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SCRIPTURAL READING.

TO THE EDITOR.

SIR,-The concise but exceedingly sublime description of the creation, given to us in the first chapter of Genesis, having lately been read in our churches, induces me to request your insertion of the following remarks, in hopes they may come under the notice of those in whom rests the power of giving increased effect and pathos to the reading of that most beautiful composition.

not life behind, and sailing they knew not whither, it demanded a rare combination of extraordinary talents for one man, an obscure foreigner, to retain the obedience of his turbulent but fainthearted followers.

"Their terrors began to be troublesome a few days after quitting Gomera, on perceiving the variation of the magnetic needle. Columbus deserves the honour of being the first to observe this phenomenon, which still remains among the unexplained mysteries of nature. The surprise and consternation of his officers and men on the occasion are sufficient proof that it was unnoticed until then. Some writers have ascribed the credit of making this observation to Cabot, in 1497; but Las Casas, Ferdinand Columbus, Herrera, and Munoz, had all concurred in claiming it for the Admiral; and the following extract from the journal of his first voyage, dated September 13, taken in connexion with a passage in his account of his third voyage, is considered by Senor Navarrete as establishing the fact. He succeeded in quieting the apprehensions of his people by an ingenious explanation, which, however, was unsatis. factory to his own mind. In reading the passages we are about to cite, it should be observed, that they are not taken from the original journal of Columbus, but from a mere abstract in the words of Las Casas; and as it appears from Munoz's unfinished Historia del Nuevo Mundo, that Columbus kept two journals, one private and authentic, and the other with false reckoning and specious statements, it would seem that both were used in making this abstract, the phrase the Admiral says' often introducing not what he thought, but what he wished his companions to believe. Las Casas has given some long passages in the very words of Columbus, but such are accompanied by a notice to that by inverted commas.

As far as my observation has extended, the conclusion of the 9th, 11th, and other verses, is always read with a strong emphasis on the word was, instead of on the more Had the sacred historian properly emphatical word so. been speaking of matter no longer in existence, the past tense would then have borne a more appropriate signification; but describing an astonishing effect, which still is, the force of his words is much weakened, to say the least of it, by the usual emphasis: omit the word so, and the emphasis will be right. Is not so (done in such like manner) always emphatical in our language? I am aware of the possibility of defending the usual reading, but I think the "better argument" is in favour of the reading I propose; enlarge the expression and it will be more apparent "And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear; and it was" (so) done even as commanded. Contrast the reading, and another light will be thrown upon it: 10th verse," And God called the dry land earth, and the gathering together of the waters called he seas: and God saw that it was good:"-this would not be tolerated. I would further propose the reading of the 3d verse with the following emphasis: "And God said, Let there be year, on Friday, half an hour before sunrise, and steered effect; and in Senor Navarrete's book are distinguished

LIGHT and there was light, instead of laying stress on the word was. A change of construction would render the force of my reasoning more apparent. Let light BE, and light was.

Yours, &c.

The Bouquet.

J. H. C.

“I have here only made a nosegay of culled flowers, and have brought nothing of my own but the thread that ties them." MONTAIGNE.

NEW DOCUMENT RESPECTING COLUMBUS.

The following most interesting article is copied from the North American Revier; and we most readily abridge our selections from Sir Walter Scott's Napoleon, in order to secure the insertion of a narrative which must deeply interest every reader.

“It is throughout in the handwriting of the celebrated Bartolomé de las Casas, who possessed many papers written by Columbus, which he made use of in the composition of his unpublished Historia de las Indias, and who unquestionably abstracted this journal from the Admiral's log-book, giving a literal copy of the most important passages. Not the slightest doubt of its authenticity can exist. Indeed Las Casas inserted an abridgment of it in his manuscript history, which served as the basis of the works of Herara and other standard historians of the New World.

"The introduction to the journal exhibits in the very words of Columbus, the views and feelings with which he set sail upon this memorable voyage. We translate it word for word, leaving the original arrangement of the

sentences untouched, because it would be difficult to

break them without taking serious liberties with the text. In nomine D. S. Jesu Christi.—Whereas, most Christian, most high, most excellent, and most powerful princes, our lords, King and Queen of the Spains and the isles of the sea, this present year 1492, after your Highness had ended the war against the Moors who reigned in Europe, and had finished the war in the great city of Granada, where this present year, on the second day of January, I the royal banners of your Highnesses planted by force of arms on the towers of Alhambra, which is the fortress of the said city, and saw the Moorish King come out of

the gates of the city and kiss the royal hands of your
Highnesses and of my lord the Prince; and then in that
same month by the information which I had given your
Highnesses of the lands of India, and of a prince called
Gran Can, which signifies in our language King of Kings,
how he and his predecessors had often sent to Rome to
solicit teachers of our holy faith to instruct him in it, and
the Holy Father had never provided him any, and thus
many people were lost by believing in idolatries, and har
bouring doctrines of perdition ;-your Highnesses, as
Catholic Christians, and Princes, who are lovers of the
holy Christian faith and promoters of it, and enemies of
the sect of Mahomet, and of all idolatries and heresies,
thought to send me, Christopher Columbus, to said regions
of India, to see the said princes, and the people and coun-
try, and the disposition of them and of the whole, and the
course to be adopted for their conversion to our holy
faith; and ordained that I should not proceed by land to
the East, as it hath been customary to go, but by way of
the West, in which direction we have to this day no
certain evidence that any person has passed. So after
having expelled all the Jews from your kingdom and
seignories, in the same month of January, your High-
nesses commanded me to proceed to those regions of India
with a sufficient armament; and for this granted me
great favours, and ennobled me so that thenceforth in
time to come I might style myself Don, and should be
High Admiral of the ocean, and Viceroy and perpetual
Governor of all the islands and mainland which I should
discover and acquire, and which should thereafter be dis-
covered and acquired in the ocean, and so my eldest son
should succeed me, and from degree to degree for ever
and I left the city of Granada the 12th day of the month of
May of the same year, 1492, on Saturday; I went to the
town of Palos, a seaport, where I equipped three vessels
very suitable for such a purpose; and departed from the
said port, well supplied with much provisions and many
seamen, the third day of the month of August of the said
for the Canary Islands of your Highnesses, which are in
the said ocean, thence to take my departure, and navigate
until I should reach the Indies, and deliver the embassy
of your Highnesses to those princes, and thus accomplish
what you had commanded me; and therefore I thought
to write all this voyage very exactly from day to day,
every thing which I should do, or see, or experience, as
will be seen in the sequel. And beside describing every
night what passes in the day, and every day how we sail
in the night, I design to construct a new chart for navi-
gation, in which I will mark the waters and lands of the
ocean in their proper places under their points; and
moreover to compose a book, and represent the whole by
picture, in latitude from the equator, and longitude from
the west; and above all it is very necessary that I forego
sleep, and attempt much in navigation, in order to accom-
plish it, which things will require great toil.'-Tom. I,
P. 1-3.

