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obtained charters from Edward I., as did the weavers a confirmation of their early grants. In the statute 28 Edward I., the wardens of the craft of Goldsmiths are also mentioned.
In a dispute in this reign between the weavers and the burillers, mention is made of the Alderman of the Burillers, "who," says Mr. Herbert, "must have been nearly the last head of a trade gild who then retained that title, as all the wards had had their respective aldermen sometime before, and who at first had not only a proprietory title to their soke or ward, but such wards changed names as they changed. This right of proprietory of the alderman to his soke or ward in London, if it were even more than partial, was certainly of short duration, as we find it wrested from them in the succeeding reign of Edward II.; the citizens being then declared to have the power of annually electing the alderman who was to preside over them. Mr. Norton (Comment. on Lond., 122) thinks 'it probably arose with the introduction of the feudal system, and expired with the grant of those exemptions from it, secured to the citizens by their early charters-the establishment of a community, and the election of their own magistrates.' He adds, but
that these sokes did actually belong to the aldermen or barons as heritable property, is too clear to admit of a doubt.' Farringdon ward, the aldermanry of which was bought by William Faryngdon, goldsmith (1279), remained in that citizen's family upwards of 80 years. It was held by the tenure of presenting a gillyflower at Easter, which was then a flower of great rarity." The district and franchise, or soke, of the ward of Portsoken (the franchise at the gate) having been granted by the gild (who had been erected by King Edgar, and chartered by Edward the Confessor) to Trinity Priory, the prior became the territorial lord, or alderman of Portsoken ward, and was seen by Stow, who was born in 1545, riding in procession with the mayor and his brethren the aldermen, "only distinguished from them by the colour of his gown, they wearing scarlet, and he, as an ecclesiastic, purple."
There is evidence that the city authorities exercised jurisdiction over the companies before the latter were admitted to any exclusive monopoly of municipal rights, but such monopoly soon followed, for with Edward II. Mr. Norton observes "we discern the first authentic mention of the mercantile nature of the civic constitution of London, and of the mercantile qualification requisite in the candidates for admission to the freedom of the city. By one of a number of articles of regulation, ordained by the citizens for their internal government, which articles were confirmed by the king, and incorporated into a charter, it was provided that no person, whether an inhabitant of the city or otherwise, should be admitted into the civic freedom, unless he was a member of one of the trades or mysteries, or unless with the full consent of the whole community convened; only that apprentices might still be admitted according to the established form. Before this, no mention occurs of any mercantile qualification to entitle the householder to his admission to the corporation."
The reign of Edward III., the great dawn of the fine arts and of commerce, gave birth to an entire re-constitution of the trading fraternities, which, from now generally assuming a distinctive dress, or livery, came to be called Livery Companies. The alterations under this re-constitution were numerous. Amongst the principal may be reckoned their change of name from gilds to crafts and mysteries, and the substituting for the old title of alderman that of master or warden; the name alderman being now restricted to the head of the city ward. A more important change for the interest of the companies was their being at this time first generally chartered, or having those privileges confirmed by letters patent which they had before only exercised through sufferance and the payment of their fermes.
The chartering of the gilds by Edward III. was not that monarch's only favour to them. Having found that these fraternities were the mainspring of the trade of his kingdom, and having thus given them stability, he determined also to raise them in public estimation. As this could not be better done than by setting an example which would be followed by his courtiers, he became himself a brother of one of these societies. The Linen Armourers were then great importers of woollen cloth, which the king sought to make the staple manufacture of England, and were the first company who had the honour to boast a Sovereign amongst their members, in the person of this monarch. Richard II. afterwards became a brother of the same company; and the great, both clergy and laity, as well as principal citizens, dazzled with the splendour of such associates, hastened in both reigns to be enrolled as tradesmen in the fraternities.
*Commentaries on London.
