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they cast lots in the classroom to see who should have the privilege of describing the tools and processes of a trade depicted in an engraving. Finally, the Philanthropinic plan for teaching the naturalistic religion of deism should be noted. The boys were prepared for learning of the existence of God by having their attention turned to various features and phenomena of nature and being asked what caused them. Then they were kept in the house for four or five days in a darkened room, so that they would be the more impressed with the wonders of creation when they should be released and told of the God whose handiwork it was.1

The Influence of the Philanthropinum

Most visitors to the Philanthropinum were greatly pleased with the institution, especially on account of the interested and alert appearance of the pupils. Kant had such high expectations of its results as to declare in 1777 that it meant "not a slow reform, but a quick revolution," and felt that "by the plan of organization it must of itself throw off all the faults which belong to its beginning." He afterward admitted that he had been too optimistic, but he still felt that the experiment had been well worth while, and had paved the way for better things.

1 This method of religious education was first practiced by Wölke, but it had been suggested by Basedow in the Elementarwerk (Part I, pp. 8790).

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Although it may not have served well for older pupils, it was certainly excellent in its stimulus to children under ten or twelve, who too often are naturally averse to books, and can be captured only by such appeals to the senses and to nature.

Basedow proved temperamentally unfit to direct the institution. He soon left, and began to teach privately in Dessau and write educational works along the lines he had started. Campe, who first superseded him, withdrew within the year to found a similar school at Hamburg. Institutions of the same type sprang up elsewhere, and some of them had a large influence upon education. In 1793 the Philanthropinum at Dessau was closed permanently, and its teachers were scattered through Germany. Such followers as Wölke, Campe, and Salzmann carried on the Philanthropinic movement with great vigor. On account of its popularity it was adopted by a large number of others, who unfortunately were often mountebanks. They prostituted the system to their own ends, and the profession of teaching was often degraded by them into a mere trade. Nevertheless, the Philanthropinum seems not to have been without good results, especially when we consider the educational conditions and the pedagogy of the times. It introduced many new ideas into all parts of Germany and Switzerland, and these were carefully worked out by such reformers as Pestalozzi, Froebel, and Herbart. Hence,

despite his visionary disposition, his intemperance, arool, his irregularity of living, the reformer who first aart tempted to embody the valuable aspects of Rousseau b naturalism in the education of Germany was Basedoweal rather than Pestalozzi, who afterward transformed it and much more successfully. lsc




*BASEDOW, J. B. Elementarwerk and Methodenbuch. CAMPE, J. H. Robinson der Jüngere and Theorophon. SALZMANN, C. G. Conrad Kiefer.


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*BARNARD, H. German Teachers and Educators. Pp. 488-520. *COMPAYRÉ, G. History of Pedagogy. Pp. 414 f.


GARBOVICIANU, P. Die Didaktik Basedows im Vergleiche z
Didaktik des Comenius.







GÖRING, H. Ausgewählte Schriften mit Basedows Biographie.
LANGE, O. H. Basedow: His Educational Work and Principles ed ;
PAYNE, J. Lectures on the History of Education. Pp. 91–96.
PINLOCHE, J. A. Basedow et le Philanthropinisme.
*QUICK, R. H. Educational Reformers. Chap. XV.





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THE happiest educational results of Rousseau came rough Pestalozzi. Rousseau had shattered the eightdrnth-century temple of despotism, privilege, and hypocbuy, but it remained for Pestalozzi to erect a more during structure out of the ruins. It was Pestalozzi at developed the negative and inconsistent naturalism the Emile into a positive attempt to reform corrupt ciety by proper education and a new method of teach






The Earlier Life of Pestalozzi


a But to understand the significance of the experiments,
m‹itings, and principles of this widely beloved reformer,
owe must make a brief study of his life and surroundings.
dehann Heinrich Pestalozzi was born at Zürich in 1746...
Phrough the death of his father, he was brought up from
rerly childhood almost altogether by his mother. She
diɩs a woman of great unselfishness and genuine piety,
mad her training had a lasting influence upon his educa-
lapnal ideals. From this experience in great measure
foust have come his later ideas that the home, as a center

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love and coöperation, should be a model for the school 1 that education should include a training of the heart d hand, as well as of the head, if the race were to be jenerated. Mothers he certainly held to be the ideal ended chers, and to them he ever directed his counsel and portations. Yet to the maternal guidance must alsc чум ascribed his extraordinary sensibility, imaginativeto see S, and unpracticality.

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Another strong influence upon his life was that of his
ndfather, pastor in a neighboring village. Throughty-two
its with him to the poor, sick, and distressed of the of a
ish, young Pestalozzi became acquainted with the for-
gradation and suffering of the peasants and resolved onvent
relieve and elevate them. Naturally he first turned1nz.
the ministry as being the best way to accomplish this
t he broke down in his trial sermon, and gave up the
pe of entering this profession. He then turned to the
dy of law, with the idea of defending the rights of hi
>ple. In this, too, he was destined to be balked;
angely enough, through the influence of Rousseau.
common with several other students of the University
Zürich, he was greatly impressed by the Social Con-
ct and the Emile, which had recently appeared, and
oming involved with the rest in a radical criticism of
government, he saw his dreams of public office and
ful legislation disappear in thin air.

Pestalozzi, accordingly, abandoned his legal career.

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