"The first thing which strikes us in the journal, is the
artifice to which Columbus was continually driven, to sus-
tain the sinking courage of his crews. Nowhere is the ex-
alted character of this truly great man more strikingly dis-
played, than in the fortitude and magnanimity with which
he bore up against the manifold obstacles to the prosecu-
tion of his magnificent undertaking. He had suffered the
hardships of penury and oppression, with spirits unbroken,
with hopes unrepressed. Animated by the conviction that
undiscovered worlds lay hidden in the western sea, and
that he was the instrument ordained to discover and ex-
plore them, he had happily overcome the superstitions of
the priesthood, who, in the outset, stigmatized his hypo-
thesis by the odious name of heresy. The incredulity of
the Government had yielded to the force of truth; and its
parsimony was melted by his ardour. The narrowminded
individuals, who, unable to rise themselves, hung the
weight of their jealousy around his neck as usual, to hold
down his lofty genius to the level of their own lowly career,

he had shaken off at last in triumph. He was now float-
ing upon the full tide of adventurous experiment. But
here also the ignorance and envy of his fellows pursued
him at every hour. His unalterable belief in the existence
of the lands he sought would have availed him little had
not his pre-eminent nautical skill exacted the confidence
of those around him, and his intellect and courage proved
equal to any emergency of fortune. For when his daring
prow was pointed to the west, and his companions felt
themselves on the bosom of the great deep, leaving home if

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Thursday, Sept. 13.-This day and night, continuing their course west, they sailed 33 leagues, and counted 3 or 4 less. The currents were contrary. This day, at the commencement of night, the needles varied (noruesteaban) to the north-west, and they also varied somewhat to the north-west in the morning.'

sailed in the day and night 50 leagues and upwards; noted Monday, Sept. 17.-Continued their course west, and down but 47; the current favoured them; they saw many weeds, and very frequently; it was rockweed, and came from towards the west; they judged that land was near. The mates took the north by marking it, and found that the needles varied to the north-west (las agujas noruesteaban) a whole quarter, which terrified the mariners, who stood in suspense, without saying for what. The Admiral perceived it, and ordered them to mark the north anew at daybreak, and they found that the needles pointed aright: the cause was, that the star which appears has motion, and not the needles. At daybreak this day saw many more weeds, which appeared to be river weeds, in which they found a live crab, which the Admiral kept, and says that these are sure signs of land, because they are never found eighty leagues from shore. They found the sea water less salt since they left the Canaries, the air more and more mild; they were all in good spirits, and the vessels contended which should go fastest, to be the first to descry land; they saw many tunny fish, and the crew of the Nina killed one. Here the Admiral says those signs were from the west, where I hope in that high God, in whose band is all victory, that he will very soon give us land. This morning he says he saw a white bird, called Rabo de Junco, which is not wont to sleep at sea.'

to the northwest, and at daybreak they agreed exactly Sunday, Sept. 30.-At night the needles varied a quarter with the star; by which it appears that the star has motion like the other stars, and that the needles always indicate the true point.'-Tom. 1, p. 8, 9, 15.

"It has been generally understood that Columbus was

compelled to deceive his companions in regard to the distance they sailed, and the various signs of proximity to land. The birds they saw were land birds; the weeds were freshly disengaged from rocks; and the fish were river fish, that never ventured far into salt water; sometimes the wind was a breeze from shore; and thus it was that every possible expedient was tried to counteract the fears and feed the credulity of ignorant mariners. We translate several passages of the journal, which illustrate these remarks.

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Sunday, Sept. 9-Sailed that day 19 leagues, and determined to count less than was sailed, so that if the voyage should be long, the people should not be terrified or dismayed.' Wednesday, Sept. 19.-Continued their course, and between day and night sailed 25 leagues, because there was a calm; wrote down 22. At ten this day a pelican came to the ship, and another towards evening, which are not wont to fly 20 leagues from land; it drizzled without wind, which is a sure sign of land; the Admiral would not stop to beat up and down to ascertain whether there was land; but he held for certain that to the north and south there were islands, as in truth there were, and he was sailing in the midst of them; because his wish was to proceed on to the Indies.' [Columbus was, in fact, at this time only 10 leagues from some small islets or rocks, in lat. 28° or 29°.]

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THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE,

THE AUTHOR OF "WAVERLEY."

Admiral's course and description, Munoz conjectured that beneficence. How cruelly they were disappointed in th Watling's island was the true Guanahani. But Senor sequel was but too fatally proved by their speedy destruc Navarette adduces very strong reasons for believing it to tion, under the merciless rule of their foreign masters. be the largest of the Turk's islands. The course of Columbus from Guanahani was continually west, from island to island, till he arrived at Nipe, in Cuba. Now this fact WITH A PRELIMINARY VIEW OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, IN is irreconcileable with the idea, that Guanahani is Cat Island, which lies nearly due north of Nipe. Besides, the great Bahama Bank, and a long chain of keys called Cayos de la Cadena, stretching between St. Salvador and Cuba, interpose a most serious obstacle to holding such a westerly course as Columbus pursued. But by setting out from Nipe, and proceeding in a retrogade direction along his course, as he very particularly describes it in his journal, we may easily trace his path, and shall be convinced that Guanahani is no other than Turk's island. Add to latter, especially in the circumstance of there being a large this, that his description of it accords exactly with the lake in the middle of it. This point is of no great consequence; but it is satisfactory to know precisely what spot in America was first revealed to the eye of Europeans. "In the subsequent parts of the journal, we frequently discover the influence of the opinions which Columbus had imbibed from the travels of Marco Polo and the famous letter of Paolo Toscanelli. It is the Indies, and the Indies alone, which he seeks. Although his reason as"We pass over many entries in the journal of like im-sured him of the true figure of our globe, and he deduced port, and come to the time when the vessels actually approached their destination.