The public records afford us the earliest notice of the companies on their being chartered. By a petition from the Commons in Parliament, printed amongst their rolls, we learn that before the 36th of Edward III., certain wholesale merchants had formed themselves into a gild, which had become so great and monopolous as to threaten ruin to the numerous other fraternities that had now sprung up. This gild, or company, was no other than the grocers, now the second of the great companies, and the etymon of whose name we find explained by this document. The petitioner complains
"That great mischief has newly arisen, as well to the king as to the great men and commons, from the merchants called grocers (grossers), who engrossed all manner of merchandize vendible, and who suddenly raised the prices of such merchandize within the realm; putting to sale by covin, and by ordinances made amongst themselves in their own society, which they call the fraternity and gild of merchants, such merchandizes as were most dear, and keeping in store the others until times of dearth and scarcity.
The remedy suggested by the petitioners," Anderson observes, "would be thought a very unreasonable one in our day. It is, 'that merchants shall deal in or use but one kind or sort of merchandize,' and that every merchant hereafter shall choose which kind of wares or merchandize he will deal in, and he shall deal in
"The act 37 Edward III. c. 5., which passed in consequence of this petition, (and which was, as far as related to merchants, repealed the next year,) ordains,
"That all artificers and people of mysteries shall each choose his own mystery before the next Candlemas; and that having so chosen it, he shall henceforth use no other: and that justices shall be assigned to inquire, by process of Oyer and Terminer, and to punish trespasses by six months' imprisonment, or other penalty, according to the offence.' Women artificers, who seem to have been numerous at this period, and amongst whom are mentioned 'brewers, bakers, braceresses, textoresses, filteresses, and weaveresses, as well as silk as of other materials,' are exempted from the operation of the act."
At this period, 1355, there were thirty-two different companies; but within a few years the number had increased to forty-eight. Some of these have merged into others; a few, as the Fletchers, the Cappers, the Horners and Spurriers, are extinct; the Barbers (subsequently Barber-Surgeons) are now separated from the latter, and in abeyance. In 49 Edward III., an enactment passed the whole assembled commonalty of the city, by which the right of election of all city dignitaries and officers, including members of Parliament, was transferred from the ward representatives to the trading companies; a few members of which were directed to be selected by the masters or wardens to come to the Guildhall for election purposes; and in them it has continued to the present time, only that by a subsequent act of Common Council, it was opened to all the liverymen of companies generally; and that right, which indeed without such sanction had no legal authority, was finally confirmed to such liverymen as being freemen of the corporation of London, by Stat. II. Geo. I. c. 18.
In 50 Edward III., an ordinance was passed by the Mayor, Aldermen, and six, four and two of the Common Council, out of thirteen of the above mysteries (which alone were allowed this privilege), respecting the removal of any alderman or common councilman for misconduct. And here we perceive the first indication of a separation of the wealthier from the more indigent companies; or of such as sent more members to Common Council, and paid the highest fermes; namely, the Tailors, Vintners, Skinners, Fishmongers, Mercers, Grocers, Goldsmiths, Drapers, and such others as may have constituted the thirteen mysteries, afterwards reduced to twelve.
