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The 'mod

ern' studies have influ

of the institutions, at the death of Francke in 1727 there were already in the elementary schools some seventeen hundred and twenty-five pupils of both sexes, in the orphanage were maintained one hundred boys and thirtyfour girls, while the Pädagogium had eighty-two, and the Schola Latina four hundred boys, and two hundred and fifty students boarded at the 'free table.'

These institutions have since been increased in number, and there are now some twenty-five enterprises conducted in a large group of structures built about a double court. Among the additions are a printing plant and bindery, a bookstore, a Bible house, a drug store and dispensary, and a home for women, as well as a Realgymnasium1 and a Vorschule. Through these institutions more than four thousand persons are being provided with the means of an education or livelihood, and many good causes are advanced. Over one million marks ($250,000), coming from the endowment, state appropriations, tuition fees, and profits upon the enterprises, are expended each year in maintaining the institutions.


This work of Francke has had a great influence upon German education in several directions. The 'modern'

1 A compromise between the Gymnasium and the Realschule, which has been quite common in Germany, but is now disappearing.

2 A preparatory school for the secondary schools, attended by children between six and nine.

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studies of the Pädagogium and Schola Latina have been a model for Prussia and all Protestant Germany, and have somewhat affected the curricula of the Gymnasien. The Realschule of Semler was brought in a slightly modified form to Berlin by Hecker, one of the teachers in the Pädagogium. From the capital it spread gradually throughout Prussia, until it was taken into the public system, and is to-day one of the most important features. The seminary, or training school for teachers, has been adopted by practically every one of the German states. Further, since in the various schools of Francke were realized the chief ideals of most educational reformers up to that time, Germany was thereby given a concrete example of what it might best strive to imitate. Again, by means of teachers trained in his system at the seminary, all Germany has been leavened with the spirit of All Germany the great Pietist.

has been leavened.

As to Pietism itself, however, while originally a protest against creed and ceremonial, in later years it lost much of its living power and deteriorated into a formalism in religious life and thought. It magnified even the smallest of daily doings into expressions of piety, and became, like Puritanism, pervaded with affectation and cant. To a great extent its schools, with their spiritual purpose and content, then lapsed into merely inefficient classes in formal catechism, and all hold upon real living was lost. The religious revival of Spener and the edu

enced the


sien'; the


has spread


Prussia; and

the 'Semina

rium' has

been adopted

by practi

cally all the

German states.

But Pietism

itself became crystallized and fixed.

cational impulse of Francke had become crystallized and fixed.



KRAMER, G. (Editor). A. H. Francke's Pädagogische Schriften. RICHTER, A. August Hermann Francke, Kurzer und Einfältiger Unterricht (Pt. X of Neudrücke Pädagogischer Schriften).


*ADAMSON, J. W. Pioneers of Modern Education. Chap. XIII. COMPAYRÉ, G. History of Pedagogy. P. 414. FRANCKE, K. German Literature as Determined by Social Forces.

Pp. 175-176.

KRAMER, G. August Hermann Francke; ein Lebensbild and Francke und seine Stiftungen in Halle (A. H. Francke's Pädagogische Schriften, Introduction).

NOHLE, E. History of the German School System. (Report of the United States Commissioner of Education. 1897-1898, pp. 49


Educational Reformers. Chap. XIII.
German Higher Schools. Pp. 63-65.
History of Modern Education. Pp. 259-272.



THE inconsistencies and contradictions of Rousseau are almost proverbial. But in his antecedents and career can be found a ready explanation for the positions of this most illogical writer. The theories of no man are more clearly a product of his heredity, experience, and times, and, thanks to his own mercilessly frank Confessions,1 there are few instances in history where the life and environment of any other personage are known in so much detail.

The Life, Training, and Times of Rousseau

age and

training of

tended to

Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778) was born of upper- The parentclass parentage in the simple Protestant city of Geneva. His father, a watchmaker, was descended from a Parisian Rousseau family, and inherited much of the romanticism, mercurial make him emotional, temperament, and love of pleasure of his forbears. The imaginative, mother of Rousseau, too, although the daughter of a cious. clergyman, was of a morbid and sentimental disposition.

and preco

1 The Confessions carry his life from early childhood up to his expulsion from the Ile de Saint Pierre and his preparation to go to Hume. See p. 104. We are largely dependent upon the Reveries and Letters for the rest of his biography.


She died at the birth of Jean Jacques, and the child was brought up by an indulgent aunt, who made little attempt to correct his pilfering and lying, and utterly failed to instil in him any real moral principles. This general tendency toward a want of self-control was further increased by the careless attitude of his father. While the boy was but six, the elder Rousseau sat up with him night after night until daylight reading the silliest and most sensational of romances from the extensive collection left by his wife. Thus were nurtured within the child an extreme emotionality, imaginativeness, and precocity. After a year or so the novels were exhausted, and Rousseau was forced to turn for material to the more sensible library of his grandfather, the preacher. The works the child found here, such as the Parallel Lives of Plutarch and the standard histories of the day, made quite as profound an impression upon his character. They contributed to his sense of heroism and what he afterward termed "that republican spirit and love of liberty, that haughty and invincible turn of mind, which rendered me impatient of restraint." His want of control may in this way have first come to turn itself toward revolution and the destruction of existing society.

His environment culti

The two years following this period Jean Jacques

vated a love spent in the village of Bossey, just outside Geneva, where

of nature, and the theory that

he had been sent with a cousin of about the same age to be educated. Here his love of nature, which had already

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