Saturday, Sept. 22.-Sailed northwesterly, beating up and down; sailed 30 leagues; saw hardly any weeds. sary for me; because my people had become highly exHere the Admiral says, "This head wind was very necescited, in the idea that over these seas no wind blew by which they could return to Spain."

Sunday, Sept. 23-The weeds were in great quantities, and they found crabs in them, and as the sea was smooth and tranquil, the people murmured, saying that they had lost the deep water, and there never would be a wind for returning to Spain; but after a while the sea rose without wind, which astonished them.'-Tom. I, p.

7, 11, 12.

Wednesday, Oct. 10.-Sailed west southwest, went 10 miles the hour, occasionally twelve, and sometimes seven, to the people only forty-four. Here the crews could enand in the twenty-four hours fifty-nine leagues; reckoned dure it no longer; they complained of the length of the voyage; but the Admiral encouraged them as well as he could, giving them good hopes of the great profits they would make. And he added that it was idle for them to complain, because he was going to the Indies, and should keep on till he found them, with the help of our Lord.

Thursday, Oct. 11.-Sailed west southwest, had much sea, more than in the whole voyage before. Saw pardelas and a green rush near the vessel. The crew of the Pinta saw a cane and a log, and took up a stick of wood wrought to all appearance with iron, and a piece of cane, and another plant which grows on land, and a small board. Those of the Nina also saw other signs of shore, and a branch loaded with roseberries. By these signs all were relieved and rejoiced. Sailed this day by sunset 27 leagues.

After sunset sailed on their first course west. Went twelve miles the hour, and at two o'clock, A. M. had sailed 90 miles, that is 22 leagues. [Italian miles of four to

the right consequences from this position, and thus was
incorrect idea of the actual locality of the Indies. After
much in advance of his age, yet he had a most vague and
invariably point to Cathay or Cipango, or other distant
he has discovered Guanahani, his inquiries of the savages
Asiatic countries, at which he, every moment, expected to
arrive. Indeed, many years afterwards, in a letter written
to the Pope in 1502, he says- This island is Tarsis, it is
Cethia, it is Ophir, and Ophaz, and Cipango, and we have
called it Hispaniola." Conformable to this idea are the
entries in his journal.

the signs which the Indians gave him of its magnitude,
Friday, Oct. 26th.-He set sail for Cuba, because, by
and of the gold and pearls there, he thought it must be
the same with Cipango.'

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self to go to the Grand Can, who he thought was there,
Tuesday, Oct. 30th.-He says that he must exert him-
or at the city of Cathy, belonging to the Grand Can,
Spain.'-Tom. I, p. 40, 44.
which, he says, is very large, as he was told before he left

THE BATTLE OF THE PYRAMIDS. "During these alarms, the French love of the ludicrous was not abated by the fatigues or dangers of the journey. The savants had been supplied with asses, the beasts of sons and philosophical apparatus. The General had give burden easiest attained in Egypt, to transport their pe orders to attend to their personal safety, which were, e course, obeyed. But as these civilians had little importac in the eyes of the military, loud shouts of laughter bu sion, Let the asses and the savants enter within the from the ranks, while forming to receive the Mamelain, as the general of division called out, with military pres square.' The soldiers also amused themselves by calling the asses demi-savants. In times of discontent these un lucky servants of science had their full share of the sel pedition had been undertaken to gratify their passion for diers' reproaches, who imagined that this unpopular ex researches, in which the military took very slender interest.

even the literati themselves were greatly delighted, when, "Under such circumstances it may be doubted whether after fourteen days of such marches as we described, they arrived, indeed, within six leagues of Cairo, and behel, same time, that Murad Bey, with twenty-two of his bre at a distance, the celebrated Pyramids, but learned, at the trenched camp at a place called Embabeh, with the pur thren, at the head of their Mamelukes, had formed an a they saw their enemy in the field, and in full force. A pose of covering Cairo, and giving battle to the French. On the 21st of July, as the French continued to advance, splendid line of cavalry, under Murad and the other Beys, displayed the whole strength of the Mamelukes. Their right rested on the imperfectly entrenched camp, in which lay twenty thousand infantry, defended by forty pieces of the guns, wanting carriages, were mounted on clumsy cannon. But the infantry were an undisciplined rabble; wooden frames; and the fortifications of the camp were Bonaparte made his dispositions. He extended his line to but commenced, and presented no formidable opposition. the right, in such a manner as to keep out of gunshot of the entrenched camp, and have only to encounter the line of cavalry.