"The separation or distinction of the companies took place at the latter end of the reign of Edward III., and from the twelve companies the Lord Mayor was exclusively chosen for centuries afterwards. None of the lists of Lord Mayors in our histories of London afford a single instance to the contrary, from Fitz Alwyn to Sir Robert Wilmot. The wardens of those great companies were the only ones allowed to attend the Lord Mayor as chief butler at coronations. The Twelve alone (with the single exception of the Armourers) had the honour of enrolling the sovereign amongst their members, and generally of entertaining foreign princes and ambassadors. They took precedence in all civic triumphs; they occupied the chief standings in all state processions through the city; they alone of the companies contributed to repair the city walls; and, lastly (not to mention various other proofs which might be adduced), they were the companies who were always
more largely assessed in all levies for the government or the city. The common opinion, therefore, that the Lord Mayor must be a member of one of these companies, is indisputably founded on long prescriptive right and usage. It was in 1742, that Sir Robert Wilmot, just mentioned, was sworn in Lord Mayor, notwithstanding that he was not so qualified, and that upon the advice of counsel, who said there was no law for it. His lordship was of the Coopers' Company, and would have been translated to the Clothworkers' (which is one of the Twelve '), but his admission being carried only by a small majority, and they at the same time refusing him their hall, he resolved to give them no further trouble. It is now understood that being free of one of the Twelve Companies is only necessary to qualify the Lord Mayor for President of the Irish Society. * The Lord Mayor, it should be observed, if not free of the Twelve, thus loses a privilege always appertaining of right to his office, that of the presidentship above
"It is but candid to remark that, notwithstanding the ancient rank of the Twelve Companies, many of the others are, on various accounts, of equal or superior importance. The weavers and saddlers claim a more remote antiquity. The stationers, besides their growing wealth and extensive concerns, rank higher as a rich, commercial, and working company. The dyers once took precedence of the cloth-workers. The brewers are distinguished for their ancient and very curious records; and yield on that point, perhaps, only to the leather-sellers, who at their elegant modern hall in St. Helen's Place have some matchless charters, as regards embellishment, and the most ornamentally-written 'Warden's Accounts,' of any we have yet inspected. Various others might be included in the list as equally worthy observation. "From Henry IV. originated the Letters Patent, making the Companies bodies corporate and politic under a certain definite style, or form, with perpetual succession and a common seal; the power of being able in law to purchase and take lands in fee simple, given, devised, or assigned; the capability, under their usual designations, to plead and be impleaded; 'to make good and reasonable bye-laws and ordinances; to have and hold lands by whatsoever name the same might be bequeathed or conveyed to them; together with the right of search through their several trades, punishment of offenders in them, and various other pri vileges. This king also confirmed the skinners, goldsmiths, and tailors."
Henry VII. encouraged the Companies, and enrolled himself in the Tailors, and presided as master; but in the reign of Henry VIII. the restrictions began to be felt as a hindrance rather than an advantage to trade, and foreigners, or artisans not free of the city, began to settle in the suburbs, much to the annoyance of the citizens, who procured some enactments against them.
The Reformation was a great blow to the prosperity of the Companies, since most of the lands bequeathed to them were charged with a condition for keeping up chauntries for prayers for the soul of the donor, &c. These were claimed by the crown, and changed into the form of fee farm-rents, which were at length and with difficulty redeemed.
The charters embodying the constitution of the Companies were regularly confirmed every new reign until after Elizabeth, by what are termed Inspeximuses, or fresh charters, professing to have seen those which had preceded. They recite the back charters as far as to the original grant, which they give at length, noticing all the way such additional privileges as have been conferred by succeeding monarchs, and then ratify and confirm, if unobjectionable, the whole of them. Almost all the companies' charters were so confirmed by Elizabeth, who was the last sovereign to whom these original grants were presented for that purpose. James I. granted a series of entire new charters to nine out of the twelve companies -viz. the grocers, drapers, fishmongers, skinners, haberdashers, salters, ironmongers, vintners, and cloth workers (exclusively of
The Irish Society originated in a grant of extensive estates in Ulster, including the city of Derry, since called Londonderry, and the town of Coleraine, part of the forfeited estates of O'Neill, Earl of Tir-Owen, or Tyrone, by King James I. to the city. These estates were divided into 12 parts, one being assigned by lot to each of the great companies, who associated some of the minor companies with them. Some of the companies have sold their portions, but a large extent of country is still in the hands of the city, who manage their Irish estate by means of a committee or society chosen from among the members of the "twelve," to whose care all the other estates of the " great companies is also committed. "Most of those companies," says Mr. Herbert, "which retain their Irish estates have brought them, by cultivation and liberal treatment of their tenants, into a flourishing state, so that they promise to become ultimately the best built and most cultivated portion of Ireland."
those which he granted to the minor companies). The merchanttailors, who had been re-incorporated by Henry VII., and the mercers and goldsmiths, who seem to have preferred their ancient incorporations, never applied for these new grants, or do not now possess them.
