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although strenuous efforts have been made by the scientists and others to meet this argument by pointing out the 'formal discipline' in their own favorite studies.

The effect of formal dis

cipline upon

the English

grammar and schools, and


the univer

sities; the

This principle of formal discipline has had a tremendous effect upon each stage of education in practically every country and during every period almost up to the last decade, when a decided reaction began.2 The formal classicism of the English grammar and public schools and universities, and of the German Gymnasien, afford and the high excellent examples of the influence of this doctrine. While in the United States a newer and more flexible society has enabled changes to be more readily made, but a quarter of a century ago Greek, Latin, and mathematics made up most of the course in high schools, colleges, and universities, and until very recently the effete portion of arithmetic and the husks of formal

schools, colleges, and universities in the



1 See Proceedings of the International Congress of Charities, 1893, Section VII, where E. B. Andrews makes this argument even for the study of Sociology.

2 See Adams, Herbartian Psychology, Chap. V; Bagley, Educative Process, Chaps. XIII-XIV; Heck, Mental Discipline; Horne, Training of the Will (School Review, XIII, pp. 616-628); O'Shea, Education as Adjustment, Chaps. XIII and XIV; Thorndike, Educational Psychology, Chap. VIII; Wardlow, Is Mental Discipline a Myth? (Educational Review, XXXV, pp. 22-32). Read also the more recent investigations, which tend to show that we have reacted too far. See the contributions of Angell, Pillsbury, Judd, and Ruediger in Educational Review, XXXVI, pp. 1-43, and 364-372, and Winch in the British Journal of Psychology, Vol. II, pp. 284-293.

grammar were defended in our elementary education upon the score of 'formal discipline.' But, with the growth of science, the abandonment of the 'faculty'1 psychology and the development of educational theory, the curriculum has everywhere been broadened, and the content of studies rather than the process of acquisition has come to be emphasized.



It should, however, be recognized that Locke did not defend, but vigorously assailed, the grammatical and linguistic grind in the English public schools. attitude toward formal discipline sprang from his desire to root out the traditional and false, rather than to port the narrow humanistic curricula of the times. His philosophy and educational doctrines grew out of his purpose to aid the cause of liberty and reason, and his esteem for mathematics as an intellectual training shows his connection with Descartes. It was, moreover, his doctrine that, developed to an extreme, eventuated in the destructive philosophy of the French rationalists and the skepticism of Hume. While, therefore, Locke's imagery of the tabula rasa and his disciplinary theory

1 See Graves, History of Education before the Middle Ages, pp. 196 and 213, for the origin and meaning of the 'faculty' psychology.

2 Locke had first been stimulated by Descartes, who was reacting from his Jesuit traditions. The effort to strip off preconceived opinions is similar in both, and while Locke rejects the 'innate ideas,' to whose certainty Descartes holds, he also believes in mathematics as the best means of disciplining the mind and of getting rid of the false.


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have had an influence far beyond his times, it can hardly be supposed that he took that position in conscious support of the conservative formal education of the English schools. He was in this, as in all his positions, a radical and a rationalist.



*LOCKE, JOHN. Some Thoughts concerning Education (edited by Quick); Conduct of the Understanding (edited by Fowler).


BARNARD, H. American Journal of Education. Vol. V, pp. 209



*FOWLER, T. Locke (English Men of Letters Series).

FRAZER, A. C. Locke.

*LAURIE, S. S. Educational Opinion since the Renaissance.

Chaps. XIII-XV.

History of Educational Theories. Chap. VII.
History of Pedagogy. Pp. 194-211.
History of Education. Pp. 197-208.

MUNROE, J. P. The Educational Ideal. Chap. V.
*QUICK, R. H. Educational Reformers. Chap. XIII.



CORRESPONDING to the development of Puritanism in England, a great religious revival also began in Germany toward the close of the seventeenth century. In the midst of the formalism into which Lutheranism had fallen, there arose a set of theologians who were convinced of the need of moral and religious reform, and desired to make religion a matter of life rather than of creed.

Spener and Francke

Among their number early appeared Philipp Jakob Spener (1635-1705), a pastor in Frankfurt, who instituted at his home a series of so-called collegia pietatis ('religious assemblies'), in which were formulated propositions of reform. The views here represented seem to have been borrowed largely from Puritan writers. They did not advocate any new doctrine, but simply subordinated orthodoxy to spiritual religion and practical morality. The movement spread rapidly, and made a great impression throughout Germany. The old orthodox theologians and pastors were grievously offended, and,

Spener and

the rise of




and early


Through his pastorate at

Glaucha, he

was led to found an

from the name of the gatherings, the reformers became known in reproach as Pietists.1

From the standpoint of education, however, the most important Pietist was August Hermann Francke (1663– 1727). Francke received an excellent education at the Gotha gymnasium, where he became acquainted with the reforms of Ratich and Comenius, and at the universities of Erfurt, Kiel, and Leipzig, in which he studied theology and the languages, especially Greek and Hebrew. He first came into notice at Leipzig, where he had become a Privatdocent,2 by starting a Pietist society for careful discussion and pious application of the Scriptures. His attitude aroused the ill-will of the older professors and caused his dismissal. After a brief but stormy career as a preacher at Erfurt and as a teacher at Hamburg, he assisted in founding the University of Halle, which became the center from which Pietism was diffused throughout Germany.

Organization of Francke's Institutions

Here in 1692 Francke became a professor of the Greek and Hebrew languages, but was afterward transferred to his favorite subject of theology. To make ends meet,

1 Like the names Puritan and Methodist, however, it was afterward lopted as a term of honor.

2 In the German universities a Privatdocent is not, like a professor, in receipt of a regular salary, but is given a percentage of the fees of the students that attend his lectures.

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