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its consequence, prepared to charge with his magnificent "Murad Bey saw this movement; and, fully aware of body of horse, declaring he would cut the French up like gourds. Bonaparte, as he directed the infantry to form "We pass over the intermediate portions of the journal, squares to receive them, called out to his men, From youthe league.] And because the caravel Pinta was a better in which the Admiral relates his discoveries among the The Mamelukes advanced with the utmost speed and cor der Pyramids twenty centuries behold your actions!" sailer, and kept a-head of the Admiral, she discovered islands, describing the appearance and productions of the responding fury, and charged with horrible yells. They land, and made the signals prescribed by him. This land country, and the condition of the inhabitants. The luxu- disordered one of the French squares of infantry, which was first seen by a sailor named Rodrigo de Triana; the riance of tropical vegetation, abounding in noble trees, would have been sabred in an instant, but that the mass Admiral, however, at ten in the evening, standing on the quarter-deck, saw a light, although it was a thing so in- splendid flowers, and exquisite fruits, and springing from The French had a moment to restore order, and used it. of this fiery militia was a little behind this advanced guard. distinct that he would not affirm it was land; but he called a virgin soil of exhaustless fertility, awakens his admira- The combat then, in some degree, resembled that which, Pero Gutierrez, a gentleman of the king's household, and tion at every step. Nor is he less enchanted with the twenty years afterwards, took place at Waterloo, the hostold him that a light appeared, and that he should observe blandness and suavity of the atmosphere of the new re-tile cavalry furiously charging the squares of infantry, and it, which he did, and saw it. He also mentioned it to gions he was exploring, where the people, the climate, the trying, by the most undaunted efforts of courage, to break Rodrigo Sanchez of Segovia, whom the king sent in the fleet for inspector, who could not see it on account of his riches of the vegetable and mineral kingdoms, all excited dous fire of musketry, grape-shot, and shells, crossing in in upon them at every practicable point, while a tremenstanding in an unsuitable position. After the Admiral his imagination and, drew from him the warmest praises. various directions, repaid their audacity. Nothing in war mentioned it, it was seen once or twice, and resembled a The riches planted in those beautiful islands by the hand was ever seen more desperate than the exertions of the wax candle, moving up and down, which seemed to be an of nature still remain; and the conquerors have increased Mamelukes. Failing to force their horses through the indication of land. But the Admiral felt certain the shore their abundance by transporting thither and naturalizing round, and rein them back on the ranks, that they might was near. Wherefore, when they had said the Salve, which French squares, individuals were seen to wheel them all mariners are accustomed to say or chant in their way, the congenial productions of Asia and Europe. But in disorder them by kicking. As they became frantic with all together, the Admiral desired and admonished them to one other respect how changed is the whole face of things despair, they hurled at the immoveable phalanxes, which keep a good watch from the forecastle, and look well out there! The native races of Guanahani, Cuba, Hayti, they could not break, their pistols, their poinards, and for the land, and that to whomever should first say he saw Jamaica, have vanished like the dew of the morning; their carbines. Those who fell wounded to the ground land, he would forthwith give a silk jacket, beside the and Africa is unpeopled to supply their place. Nothing with their crooked sabres: but their efforts were all in vain. other favours which the sovereigns had promised, which dragged themselves on, to cut at the legs of the French were ten thousand maravedis to the first who should see it. was more deeply impressed on the mind of Columbus At two o'clock A. M. the shore was in sight, two leagues than the perfectly amiable character of the inhabitants. off. They handed all sail, and stood under the square He dwells upon it in the description of every island at sail alone, and lay to until Friday, when they reached one which he touched. At peace among themselves, unarmed, of the Lucayos Islands, which the natives called Guana- and engaged in the tranquil arts of cultivation, they hani.'-Tom. I, p. 18, 20. "Much doubt and uncertainty have existed as to the dreaded nothing but the ruinous descents of the brutal island which Columbus first discovered. He gave it the and ferocious Caribbees. They received the Spaniards name of San Salvador, and it has been generally supposed with unsuspecting confidence, as beings of a higher order, to be the island now called St. Salvador, or Cat Island.descended among them for objects of philanthropy and The position of this island not agreeing perfectly with the

• Colleccion, Tom. II., p. 280.

accomplish their purpose, were finally beaten off with "The Mamelukes, after the most courageous efforts to great slaughter; and, as they could not form, nor act in squadron, their retreat became a confused flight. The greater part attempted to return to their camp, from that tives to retire in the same direction in which they had adsort of instinct (as Napoleon termed it) which leads fugivanced. By taking this route they placed themselves betwixt the French and the Nile; and the sustained and insupportable fire of the former soon obliged them to plunge into the river, in hopes to escape by swimming to the op posite bank,-a desperate effort, in which few succeeded.

Their infantry, at the same time, evacuated their camp, without the least show of resistance, precipitated themelves into the boats, and endeavoured to cross the Nile. Very many of these also were destroyed. The French oldiers long afterwards occupied themselves in fishing for he drowned Mamelukes, and failed not to find money and aluables upon all whom they could recover. Murad Bey, with a part of his best Mamelukes, escaped the slaughter by a more regular rovement to the left, and retreated by Gizeh into Upper Egypt.

advantage, states him to have been the best of masters,
labouring to assist all his domestics wherever it lay in his
power, giving them the highest credit for such talents as
they actually possessed, and imputing, in some instances,
good qualities to such as had them not.

There was gentleness, and even softness, in his charac. ter. He was affected when he rode over the fields of bat. tle, which his ambition had strewed with the dead and the dying, and seemed not only desirous to relieve the victims -issuing for that purpose directions, which too often were Thus were in a great measure destroyed the finest not, and could not be obeyed-but showed himself subject avalry, considered as individual horsemen, that were to the influence of that more acute and imaginative species ver known to exist. Could I have united the Mame of sympathy which is termed sensibility. Ile mentions a uke horse to the French infantry,' said Bonaparte, I circumstance which indicates a deep sense of feeling. As Fould have reckoned myself master of the world. The he passed over a field of battle in Italy, with some of his estruction of a body hitherto regarded as invincible, generals, he saw a houseless dog lying on the body of his truck terror, not through Egypt only, but far into Africa slain master. The creature came towards them, then rend Asia, wherever the Moslem religion prevailed; and turned to the dead body, moaned over it pitifully, and ne rolling fire of musketry by which the victory was seemed to ask their assistance. • Whether it were the feelchieved, procured for Bonaparte the oriental appellationing of the moment,' continued Napoleon, the scene, the f Sultan Kebir, or King of Fire. hour, or the circumstance itself, I was never so deeply "After this combat, which, to render it more striking affected by any thing which I have seen upon a field of o the Parisians, Bonaparte termed the Battle of the battle. That man, I thought, has perhaps had a house, Pyramids,' Cairo surrendered without resistance. The friends, comrades, and here he lies deserted by every one shattered remains of the Mamelukes, who had swam the but his dog. How mysterious are the impressions to Nile, and united under Ibrahim Bey, were compelled to which we are subject! I was in the habit, without emoretreat into Syria. A party of three hundred French tion, of ordering battles which must decide the fate of a avalry ventured to attack them at Salahieh, but were campaign, and could look with a dry eye on the execution severely handled by Ibrahim Bey and his followers, who, of manoeuvres which must be attended with much loss; aving cut many of them to pieces, pursued their retreat and here I was moved-nay, painfully affected-by the without farther interruption. Lower Egypt was com- cries and the grief of a dog. It is certain that at that moletely in the hands of the French, and thus far the ex- ment I should have been more accessible to a suppliant pedition of Bonaparte had been perfectly successful." enemy, and could better understand the conduct of Achilles in restoring the body of Hector to the tears of Priam.' The anecdote at once shows that Napoleon possessed a heart amenable to humane feelings, and that they were usually in total subjection to the stern precepts of military stoicism. It was his common and expressive phrase, that the heart of a politician should be in his head; but his feelings sometimes surprised him in a gentler mood. "A calculator by nature and by habit, Napoleon was fond of order, and a friend to that moral conduct in which order is best exemplified. The libels of the day have made some scandalous averments to the contrary, but without adequate foundation. Napoleon respected himself too much, and understood the value of public opinion too well, to have plunged into general or vague debauchery. "Considering his natural disposition, then, it may be assumed, that if Napoleon had continued in the vale of private life, and no strong temptation of passion or revenge had crossed his path, he must have been generally regarded as one whose friendship was every way desirable, and whose enmity it was not safe to incur.

