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*FROEBEL, F. W. A., Autobiography (translated by Michaelis and Moore); Education by Development (translated by Jarvis); Education of Man (translated by Hailmann); Letters (edited by Heinemann); Letters on the Kindergarten (translated by Poesche, and edited by Michaelis and Moore); Mother Songs, Games, and Stories (translated by F. and E. Lord); Mottoes and Commentaries of Mother Play (translated by Eliot and Blow); Pedagogics of the Kindergarten (translated by Jarvis); Songs and Music of Mother Play (translated by Blow). LANGE, W. Froebel's Gesammelte Pädagogische Schriften (three volumes) and Reminiscences of Froebel (American Journal of Education, Vol. XXX, pp. 833-845).
*MARENHOLTZ-BÜLOW, BERTHE M. von. Reminiscences of Friedrich
SEIDEL, F. Froebel's Mutter- und Kose-Lieder.
*BARNARD, H. (Editor). Kindergarten and Child Culture. *BLOW, SUSAN E. Educational Issues in the Kindergarten, Kinder
garten Education (Monographs on Education in the United States, edited by N. M. Butler, No. I), Letters to a Mother, and Symbolic Education.
BOARDMAN, J. H. Educational Ideas of Froebel and Pestalozzi. *BOWEN, H. C. Froebel and Education by Self-activity.
1 For further references to the Froebelian literature, consult Bowen, Froebel, pp. 197-204; Cubberley, Syllabus in the History of Education, pp. 273 f.; and Monroe, Syllabus in the History and Principles of Education (edition of 1911), pp. 66 ff.
BUCHNER, E. F. Froebel from a Psychological Standpoint (Education, Vol. XV, pp. 105-113 and 169-173).
BUTLER, N. M. Some Criticisms of the Kindergarten (Educational Review, Vol. XVIII, pp. 285-291).
COLE, P. R. Herbart and Froebel: an Attempt at Synthesis. *COMPAYRÉ, G. History of Pedagogy. (Translated by Payne.)
EUCKEN, R. The Philosophy of Froebel (The Forum, Vol. XXX, pp. 172 ff.).
GOLDAMMER, H. The Kindergarten. (Translated by Wright.) *HAILMANN, W. N. Kindergarten Culture.
HANSCHMANN, A. B. The Kindergarten System.
HARRISON, ELIZABETH A. A Study of Child Nature.
HOPKINS, LOUISA P. The Spirit of the New Education.
*KRAUS-BÖLTE, MARIA, and KRAUS, J. The Kindergarten Guide. Two volumes.
MACVANNEL, J. A. Educational Theories of Herbart and Froebel and The Philosophy of Froebel (Teachers College Record, Vol. IV, pp. 335-377).
MARENHOLTZ-BÜLOW, BERTHE M. VON. The Child and Child
MEIKLEJOHN, J. M. D. The New Education.
MUNROE, J. P. The Educational Ideal Chap. VIII. *PAYNE, J. Froebel and the Kindergarten.
*PEABODY, ELIZABETH P. Education in the Home, the Kindergarten, and the Primary School and Lectures in the Training Schools for Kindergartners.
POLLOCK, LOUISE. National Kindergarten Manual.
*QUICK, R. H. Educational Reformers. Chap. XVII.
SCHAEFFER, MARY F. A Cycle of Work in the Kindergarten. SHIRREFF, EMILY. A Short Sketch of the Life of Friedrich Froebel and The Kindergarten System.
SNIDER, D. J. Froebel's Mother Play Songs, The Life of Froebel, and The Psychology of Froebel's Play Gifts.
THORNDIKE, E. L. The Psychology of the Kindergarten (Teachers College Record, pp. 377-408).
WEAVER, EMILY A. Paper and Scissors in the Schoolroom.
*WHITE, JESSIE. The Educational Ideas of Froebel,
WIGGIN, KATE D. Children's Rights.
WIGGIN, KATE D. (Editor). The Kindergarten,
WIGGIN, KATE D., and SMITH, NORA A. Froebel's Gifts, Froebel's Occupations, Kindergarten Principles and Practice, and The Republic of Childhood.
LANCASTER AND BELL, AND THE MONITORIAL
IN 1798, an English Quaker, but twenty years of age, opened a novel type of school for the children of the poor in Southwark, London. The youthful teacher, whose name was Joseph Lancaster (1778-1838), had come to feel that "the want of system and order is almost uniform in every class of schools within the reach of the poor." He declared, "there is little encouragement for masters, parents, and scholars; and while this is the case, it is no wonder that ignorance prevails among the poor." That this illiteracy and lack of organization might be overcome, he began himself to educate as many of the barefoot and unkempt children of the district as he could. His schoolroom was soon crowded with a hundred or more pupils, and, in order to teach them all, he used the older scholars as assistants. He taught the lesson first to these 'monitors,' and they in turn imparted it to the others, who were divided into equal groups. Each monitor cared for a single group.
the poor in
The work was very successful from the first, and Lancas
his Improve- ter called further attention to it in 1803 by an account
he published under the title of Improvements in Education system to be as it respects the Industrious Classes of the Community. The school was twice enlarged by persons of wealth; many of the nobility and aristocracy came to visit the institution; and the king summoned Lancaster for an interview, and made a generous contribution for his work. A training school was soon opened to spread this system among other teachers, and Lancaster began to lecture on his methods throughout England and to establish 'monitorial' schools everywhere. It was generally believed that the problem of national education had at length been solved, and that an effective means had been found for educating everyone with little cost. Lancaster, Institution' however, proved most reckless, and his venture had by
'The Royal Lancasterian
was founded to continue his work; but Lancaster soon left England, and the asso
1808 plunged him into debt to the extent of six thousand pounds. Having rescued him from the debtors' prison, certain philanthropic men of means in that year founded 'The Royal Lancasterian Institution,' to continue the work on a practical basis. But within half a dozen years, Lancaster, who seems never to have been able to get along with people, withdrew from the association and started a school of his own. A few years later he left England
as 'The Brit
ish and Foreign Society.'
Success of Monitorialism, and the Formation of the 'British and Foreign' and the 'National' Societies