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Pestalozzi's industrial education was introduced by Woodbridge and Miss Carpenter, and by the institution of special types of colleges and schools.

Thus was established the first normal school in the United States, where object lessons were the chief feature, and where classes were conducted by model teachers and practice teaching afforded under the supervision of critic teachers. The excellent teachers graduated from this institution caused the Oswego methods to be widely known throughout the country. A large number of other normal schools upon the same basis sprang up rapidly in many states, and the Oswego methods crept into the training schools and the public system of numerous cities. As a consequence, during the third quarter of the nineteenth century, Pestalozzianism had a prevailing influence upon the teachers and courses of the elementary schools in the United States.

The industrial phases of Pestalozzi's and Fellenberg's work, however, were slower in coming into the United States than into most of the European countries. They were given publicity through the descriptions of William C. Woodbridge in the American Journal of Education and the American Annals of Education in 1831-1832, after his visit to Hofwyl, and through articles by others on the subject, and were rapidly introduced into various types of schools. It was not, however, until 1873, with the visit of Miss Mary Carpenter, the English prison reformer, that the 'contract labor' of the reformatories began to be replaced with farming, gardening, and kindred domestic industries. But in the second quarter

of the nineteenth century a very large number of institutions of secondary or higher grade with manual labor features, in addition to the literary work, sprang into existence in the United States. The students were thus enabled to obtain exercise and self-support throughout their course. Little attention was given to the pedagogical principles underlying this work, however, and as material conditions improved and formal social life developed, the industrial work of most of these institutions was given up. Further, such schools as Carlisle, Hampton, and Tuskegee adopted industrial training for some special type of education, and the work has also been largely used in the education of defectives. Within the last decade there has been a growing tendency to employ industrial training for the sake of holding pupils longer in school and increasing the efficiency of the public system. In so far as this has tended to replace the more general educational values of manual training, once so popular, with skill in some special industrial process, this modern movement represents a return to Pestalozzi.

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NEEF, F. J. N. Sketch of a Plan and Method of Education and The Method of Instructing Children Rationally in the Arts of Reading and Writing.

1 For a more complete bibliography of Pestalozzian literature, see Barnard, Pestalozzi and his Educational System, pp. 167-184.

*PESTALOZZI, J. H. The Evening Hour of a Hermit, Letters on Early Education,1 Leonard and Gertrude, and How Gertrude Teaches Her Children.


BACHMAN, F. P. The Social Factor in Pestalozzi's Theory of Education (Education, Vol. XXII, pp. 402-414).

*GUIMPS, R. DE. Pestalozzi, His Aim and Work. (Translated

by Crombie.)

HAMILTON, C. J. Henri Pestalozzi (Educational Review, Vol. III, pp. 173-184).

HERISSON, F. Pestalozzi, élève de J. J. Rousseau.

*HOLMAN, H. Pestalozzi.

HOYT, C. O. Studies in the History of Modern Education. Chap.


KELLOGG, A. M. Life of Pestalozzi.

*KRUSI, H. Pestalozzi, His Life, Work, and Influence.

MISAWA, T. Modern Educators and Their Ideals. Chap. VI. MONROE, W. S. Joseph Neef and Pestalozzianism in the United States (Education, Vol. XIV, pp. 449-461).

MORF, H. Zur Biographie Pestalozzi's.

MUNROE, J. P. The Educational Ideal. Pp. 179–187. PAYNE, J. Lectures on the History of Education. Lect. IX. *PINLOCHE, A. Pestalozzi and the Foundation of the Modern Ele

mentary School.

*QUICK, R. H. Educational Reformers. Pp. 354-383. The Oswego Movement.


1 A series of letters written in 1818-1820 to J. P. Greaves, an Englishman who had taught at Yverdun for a time and then returned






the teacher

A MOST elaborate development of Pestalozzi's prin- Herbart deciples was that introduced by Herbart. This great Pestalozzi's educationalist was first inspired by the Swiss reformer, elaborately, but his careful training and his keen philosophical in- emphasizing sight caused him to work out more clearly and definitely and method. the 'observation' and the pedagogical devices of his homely master until they formed a well-rounded system. He stressed the educational process from the standpoint of the teacher, and paid the most minute attention to method. He is the first example of the philosopher and psychologist in education. His contemporary, Froebel, was an immediate pupil and colleague of Pestalozzi, and probably owed more to his influence. He, however, lacked the complete philosophic insight and training of Herbart, and never became quite as clear and systematic, or paid such minute attention to method.

The Early Career and Writings of Herbart


Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) both by birth Herbart's and education possessed a remarkable mind and was were all inwell calculated to become a profound educational philosopher. All his traditions were intellectual. His still in the


and while

and univer

sity he



gymnasium paternal grandfather was rector of the gymnasium at Oldenburg, Herbart's native town, and his father was distinguished a lawyer and privy councilor there. Moreover, the mother of Herbart is known to have been 'a rare and wonderful woman,' who was able to assist her son in his Greek and mathematics, and to do much toward directing his education. While still a youth in the gymnasium, Herbart showed that he himself possessed that 'many-sided and balanced interest' he afterward commended, and soon distinguished himself by writing essays upon moral freedom and other metaphysical subjects. At the University of Jena, under the inspiration of Fichte, he produced incisive critiques upon the treatises of that philosopher and of the other great idealist of the age, Schelling, and began to work out his own system of thought. Just before graduation, how

As a private ever, Herbart left the university to become private tutor to the three sons of Herr von Steiger-Reggisberg, Gov

tutor he obtained his only practical


experience in ernor of Interlaken, Switzerland. During the two years (1797-1799) that he occupied this position, he obtained his only real practical experience in pedagogy. He was required by his patron to make bi-monthly a written report of the methods he used and of his pupils' progress in their studies and conduct. Five of these letters are still extant, and reveal the germs of the elaborate system that was afterward to bear the name of Herbart. The youthful pedagogue seems thus early to have based his

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