I shall now conclude in the words of Lord Coke, in his first Institute," Ad recte docendum oportet primum inquirete nomina, quia rerum cognitio à nominibus rerum dependet. Nomina si nescis perit cognitio rerum. Et nomina, si perdas, certè distinctio rerù perditur."

[ORIGINAL REVIEW.]

THE CABINET LAWYER;

In a cheap and handsome Pocket Volume.

(Concluded from our last.)

J. C.

necessary to the object of research."

c. 25.

Originally, the benefit of clergy was conf ritual persons, actually admitted into holy wearing the clerical tonsure; but, in process education became more diffused by the discove privilege was extended to every one who could ing, and other concurrent causes, reading incompetent proof of clerkship, or being in h readers, therefore, were excluded from the f clergy, though not liable to the same severity ment, in case of delinquency, as non-readers,

illiterate.

"Afterwards, it was properly considered that and learning were no extenuation of guilt, ba reverse; and that if the punishment of death felony was too severe for those who had been structed, it was much more so for the totally Accordingly, by the 5 Ann, c. 6, it was cu ce vilege of clergy should be granted to all who w to, without requiring them to read by way of c

While we cheerfully admit that our author has comFrom this outline it appears that the work is intended pletely succeeded in his object, so that his every page teems to give a comprehensive view of the present state of the with instruction, we cannot help reflecting on the lamentable English laws; and we can conscientiously declare, so far pass to which some of our magazine and newspaper scribes as we have examined it, that it performs all that it pro- would be reduced, were they obliged to follow his example. mises. None of our readers, however, must infer from Judging from the compositions of these gentlemen, one this, that it will solve every difficulty of a legal kind which would suppose the grand secret of modern writing to be, they may meet with, or make them complete lawyers. to use as many words as possible, without a vestige of There is too much intricacy and contradiction in the laws meaning; to study sound more than sense; to magas they now stand, to be unravelled in any single publi. nify into importance what in itself is absolutely concation; and, besides, new cases are continually occurring, temptible; and to dress up the veriest truisms, and the most in reference to which even professional men must be guided paltry common-place remarks, in a diffuse and gaudy in their decisions by general principles, or by precedents phraseology. We know one writer of this school who may, bearing upon the points at issue. Still we will venture to not unaptly, be styled either the laughing or the crying assert, that any man who shall study and digest the infor- philosopher, as the fit happens to be upon him, who can qualification. mation that is contained in the "Cabinet Lawyer," will be fill sheet after sheet with " nought but emptiness." For furnished with a very competent knowledge of the law, we may safely appeal to any man of comnion sense, who sufficient, at any rate, to make him very cautious how he has had the courage to wade through his periodical mass engages in a law plea, and to assist him in extricating of fully, to say whether he has ever derived the shadow of himself, should he be so unfortunate as to be involved in an idea, on any subject that is really useful, from this one by others. And no one who has had the slightest writer's lucubrations. He may have found pitiful saracquaintance with the misery and distress which have casm, low jesting, and downright nonsense, in rich profu

this day. As an exclusive immunity, we a 2. To what persons Benefit of Clergy is sli stated, the benefit of clergy is now taken from themselves; and, by & Geo. IV. c. 25, 83, d orders, being convicted of clergyable offences, holy orders. The only class in the comman liable to exactly the same punishment as per enjoy impunity in the perpetration of offences OF THE REALM: and one cannot readily c

rder of persons who live exposed to so few temptations
linquency were not divested, along with the clergy,
ch an invidious distinction. This curious anomaly
r statute book it may be as well to explain.
ly the 1 Edw. VI. c. 12, lords of parliament and
of the realm are entitled to the privilege of peerage,
ilent to that of clergy (and this although they cannot
for all offences then clergyable, and also for the
of house-breaking, highway-robbery, horse-steal-
nd robbing of churches. No subsequent law has
ed this clause in the statute of Edward; so that a
day, at this day, rob on the highway, steal horses,
into a house, rob a church, crimes capital in a com-
and is liable for a first offence to no personal pu-
ent whatever.
hat offences are Clergyable:-The benefit of clergy
ily admitted in petty treason and capital felonies;
nen had never any privilege in high treason, petty
, and misdemeanour; they always were, as they
e, liable to be capitally punished, whipped, or
rted for these offences: lying in wait for one on
hway, or ravaging a county, or burning houses,
wer clergyable offences. A vast number of felo-
ve been deprived of clergy by acts of parliament,
ct of which was to restore the law to the same rigour
al punishment in the first offence that it exerted be-
privilegium clericale was introduced. To conclude
id of inquiry, the following rules may be observed:
at in all felonies, whether newly created, or by com-
w, clergy is not allowable, unless taken away by
words of an act of parliament. 2. That where
is taken away from the principal, it is not, of course,
way from the accessory, unless he also be particu-
cluded in the words of the statute. 3. That when
efit of clergy is taken away from the offence, as in
robbery, rape, and burglary, a principal in the
degree being present, aiding and abetting the
is excluded from clergy in the same manner as he
principal in the first degree: but, 4. That where it
taken away from the persons committing the
his aiders and abettors are not excluded.