NAPOLEON'S PERSONAL CHARACTER.

"Arrived at the conclusion of this momentous narative, the reader may be disposed to pause a moment to reflect on the character of that wonderful person, on whom fortune showered so many favours in the beginning and through the middle of his career, to overwhelm its close with such deep and unwonted afflictions.

"The external appearance of Napoleon was not imposing at the first glance, his stature being only five feet Fix inches, English. His person, thin in youth, and Comewhat corpulent in age, was rather delicate than robust in outward appearance, but cast in the mould most capable of enduring privation and fatigue. He rode ungracefully, and without that command of his horse which distinguishes a perfect cavalier; so that he showed to disadvantage when riding beside such a horseman as Murat. But he was fearless, sat firm on his seat, rode with rapidity, and was capable of enduring the exercise for a longer time than most men. We have already mentioned his indif. ference to the quality of his food, and his power of enduring abstinence. A morsel of food, and his flask of wine hung at his saddle-bow, used, in his earlier campaigns, to support him for days. In his latter wars, he more frequently used a carriage; not, as has been surmised, from any particular illness, but from feeling in a frame so constantly in exercise the premature effects of age.

"But the opportunity afforded by the times, and the elasticity of his own great talents, both military and political, raised him with unexampled celerity to a sphere of great power, and at least equal temptation."

THE FALLS OF THE NIAGARA.

(FROM DE ROOS' PERSONAL NARRATIVE.)

The countenance of Napoleon is familiar to almost every one from description, and the portraits which are found everywhere. The dark brown hair bore little marks "I had already seen some of the most celebrated works of the attention of the toilet. The shape of the counte- of nature in different parts of the globe; I had seen Etna bance approached more than is usual in the human race and Vesuvius; I had seen the Andes almost at their so a square. His eyes were gray, and full of expression, greatest elevation; Cape Horn, rugged and bleak, buffeted he pupils rather large, and the eye-brows not very strongly by the southern tempest; and, though last not least, I marked. The brow and upper part of the countenance had seen the long swell of the Pacific; but nothing I had was rather of a stern character. His nose and mouth ever beheld or imagined could compare in grandeur with the ere beautifully formed. The upper lip was very short. Falls of Niagara. My first sensation was that of exqui. The teeth were indifferent, but were little shown in speak-site delight at having before me the greatest wonder of g. His smile possessed uncommon sweetness, and is the world. Strange as it may appear, this feeling was ated to have been irresistible. The complexion was a immediately succeeded by an irresistible melancholy. Had clear olive, otherwise in general colourless. The prevail- this not continued, it might perhaps have been attributed ing character of his countenance was grave, even to to the satiety incident to the complete gratification of melancholy, but without any signs of severity or violence.hope long deferred; but so far from diminishing, the After death, the placidity and dignity of expression which more I gazed, the stronger and deeper the sentiment continued to occupy the features, rendered them eminently became. Yet this scene of sadness was strangely mingled beautiful, and the admiration of all who looked on them. with a kind of intoxicating fascination. Whether the "Such was Napoleon's exterior. His personal and phenomenon is peculiar to Niagara, I know not; but cerprivate character was decidedly amiable, excepting in one tain it is, that the spirits are affected and depressed in a particular. His temper, when he received, or thought he singular manner by the magic influence of this stupendous received, provocation, especially if of a personal character, and eternal fall. was warm and vindictive. He was, however, placable in the case even of his enemies, providing that they submitted to his mercy; but he had not that species of generosity which respects the sincerity of a manly and fair opponent On the other hand, no one was a more liberal rewarder of the attachment of his friends. He was an excellent hustand, a kind relation, and, unless when state policy intered, a most affectionate brother. General Gourgaud, whose communications were not in every case to Napoleon's

"About five miles above the cataract the river expands to the dimensions of a lake, after which it gradually narrows. The Rapids commence at the upper extremity of Goat Island, which is half a mile in length, and divides the river at the point of precipitation into two unequal parts; the largest is distinguished by the several names of the Horseshoe, Crescent, and British Fall, from its semicircular form and contiguity to the Canadian shore. The smaller is named the American Fall. A portion of this

fall is divided by a rock from Goat Island, and though here insignificant in appearance, would rank high among European cascades. The current runs about six miles an hour; but supposing it to be only five miles, the quantity which passes the falls in an hour is more than 85,000,000 of tons avoirdupois: if we suppose it to be six, it will be more than 102,000,000; and in a day would exceed 2,400,000,000 of tons.

"The next morning, with renewed delight, I beheld from my window-I may say, indeed, from my bed-the stupendous vision. The beams of the rising sun shed over it a variety of tints; a cloud of spray was ascending from the crescent; and as I viewed it from above, it appeared like the steam rising from the boiler of some monstrous engine.

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"This evening I went down with one of our party to view the cataract by moonlight. I took my favourite seat on the projecting rock, at a little distance from the brink of the fall, and gazed till every sense seemed absorbed in contemplation. Although the shades of night increased the sublimity of the prospect, and deepened the murmur of the falling floods, the moon in placid beauty shed her soft influence upon the mind, and mitigated the horrors of the scene. The thunders which bellowed from the abyss, and the loveliness of the falling element, which glittered like molten silver in the moonlight, seemed to complete, in absolute perfection, the rare union of the beautiful with the sublime.

