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real things. This he accomplished through a series of textbooks that were a great advance over anything previously produced. Thus he greatly contributed to make education more effective, interesting, pleasant, and natural.


had little in

fluence upon


schools, except through


However, for nearly two centuries Comenius had but little direct effect upon the schools, except for his language methods and his texts. The Janua was translated into a dozen European, and at least three Asiatic, his language languages; the Orbis Pictus proved even more popular, and went through an almost unlimited number of editions in various tongues; and the whole series became for many generations the favorite means of introducing young people to the study of Latin. But until about half a century ago, the work of Comenius as a whole had purely an historical interest, and was known almost solely through the Orbis Pictus. The great reformer was viewed as a fanatic, especially as the pansophic ideal turned out to be of only ephemeral interest. Humanism was too thoroughly intrenched to give way at once to realism.

Nevertheless, the principles of Comenius were unconsciously taken up by others and have become the basis of modern education. Francke was anticipated by Comenius in suggesting a curriculum that would fit one for life; before Rousseau, Comenius intimated that the school system should be adapted to the child rather than


but his prin

ciples have

become the


of modern


and have in






the child to the system; Basedow largely modeled his Herbart, and encyclopædic content and natural method after the Orbis Pictus; Pestalozzi revived the universal education, love of the child, and object teaching that appear in the works of the old bishop; Herbart's emphasis upon character and upon scientific method and curriculum seem like an echo of Comenius; while the kindergarten, 'self-activity,' and play, suggested by Froebel, had been previously outlined by the Moravian. Hence it happened that in the middle of the nineteenth century, when the works of Comenius were once more brought to light by German investigators, it was discovered that the old realist of the seventeenth century had been the first to deal with education in a scientific spirit, and work out its problems practically in the schools. His evidently was the clearest of visions and broadest of intellects. While it is easy to criticize him now, in the light of history Comenius is a most important individual in the development of modern education.




*COMENIUS, J. A. Great Didactic (translated by M. W. Keatinge), Orbis Pictus (reprint of C. W. Bardeen), and School of Infancy (translated by W. S. Monroe).


Pioneers of Modern Education. Chaps. III-V. American Journal of Education. Vol. V, pp. 257

BARNARD, H. German Teachers and Educators. Pp. 347-388. BROWNING, O. Educational Theories. Chap. IV.

*BUTLER, N. M. The Place of Comenius in the History of Educa

Chap. IV.

Chap. X.


COMPAYRÉ, G. History of Pedagogy. Pp. 122-137.
DAVIDSON, T. History of Education. Pp. 193-197.

*HANUS, P. H. The Permanent Influence of Comenius. (Educational Aims and Values, VIII.)

LAURIE, S. S. Educational Opinion since the Renaissance. Chap.


*LAURIE, S. S. John Amos Comenius.

*MONROE, W. S. Comenius and the Beginnings of Educational Reform.

MUNROE, J. P. The Educational Ideal. *QUICK, R. H. Educational Reformers.

Locke's theories should be

estimated by of the Under

his Conduct

standing, rather than by his

Thoughts concerning Education.



THE educational position of John Locke (1632-1704) is usually misinterpreted. The general estimate of his theory is taken from his work entitled Some Thoughts concerning Education. This treatise grew out of his experience as a private tutor in the family of the Earl of Shaftesbury, and consists of a set of practical suggestions for the education of a gentleman, rather than a scholar. The recommendations contained in the Thoughts are consequently somewhat at variance with the underlying principles of Locke's philosophy, as given in his famous Essay concerning the Human Understanding, and with the intellectual training suggested in his other educational work, Conduct of the Understanding, which was originally an additional book and an application of the Essay.

Locke as a 'Humanistic '- Social' Realist

In the Thoughts he appears to be

If the Thoughts alone is read, Locke will naturally be considered in the main a 'humanistic'-'social' realist, 'humanistic' like Montaigne, but also as leaning somewhat toward 'social' the 'sense realism' of Comenius. Like Montaigne,

mainly a


Locke holds that book education and intellectual training are of less importance than the development of character and polish. After treating bodily education at considerable length, he states the aims of education in the order of their value as "Virtue, Wisdom (i.e. worldly wisdom), Breeding, and Learning," and later adds:

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made of the first importance in edu


"Learning must be had, but in the second place, as subservient Character is only to greater Qualities. Seek out somebody that may know how discreetly to frame his Manners: Place him in Hands where you may, as much as possible, secure his Innocence, cherish and nurse up the good, and gently correct and weed out any bad Inclinations, and settle in him good Habits. This is the main Point, and this provided for, Learning may be had into the Bargain."

The proper



through a tutor rather

Such a training, Locke agrees with Montaigne, can be secured only through personal attention, and the young gentleman should be given a tutor when his father cannot properly look after his training. Likewise, he feels than schools. that, "to form a young Gentleman as he should be, 'tis fit his Governor should himself be well-bred, understanding the Ways of Carriage and Measures of Civility in all the variety of Persons, Times, and Places; and keep his Pupil, as much as his Age requires, constantly to the Observation of them." This private training is infinitely to be preferred, Locke holds, to that "from such a troop of Play-fellows as schools usually assemble from Parents of all kinds." Locke also believes, with Mon

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