of the penal code, equalization of weights and measures,
restriction on trade, and a variety of other questions, may
now be canvassed with propriety apart from what is termed
politics."

The following two editorial paragraphs will fur-
ther apprize our readers of the nature of the articles
we are about to introduce into our work.

TURKISH QUESTION.

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guage not intelligible by the native population, is extinguished, and its conductors ruined. A judge upon the bench, who, in the administration of justice, dares to imagine that at some future day the Parliament of England may think fit to refuse another lease of India to its existing tenants, is haughtily dismissed from his office; and Englishmen residing in India are deprived of all right of appeal to their Sovereign, if a power, more prompt and arbitrary than that known here as the Un-English and odious alien bill, be employed as an engine of their forcible expulsion from a country which is nominally under the Crown of George IV. We think it impossible to read, ever so cursorily, the following catalogue of personal and political disabilities experienced by Englishmen who strive to prosecute the fairest objects of active and industrious life within the vast region ruled over by the Company of Leadenhall-street, without asking for whom and for what it is that such enormous and offensive latitude should be given to one party, and such cruel restraints and privations fastened upon the other, that other being the community of British subjects. After affirming, and truly, that the "undoubted sovereignty" of India is vested by Act of Parliament in the Crown, and that the country is the property of the State, the author enumerates, with great force and clearness, the humiliation, as well as substantial penalties, to which all Englishmen, without exception, save those in authority civil or military, are there subjected.-Times.

The public will do us the favour to observe, that amidst the varying reports on the affairs of Eastern Europe, we have strictly persevered in recommending the same line of policy, and have published statements now acknowledged to be correct, evincing the adoption of that policy. We have said that England has no cause of jealousy against France, and Europe nothing to fear from Russia; and had Prussia and Austria been faithful and firm in recommending submission to the Porte-had not those two powers, on the contrary, insinuated suspicions respecting the sincerity with which the triple alliance was formed we have no doubt that a pacification would have taken place long ago. We now, however, learn from some of the best of our foreign correspondents, and we believe the report, that Austria and Prussia have, of late, very much altered their tone. The separate war about to be declared by Russia against the Porte, and, on the other hand, the fixed determination of France and England to obtain the object of the treaty of London, have convinced them that concession on the part of the Turks is the only way to preserve, or rather to restore, tranquillity in the East of Europe. NATIONAL REPOSITORY FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT Some accounts which have lately reached us from Berlin, It is with unmingled satisfaction we inform our readers, induce us to think that the efforts of the Prussian, as well as Austrian, Government, are now seriously directed that a project so patriotic in its nature, and likely to be so towards bringing the Turks to a sense of their real situation. beneficial in its results, will probably soon be in full opeConsequences of allowing the Privilege of Clergy. They would have acted more wisely, as well as more ho- ration. We cannot better explain the objects of this instithis head we have only one remark to offer, which nestly, if they had adopted this course long ago. We tution, than by extracting from a recent circular the resotial to the clear understanding of the phrase, when nce is said to be within or without the benefit of learn from the same source, that Baron Miltitz, the Prus-lution adopted at a meeting of the noblemen and gentlemen If an offence be within clergy, the punishment sian Envoy, has been recalled, though the French papers forming the Committee of Management in December last. extend beyond fine, imprisonment, or transpor-speak of Kanitz as if he was sent on a mere special mis"Resolved,-That from the communications received by, if an offence be without clergy, the punishment sion, and not as a substitute for the other. This may be al; that is, takes away life. In most clergyable considered as a confirmation of the opinion of our corby recent statutes, the punishment of hard labour ided." respondents as to the altered disposition of Prussia.