By the new charters of James, the ancient mode of election by the commonalty was superseded; and in all instances where such charters were obtained, the courts were thenceforward made selfelective. They ordain that, out of those fraternities there shall be constituted a certain number of persons, to be named assistants, who shall be aiding and assisting to the master and wardens, or any two of them; shall have power when they please to call a court of the same master, wardens, and assistants to the number of twelve or more (including such master and wardens), who shall govern and make ordinances for the company.' The persons composing the first courts are named and constituted for life, unless on reasonable cause shown to the contrary, and are em. powered, they and their successors (exclusively), to elect and nominate for ever afterwards all future masters and wardens from amongst themselves; no person being allowed to be on the court who had not previously served master or warden. Elections from this time have in all these newly-chartered companies been privately made a short time before the feast, the new master and wardens being only introduced and proclaimed at the general assembly as the principals chosen for the ensuing year. This first election is called the private election.
Such is a very brief sketch of the constitution of those mercantile bodies in whose hands is placed the regulation-we may almost say the government-of the city of London. In "the olden time," they displayed their glories more openly; and did our limits permit, we would gladly transcribe some of those accounts of pageants, &c. &c., which the "Twelve" delighted to indulge in when celebrating "Lord Mayor's Day," and other civic festivities. But everything has its limits, and so must our article; and for further information, we must refer our kind readers to the book from which we have so copiously quoted.
THE SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC.
IN a short article on the "Study of Astronomy, in No. 64, some remarks of Sir John Herschel's were quoted, as to the uselessness and absurdity of our retaining the names of the figures into which the stars were fancifully shaped in early times. As, however, the constellations amongst which the sun appears to move annually are of greater relative importance than the others, we here give some account of them.
The Zodiac is a space which extends about eight degrees on each side of the ecliptic, like a belt or girdle, within which all the motions of the planets, except the newly discovered ones, are performed. The ecliptic is situated in the midst of the zodiac, and is a great circle, in which the sun makes his apparent annual progress,-or rather, it is the real path of the earth round the sun, and cuts the equator or equinoctial in an angle of 23° 28', the points of intersection (Aries and Libra) being called the equinoctial points. The equinoctial points, contrary to the order of the signs, which is from west to east, have a slow motion from east to west, which motion, from the best observations, is about 50 seconds in a year; so that it would require 25,791 years for the equinoctial points to perform an entire revolution round the globe. In the time of Hipparchus and the oldest astronomers, the equinoctial points were fixed in Aries and Libra; but these signs, which were then in conjunction with the sun, are now a whole sign, or thirty degrees, eastward of it; so that Aries is now in Taurus, Taurus in This motion of the equinoctial points is called the Gemini, &c. precession (but more properly, recession) of the equinoxes. Every twenty-eight years the sun performs what is called a cycle, (a certain period, or series of numbers proceeding in order, from first to last, then returning again to the first, and so circulating perpetually; which was adopted in chronology for the purpose of swallowing up the fractions of time in the revolutions of the heavenly bodies,) in which time the days of the month's return again to the same days of the week, the sun's place to the same signs and degrees of the ecliptic, in the same months and on the same days, so as not to differ one degree in a hundred years; and the leap-years begin the same course over again, with respect to the days of the week on which the days of the month fall. The cycle of the moon is a revolution of nineteen years, in which time the conjunctions,
oppositions, and other aspects of the moon, are within an hour and a half of being the same as they were on the same days of the months nineteen years before. The former point Aries is called the vernal equinox; and the latter, Libra, the autumnal equinox. When the sun is in either of these points, the days and nights on every part of the globe are equal to each other.
With respect to the zodiac, it comprises twelve signs-viz. three spring, three summer, three autumnal, and three winter signs; the six former of which are called northern, and the six latter southern; each sign being divided into thirty degrees, and the distance of the point in the ecliptic, at which the sun is found at any time from the equator, being called the declination. The signs are Aries, the ram (composed of 66 stars); Taurus, the bull (of 141, including the Pleiades); Gemini, the twins (of 85); Cancer, the crab (of 83); Leo, the lion (of 95); Virgo, the virgin (of 110); Libra, the balance (of 51); Scorpio, the scorpion (of 44); Sagittarius, the archer (of 69); Capricornus, the goat (of 51); Aquarius, the water-bearer (of 108); and Pisces, the fishes (of 113). The northern constellations are in number thirty-four, the southern forty-seven, forming altogether, with the zodiacal ones, ninety-three.