"While reflecting upon the inadequacy of language to express the feelings I experienced, or to describe the wonders which I surveyed, an American gentleman, to my great amusement, tapped me on the shoulder, and guessed' that it was pretty droll!' It was difficult to avoid laughing in his face; yet I could not help envying him his vocabulary, which had so eloquently released me from my dilemma."

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"Though earnestly dissuaded from the undertaking, I had determined to employ the first fine morning in visiting the cavern beneath the fall. The guide recommended my companion and myself to set out as early as six o'clock, that we might have the advantage of the morning sun upon the waters. We came to the guide's house at the appointed hour, and disencumbered ourselves of such garments as we did not care to have wetted: descending the circular ladder, we followed the course of the path running along the top of the débris of the precipice, which I have already described. Having pursued this track for about eighty yards, in the course of which we were completely drenched, we found ourselves close to the cataract. Although enveloped in a cloud of spray, we could distinguish without difficulty the direction of our path, and the nature of the cavern we were about to enter. Our guide warned us of the difficulty in respira tion which we should encounter from the spray, and recommended us to look with exclusive attention to the security of our footing. Thus warned we pushed forward, blown about and buffeted by the wind, stunned by the noise, and blinded by the spray. Each successive gust penetrated us to the very bones with cold. Determined to proceed, we toiled and struggled on; and having fol lowed the footsteps of the guide as far as was possible consistently with safety, we sat down, and having collected our senses by degrees, the wonders of the cavern slowly developed themselves. It is impossible to describe the strange unnatural light reflected through its crystal wall, the roar of the waters, and the blasts of the hurried hurricane which perpetually rages in its recesses. endured its fury a sufficient time to form a notion of the shape and dimensions of this dreadful place. The cavern was tolerably light, though the sun was unfortunately enveloped in clouds. His disc was invisible, but we could clearly distinguish his situation through the watery barrier. The fall of the cataract is nearly perpendicular. The bank over which it is precipitated is of a concave form, owing to its upper stratum being composed of lime-stone, and its base of soft slate-stone, which has been eaten away by the constant attrition of the recoiling waters. cavern is about 120 feet in height, 50 in breadth, and 300 in length. The entrance was completely invisible. By screaming in our ears, the guide contrived to explain to us that there was one more point which we might have reached had the wind been in any other direction. Unluckily it blew full upon the sheet of the cataract, and drove it in so as to dash upon the rock over which we must have passed. A few yards beyond this the precipice becomes perpendicular, and, blending with the water, forms the extremity of the cave. After a stay of nearly ten minutes in this most horrible purgatory, we gladly left it to its loathsome inhabitants, the eel and the watersnake, who crawl about its recesses in considerable numbers, and returned to the inn."

We

The

The Kaleidoscope.

PUBLISHERS' ADDRESS,

ON THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE EIGHTH VOLUME
OF THE KALEIDOSCOPE.

This day's publication commences the eighth volume of the New Series of the Kaleidoscope; and our gratitude to our friends for the continued patronage with which they have honoured us, will, we trust, appear by the exertions we shall make to render our work still more worthy of the public approbation. The Index, which we expect to deliver gratuitously with our next number, will be the best advertisement we can put forth to show the varied contents of the seventh volume of the Kaleidoscope. We shall, therefore, here merely recapitulate a few of the original and revived articles which are to be found in our

last volume, and which are alone of considerably greater value than the price which we set upon our

whole annual work.

Monsieur G. Beaujeux, professor of gymnastics at Dublin,
where he superintends a most respectable establishment, is
now on a visit to Liverpool, and purposes to remain
during the long vacation of two or three months. He
wishes to establish a gymnastic school here, and those gen-
tlemen who think proper to patronise the undertaking are
requested to leave their names and address with Mr.
Beaujeux, No. 45, Mount-pleasant.-Mons. B. has a series
of gymnastics particularly applicable to females, and also
and to improve their carriage. It may be necessary to add,
to children, admirably adapted to strengthen their frame,
that Mons. B. is furnished with numerous and most fa-

vourable testimonials as to his professional talent, and the

respectability of his private character. We shall subjoin
two of these, taken indiscriminately, in the hope that they
may promote the object of Mr. Beaujeux's visit to Liver-
pool.

MY DEAR SIR,-I beg leave to introduce to your kind
and favourable attention, Mr. Beaujeux, a French gen-
tleman, formerly an officer in the army of his native country,
who has been for these two years teaching the new system
of Gymnastic Exercises, so much in vogue in London, as

taught by Capt. Clias, under the patronage of the late
Duke of York, and the Duke of Wellington. Mr. Beau-
jeux was some short time assisting Capt. Clias, at Land-
hurst College, if I am not mistaken.

Independent of several hundred original commu nications in prose and verse, upon various subjects, our last volume was illustrated by upwards of fifty engravings on wood; also upwards of fifty prime studies at Chess, taken from the best works on the He was patronised here by Mr. Goulbourn, and taught subject extant; twenty-four pieces of Music are also in his family and in several other private families and comprehended in the volume, and about fifty tales schools; and with much credit at the Royal Military or stories, either original or selected, from the most School in the Phoenix Park. He has given instructions approved modern publications; amongst these is to to my five children, and has been of great use to them in be found the whole of an American novel, called giving strength to their limbs, and an erect and graceful Charlotte Temple, or the Fatal Consequences of Se-carriage. He finds that during the summer season in duction. These, with an original translation of William Tell, and a great variety of scientific literary articles, in French and English-Monthly Lists of Patents, and descriptions of the Fashions, form a mass of amusing and instructive matter not to be found, we believe, in any periodical work of the same price in the kingdom.

TO PERSONS RESIDING IN THE COUNTRY,

Dublin he cannot command the attention of a sufficient
number of scholars to make it worth his while. He is,
land, in hopes of making his system better known, and
therefore, induced to make a short tour through Eng-
appreciated as it deserves, and perhaps obtaining some
scholars. We expect his return very anxiously in Sep-
tember. In addition to his undoubted abilities in teach-
ing the system of gymnastics, I feel much pleasure in
introducing him to you as a perfect gentleman; and, I
hope, that you will have it in your power to introduce him
will induce him to make some stay there. And I am con-
vinced that it will be a valuable acquisition to all the
young people there to obtain the benefit of his instruction.