The Envestigator. rehending Political Economy, Statistics, Jurisprue, occasional passages from Parliamentary Speeches general nature, occasional Parliamentary Docuts, and other speculative subjects, excluding Party tics.]

Times.

APPROACHING EXPIRY OF THE LEASE OF INDIA.

OF ARTS AND MANUFACTURES.

and statements submitted to, this Committee, they are of opinion, that it has long been a desideratum amongst our most intelligent merchants and manufacturers, that an annual exhibition of specimens of new and improved productions of our artisans and manufacturers, conducted on a scale that should command the attention of the British pubAmongst other crises of more or less national importance, lic resident in, and annually visiting, the metropolis, would the approach and development of which are now expedi- be highly conducive to the interest of the foreign commerce, tiously, though almost insensibly, advancing upon us, is as well as the internal trade of the United Kingdom; and, that which, within five short years, will be produced by in the opinion of this Committee, such exhibition will not the expiration of the charter granted to the East India only prove a powerful stimulus in promoting the further Company in the year 1813. This bargain, let it be well improvement of our already successful manufactures, but he 5th and 6th volumes, under the head "In-understood, was stipulated to endure for twenty years, and will also bring into notice the latent talents of many skilator," we introduced a series of articles on no longer: in the year 1833, the legislative power of the ful artisans and small manufacturers, now labouring in cal economy, and general politics, by which we state will have a perfect and acknowledged right to renew obscurity, and sacrificing their inventions, valuable alike not party politics. That department of our the contract, or to modify it as may be best for the nation; to the country and to themselves, for want of such an gave great satisfaction; and we feel somewhat or, if the good of the country and the public voice shall opportunity of introducing them to the British public." It loss to assign any good reason for having so demand of the Government and Parliament, it will be is gratifying to reflect, that among the warmest supporters ted to continue the series in our 7th and 8th lawful, wise, and honest, to terminate for ever the domi- of this patriotic scheme, are to be found several young nes. A letter, with which we have just been nion of the "merchants trading to the Indies." If such noblemen and gentlemen of the first rank. Such conduct red by a correspondent, who signs A Student, a spectacle as that of the Company and its leasehold em- does no less credit to their hearts than to their heads, for recalled our attention to the subject; and his pire were now for the first time presented to us, we appre-its effects will be to better the condition and prospects of hend there are few among the reflecting classes of our artisans, whilst it promotes a kindly feeling between them sentations have determined us to revive the vestigator." countrymen who would believe that they saw aright. No and the aristocracy. We learn from the Trades' Free Englishman of this age could believe that a free people Press, which paper has been selected by the Committee of order that our readers may be under no appre-would delegate to a trading corporation powers which, in Management as the most proper medium of communicaions that we are about to deviate, in the slightest their extent, cannot be measured by any standard known tion with the working classes, that the first step resolved ee, from our pledge to abstain from party poli- to the constitution of a limited monarchy, and, in their upon is, to send circulars to all the secretaries of Mechawe shall here repeat the editorial paragraph to transmit to the Repository their opinion of such articles nics' Institutions throughout the country, requesting them which we first announced our intention to inas they deem worthy of public notice; and signifying that luce a 66 new feature" into the Kaleidoscope. articles so recommended will have a prior claim to the We must, however, observe, that we do not conceive attention of the establishment. From the same source we elves at present so circumscribed in our range of sublearn, that every thing in the shape of patronage is to be as we did at the period to which we have just adverted, rigidly excluded, and every article to stand entirely upon its own merits. We hope this resolution will be strictly ministers of the present day appear now to be actuated adhered to, and that the patriotic intentions of those who much more enlarged and liberal views than formerly; have originated and promoted this truly national measure the corn bill, the combination laws, the amelioration may be carried into full effect.

exercise, must have recourse to principles which every
British subject professes to abhor. The Company's domi-
nion is one which does not confine the claims of arbitrary
authority to its relations with Hindoos and Mahometans.
Englishmen once landed on the peninsula of India are
practically, if the present rules of the local Government be
adhered to, as much slaves as their copper-coloured neigh-
bours. The press, if it utters a sound not strictly musical to
the ear of a Governor-General in Council, though in lan-

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