It is conjectured that the figures in the signs of the zodiac-a Greek word signifying living creatures-are descriptive of the seasons of the year, and that they are Chaldean or Egyptian hieroglyphics, intended to represent some remarkable occurrence in each month. Thus, the spring signs were distinguished for the production of those animals which were held in the greatest esteem, -viz. the sheep, the black cattle, and the goats; the latter, being the most prolific, were represented by the figure of Gemini. When the sun enters Cancer, he discontinues his progress towards the north pole, and begins to turn back towards the south pole. This retrograde motion is represented by a Crab, which is said to go backwards. The heat that usually follows in the next month was represented by a Lion, an animal remarkable for its fierceness, and which at this season was frequently impelled through thirst to leave the sandy desert, and make his appearance on the banks of the Nile. The sun entered the sixth sign about the time of harvest, which season was therefore represented by a Virgin, or a female reaper, with an ear of corn in her hand. When the sun enters Libra, the days and nights are equal all over the world, and seem to observe an equilibrium like a balance. Autumn, which produces fruits in great abundance, brings with it a variety of diseases: this season was represented by that venomous animal the Scorpion, who wounds with the sting in his tail as he recedes. The fall of the leaf was the season for hunting, and the stars which marked the sun's path at this time were represented by a huntsman, or Archer, with his arrows and weapons of destruction. The Goat, which delights in climbing and ascending some mountain or precipice, is the emblem of the winter solstice, when the sun begins to ascend from the southern tropic, and gradually to increase in height for the ensuing half-year. Aquarius, or the water-bearer, is represented by the figure of a man pouring out water from an urn, an emblem of the dreary and uncomfortable season of winter. The last of the zodiacal constellations was Pisces, or a couple of fishes tied back to back, representing the fishing season. When the severity of the winter is over, the flocks do not afford sustenance, but the seas and rivers are open, and abound with fish.
The Chaldeans and Egyptians were the original inventors of astronomy, and they registered the events in their history, and the mysteries of their religion, among the stars, by emblematical figures. The Greeks displaced many of the Chaldean constellations, and placed such images as had reference to their own history in their room. The same method was followed by the Romans: hence, the accounts given of the signs of the zodiac, and of the constellations, are contradictory and involved in fable.-BURT.
GENEROSITY OF THE MEDICAL PROFESSION.
WHAT will those who call us a money-making craft think, when we remind them that we are the only class of people in the island who work on a large scale for nothing? As physicians or surgeons of medical charities, we toil for years in the service of the sick poor, with no pecuniary remuneration, and no other selfish objects than the desire of knowledge, and the remote prospect that the connexions we form by our attendance on the poor may ultimately lead to employment among the rich. Selfishness, more or less in degree, and more or less refined, mingles with the motives of all human actions. When at length this remote prospect is realised, and the extent of lucrative practice compels the physician or surgeon to retire from his medical charities, even then, through the
rest of his life, not a day passes in which calls are not made on him for gratuitous advice; and these calls are never made in vain. Where is the trade or profession in which there is anything similar to this? Will the merchant give his goods for nothing? Will the lawyer conduct a cause for nothing? Will the clergyman marry or bury for nothing? No: the merchant must have his price-the lawyer must have his fees-even the church must have its dues; none but the medical man stirs without his reward. The tax of gratuitous exertion levied on the medical profession has lasted so long, and is so great, that, like other familiar things, people cease to be sensible of it.-London Medical Gazette.
THE INVITATION OF WISDOM TO THE YOUNG. "Get Wisdom, and with all thy getting get Understanding." COME, while the blossoms of thy years are brightest, Thou youthful wanderer in a flowery maze; Come, while the restless heart is bounding lightest, And joy's pure sunbeams tremble in thy ways; Come, while sweet thoughts, like summer buds unfolding, Waken rich feelings in the careless breast, While yet thy hand the ephemeral wreath is holding— Come and secure interminable rest.