Where there are no Agents for the Kaleidoscope, and who are so widely among your numerous friends in Liverpool, as

desirous of becoming Subscribers.

In consequence of frequent applications for the Kaleidoscope, from places in the country where we have no agents, we take this opportunity of inform ing those who wish to take the work, that they may be supplied by any bookseller who receives parcels from London. Messrs. Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper, Paternoster row; Mr. Marlborough, Ave-Maria-lane; and Mr. Clerc Smith, St. James's-street, have now a regular stock; and as all the London booksellers are in the habit of supplying each other with the works they respectively publish, an order given to any bookseller will ensure the forwarding of the work to any part of the kingdom. This, of course, is a circuitous mode of supply to some parts of the country, but it is not on that account less regular or certain, as a few days' delay is a circumstance of no consequence with such a work as the Kaleidoscope, which does not contain news. It is necessary to observe, that the Kaleidoscope, being an unstamped work, cannot be sent free through the Postoffice like a newspaper.

GYMNASIA.

"MENS SANA IN CORPORE SANO."

Our townsmen and our townswomen have now an exellent opportunity of acquiring some proficiency in the modern, useful, and fashionable gymnastic exercises, as taught with the greatest success in London and Dublin.

This will, I trust, be a sufficient apology, on my part,
for troubling you with this letter. With my kind re-
spects to all your family at Liverpool and elsewhere, I
remain, my dear Sir, yours, very faithfully,
Dublin, June 4, 1827.

M. WOODMASON.

ANTIQUITIES.

The following communication has been handa by Dr. Albert, and we shall feel obliged if any literary correspondents would favour us with an e tion of the inscription attached.

On a découvert récemment, près de Nismes, un de granit brut représentant un carré, oblong c bassin. Sur l'un de ses cotés on a déchiffré T'ins suivante, que les archéologues n'ont pas encore CEB. Lo. Caes. Tev. NE. AVG. EN. AG. V expliquer :"

The Beauties of Chess.

"Ludimus effigiem belli."—VIDA

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I have had abundant opportunity of witnessing the good effects of the exercises taught by Monsieur Beaujeux, in his Gymnastic school, and have myself practised those exercises with much benefit to my health and bodily LIVERPOOL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY.-We have received a furth strength.

Dublin, June 1, 1827.

ROBERT BELL, M.D.

communication on this subject.

The search we have made hitherto for the manuscript W. R. has been fruitless; but we have no doubt of findi it. Owing to circumstances which we need not state our correspondent, our editorial room has been much d turbed, and many of our papers mislaid. Our corresponde will, we trust, consider this some kind of apology for seeming, but certainly unintended, slight on our parts.

sient glance, that the translation of J. B. R-r will be sui able to our work.

Extraordinary Occurrence.-When the Kent Indiaman was on fire in the Bay of Biscay, Colonel Macgregor, of the 31st regiment, hastily wrote a memorandum of the circumstance, and threw it overboard in a well-corked bottle (previously to the fortunate rescue by the Cambria brig) addressed to his father in Scotland. This officer now be longs to the 93d regiment, stationed at Barbadoes, and THE GERMAN MUSE. We have no doubt, judging by a tra while on a visit to a gentleman's estate on the windward side of that island, in October last, the identical bottle, with the paper in it, was washed ashore there, having, in nineteen months, crossed the Atlantic in a south-west di-w. R-n, of Manchester, is informed that we were not awa rection-Edinburgh Observer. of the liberties taken with his last communication. The were hazarded, no doubt with the best intention, by ou compositors. As for dividing the lines, it was occasione by the length of the line, (fourteen syllables.) We hav often seen this kind of verse so arranged. Chevy Chas bears some analogy to W. R.'s verses, and it is alway printed in the four lines.

The Musical Ropers. At the ropery in Rathbone-street, some of the ropers, who probably helong to one of the Choral Societies, are in the habit of singing in parts, as tey are at work, and the effect, at a little distance, is very pleasing. A few days ago a gentleman passing, observed singers chime in so well in the chords, to which the other his friend that he was surprised to find these itinerant observed, it was quite in the line of ropemakers to produce cords.

Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAY, by
E. SMITH & Co. 75, Lord-street, Liverpool.

OR,

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ar Miscellany, from which all religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles; comprehending LITERATURE, CRITICISM, MEN and 8, AMUSEMENT, elegant EXTRACTS, POETRY, ANECDOTES, Biography, MeteoROLOGY, the Drama, Arts and SCIENCES, WIT and SATIRE, FASHions, Natural HISTORY, &c. forming jome ANNUAL VOLUME, with an INDEX and TITLE-PAGE. Persons in any part of the Kingdom may obtain this Work from London through their respective Booksellers.

$68. Vol. VIII.

The Envestigator.

TUESDAY, JULY 17, 1827.

to maintain themselves at their own expense; and hence arose the frequent commotions and civil wars during the ehending Political Economy, Statistics, Jurispru-earlier periods of the Norman rule. It must be allowed, occasional passages from Parliamentary Speeches from the foregoing statement, that the feudal system placed general nature, occasional Parliamentary Docus, and other speculative subjects, excluding Party a mighty engine in the hands of a proud and turbulent ics.] aristocracy,—an engine which the Monarch could not always resist. But the nobles themselves, by the provisions of the feudal system, were held to be in as great vassalage to the King as the villains were to them. The claims of attendance in war, and attendance in peace, purveyorship, wardship, homage, and service, lay heavy on the nobles when the sceptre was swayed by a vigorous hand; and if the villains groaned under their numerous obligations, the nobles themselves ofttimes felt the weight of vassalage.

(ORIGINAL.)

STORICAL AND CRITICAL INQUIRY INTO THE
IGIN OF THE CONSTITUTION OF ENGLAND.

BY ERASMUS GOWER.

(Continued from our last.)
CHAPTER II.