Soon will the freshness of thy days be over,
And thy free buoyancy of soul be flown; Pleasure will fold her wing, and friend and lover Will to the embraces of the worm have gone : Those who now love thee will have passed for everTheir looks of kindness will be lost to thee: Thou wilt need balm to heal thy spirit's fever, As thy sick heart broods over years to be.
Come, while the morning of thy life is glowing-
Which lights the future with a fadcless ray:
Then will the crosses of this brief existence
Have you ever seen pure rose-water kept in a crystal glass? How fine it looks, how sweet it smells, while the beautiful urn imprisons it! Break the glass, and let the water take its own course; doth it not embrace dust, and lose all its former sweetness and fairness? Truly so are we, if we have not the stay rather than the restraint of marriage.—Sir Philip Sydney.
STANDING ON CEREMONY.
It is the etiquette of Cambridge and Oxford, that no gentleman speaks to another unless he has been formally introduced to him; and a story is told of a student's refusing to assist another who had been upset in a boat upon the Cam, and struggling to reach the bank, "because he had not the honour of being acquainted with him."
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London: WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. Edinburgh: FRASER and Co. Dublin: CURRY and Co.-Printed and Stereotyped by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars.
LONDON SATURDAY JOURNAL
PUBLISHED BY WILLIAM SMITH, 113, FLEET STREET.
SATURDAY, APRIL 25, 1840.
A STEAM VOYAGE ON THE MEDITERRANEAN. DURING the month of June, 1838, I was detained some time at Marseilles, waiting the arrival of a friend who had engaged to accompany me to the Levant. At length, when I had almost determined to retrace my steps to Paris, and ascertain the cause of delay, a letter came: my friend's arrangements had been suddenly upset; and he could not leave Paris. Saturday, and it still wanted some hours of sunset, so I instantly began to inquire the best method of proceeding to Malta. There were several vessels in the harbour, bound for the island, the skippers of which each assured me that his vessel was sure to sail next day, or the day after at the farthest; but I knew them too well to believe a word they said,-so, having satisfied myself from appearances that not one of them would leave the harbour for at least ten days, I gave up the idea of proceeding in a sailing vessel, and determined to try a steamer. The French government-steamers were, I soon found, the only ones plying between Marseilles and Malta, and I was informed that the Sesostris would sail on Monday at four, P. M. I therefore returned to my hôtel, and made the necessary preparations for the voyage.
Next day I paid a visit to a friend who had had some experience in Levantine steamers, to ask his advice regarding what part of the vessel I should sail in, also regarding provisions, &c. The weather had been extremely sultry for some weeks, and no rain had fallen in the South of France for more than a month; consequently a voyage of nearly a thousand miles on the Mediterranean, at that time, was likely to be a warm one.
My friend, after inquiring concerning my travelling wardrobe, pronounced it sufficient, come sun, come rain, and advised me strongly to take a deck-passage. The first cabin, he remarked, was very expensive, both as regarded the passage-money and provisions, the latter the passenger being obliged to pay for, whether he partake or not; but his principal objection was the intolerable heat arising from the sun, joined to that caused by the fire and vapour of six or seven days' steaming. The second cabin was moderate in price, but in it also the passengers must pay exorbitant prices for provisions, whether partaken of or not, while it was as hot as the first cabin. The deck, on the contrary, my friend assured me, could be tolerated during the day, as there were plenty of opportunities of sitting in the shade, whilst it was not too cold during the night there was another point too, and a very important one to an Englishman in a French boat; deck-passengers were allowed to carry their own provisions with them, or purchase from the steward, according as they felt inclined. Having listened to all these considerations and seriously weighed the matter in my own mind, I determined on taking a deck-passage.
On Monday forenoon I repaired to the proper authorities, and had my passport inspected. I then directed my steps to the British Consul, and, having got the necessary papers, proceeded to the office of the steamer, and producing all these documents, left them in the hands of the clerk, paid my passage-money, and received a ticket containing the rules and regulations to be observed
on embarking and during the voyage. They were very strict, but, as I found afterwards, "more honoured in the breach than in the observance."