Je Norman Conquest swept away the Witenagemote,
in its stead instituted the feudal system; a system
sirably adapted to the spirit and circumstances of the
es in which it flourished. As it is my purpose to
ak often of this system, it will be necessary to enter some
it at large into an examination of its merits. When
lliam conquered the Saxons, the French had fully
blished the feudal system, with its long train of ward-
ps, obligations, soccages, tallages, &c. As was naturally
se expected, the Conqueror introduced this system into
gland, and from the introduction of it arose the liberties
England. But it is necessary before I proceed further
enter into an examination of the system itself.

The fierce barbarians, who annihilated the Roman em

PRICE 3ļd

in the district was compelled to furnish provisions suffi-
cient for them, though these provisions could not possibly
be used. To escape this the landowners generally com-
pounded, by paying a large sum of money.
5. The enjoyment of forfeited estates was perhaps the
most lucrative branch of the King's revenue.
Not only
did the Monarch acquire possession of the estates of all
convicted of high treason, but all possessions, whether real
or personal, reverted to the King, provided there was no
regular and legitimate issue to claim them, at the death
of their owner; the claims of all relatives, not sons or
daughters, being held as not legal, unless sanctioned by
the King's order in council.

These were the means by which the King could derive revenue, but these means were at best but casual, and

Thus the feudal system, in its widest extent, placed the were totally inefficient. From causes which will be de

most absolute power in the hands of the Sovereign; but
omission or denial of a right generally acknowledged by
this power was negatived by a strange and unaccountable
all civilized nations, viz. a right on the part of the Sove-
reign to tax his people, in order to defray the expenses of
the state. The feudal system made no provision for the
maintenance of the King's dignity, save what arose from
the following privileges:

1. Private revenue.
2. Voluntary contribution.
3. Wardship.

4. Purveyorship.

5. Forfeited estates.

As it is of the first importance to the present inquiry e, when they had broken in pieces the mighty fabric of that the means and resources of the King should be fully man power, erected on its ruins a strange and incon-understood, it will be necessary to explain th nature

it

the above terms.

of

tailed in the course of the present inquiry, the early Northese means alone, at least they derived no other revenue man Monarchs were enabled to maintain their dignity by from England. But the evil day, though it was procras tinated, did at length come, and the Monarch was reduced to the necessity of applying not only to the nobles but to all the freemen in the country, for a liberal grant of money, in order to enable him to pay his debts and support his dignity. The consequences of this application will be seen in the course of the present inquiry.

But here it is necessary to notice a power which has an important connexion with the present subject, and which possessed considerable influence in the state, from the reign of the Conqueror to the reign of Edward I. This power was the King's council of nobles and prelates. What the exact jurisdiction of the King's council was,

gous system, in which the Roman jurisprudence was termingled with the rude institutions of their native antry. Hence arose the feudal system, with all its glarg defects, modified by its striking advantages to a rude dunpolished people. The first great feature in this stem was the complete and absolute slavery in which ald the common people, or, as they were styled, the Vilins. By the practice of infangthef, the lord had the wer of trying and executing his vassals, without the lat2. The voluntary contributions of the nobles were tardy r having the privilege of appealing for protection to the s of the land; and by the practice of outfangthef, the and inefficient, and in depending upon these, the King ard had the still greater power of trying and executing/rendered himself the slave of their caprices; so that this Kings, held their lands by a more permanent and semeans was a last and most disgraceful resource.

has never been exactly ascertained. It would seem to bear 1. The private revenue of the early Norman Kings was some resemblance to the Saxon Witenagemote, though its ample, and arose from the Saxon nobles. But, in the powers and privileges were much more extensive. The course of time, these estates were bestowed upon the sub-council was composed of the King's vassals, who held jects, either as a mark of attachment, a reward for service, their lands from the Crown, either as a fief, or for suit and or as a bribe for support; so that by the end of the reign of service. All prelates who held lands of the Crown, indeRichard I. little or nothing of these estates remained in pendent of their ecclesiastical estates, were also members of the King's possession, and of course he derived no revenue the council. It will be thought, by a superficial ob

I offenders seized within his jurisdiction, wherever the Hence might have been committed.+ But these powers, hough great, by no means constituted the whole of the privileges enjoyed by the lords of manors, estates, townships, &c. The villains upon an estate were considered the complete and absolute property of their lord, nor could they dispose of themselves in any way without his consent.

from them.

3. By wardship was meant the power which the King
possessed of exercising the office of guardian to all minors
who were heirs, and whose parents were deceased; and in
cases where the minor was a female, the King had the
power of exercising his guardianship during her natural
life; nor could she dispose of herself in marriage without
his consent. These powers the King generally relin-
quished on payment of a sum of money.

Thus, for instance, no vassal could marry without the
sanction of his lord; nor could such sanction be obtained
without a servile obedience to the numerous obligations 4. Purveyorship was perhaps the obligation that was
imposed by the feudal system. No vassal could, without
his lord's permission, leave the estate to which he belonged,
bor could he gather the fruits of his industry until his
lord's claim of soccage and tallage had been satisfied.
The vassals were required to follow their lord in war, and

• Hallam's Middle Ages, &c.
↑ Hallam.

server, that in a council so constituted there could reside
no positive power; but such was not the case. The tur
bulent aristocracy who flourished under the first Norman
cure tenure than suit and service to the Crown, namely,
by their own good swords, and by their warlike depend-
ants.
their Sovereign; and on many a memorable day did they
dictate the terms of reconciliation. Thus the council,
when unanimous, could defy the power of the King, and
their advice and opinions were not to be disregarded with
impunity: but, as before stated, the cases in which they
claimed an interest has never been exactly ascertained;
and whether the council was a permanent body, or only
assembled at distant intervals, is also a doubtful question.
If only the latter, as is most probable, its power could be
but of short duration; nor could its influence be ex-
tensively or permanently beneficial.

In many a bloody field did the nobles defeat

most grievously felt by the nobles, and it was certainly
the one they got the most speedily rid of. By purveyor-
ship was meant the obligations the King's vassals were
under of providing him and his retinue with provisions
But whatever were the exact powers of the council,
and entertainment when he was upon a journey, and this
privilege the King generally exercised to a tyrannous extent. they at length merged into those of a superior and per-
Not only was the host for the time constrained to en-manent assembly, which, called into existence for the pur-
tertain the Sovereign and his retinue, but each landowner pose of administering to the necessities of the Sovereign,

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