After my luggage was all packed, I summoned "boots," and consulted regarding the proper provisions for the voyage: the result was, that we both sallied out together, and returned with the following, which, with the addition of water, we judged sufficient for one man during a week :-Two loaves of bread, each eighteen inches long, four pounds of biscuit, one pound of Parmesan cheese, two pounds of boiled beef, a pound of loaf-sugar, and two bottles of brandy. The steamer was to sail at four, and I left my hotel at three, dressed in summer style. We had about fifteen minutes' walk to the place of embarkation. On leaving the hotel, the sun was oppressively warm, and the white dust blowing through the streets in dense clouds; but ere we had gone a hundred yards the rain began to pour, and long before we reached the quay, it fell in torrents;-my cloak was at hand, however, and wrapping it round me, I congratulated myself that long before its well-lined cloth was wet through, the sun would be as bright in the heavens as On arriving at the quay, we found an immense number of little boats, the inmates of which were very solicitous for our favour, and having embarked in one which had an awning to protect us from the sun, I was soon on board the steamer with my luggage. The moment I was on board, an officer demanded my ticket, and referring to a bundle of papers, said I was all right. It was within a few minutes of the time of sailing, and passengers were arriving in great numbers, all of whom were asked for their tickets, and a reference made to the bundle of passports ere they were let out of the immediate surveillance of a warrant-officer armed with sword and pistol. So uniformly regular did every one's passport appear to be, that I began to think it was only a form to inspect them, until the officer turning round to a German student who had just appeared, demanded his bill of health. The student said it had been left with the clerk, along with his other papers, when he engaged his passage. The officer called him " a liar,” and said that he had never had one. An official from the land now stepped forward, and stated that there had been more passengers engaged than bills of health taken, and that he attended in consequence, as the steamer could not clear out until this matter was rectified. On referring to the list of bills of health furnished, the German student's name was not there, and in great wrath, swearing in French, German, and Italian, he was obliged to pay three francs and a half to have his according to rule.
At four o'clock the Post-office boat came alongside; some letterbags and five small casks of silver money were put on board in charge of an officer, the large bell was rung, and all those for the shore were ordered to quit the vessel. The cry through the vessel now was "L'appel, l'appel," (the calling of the names,) and several petty officers were employed in gathering the passengers from every part of the vessel to the quarter-deck. As soon as the first lieutenant had been informed that every one unconnected with the vessel was now on the poop, the commissariat began calling out the list of passengers, each answering to his name, and passing
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to another part of the vessel. When the list was finished, the commissariat informed the first lieutenant that everything was right; the side ladders were drawn up, and in a few minutes we were out of the basin of Marseilles, and steaming through the blue waters of the Mediterranean. During the bustle attending our departure the rain poured with unabated fury, and continued to do so until two o'clock next morning, when it stopped at sunrise. It was soon pretty evident that the clothes I had on would not protect me during the night; so the cloak was laid aside until I put on over my coat, a surtout, pilot-coat, and mackintosh. The cloak was then put above all, and I again congratulated myself on being fully waterproof, as my mackintosh was of the great-coat form and reached considerably below the knee.
down and fell asleep.
my two bottles. The day was a remarkably beautiful one; nobody was sick, but all enjoying themselves, by either joining or passively looking at the sporting, leaping, wrestling, and quarter-staff, which occupied the attention of the crew as well as passengers for the greater part of the day. The porpoises, too, seemed to join in the fun, as they sported in hundreds before, under, and on each side of our vessel; while the water was so transparent, that on looking over the bows, these merry fish could be seen far, far down in the water. In the afternoon, we passed the island of Corsica, towards which, as long as it was in sight, all eyes were directed; and many were the curses I heard vented forth against the English nation, for their treatment of the once obscure native of that little isle (Napoleon)-"and one who, if he had lived," said one of the When we were fairly at sea, one of the warrant-officers got each passengers, "would have made Paris the capital of Europe." In of the passengers to point out his luggage, which was stowed away the evening there were several card-parties formed-but whist in different places, in order that no mistake might occur in the was not one of the games played. Thus the time passed away, and various ports at which we were to touch: by the time this was as the shades of night were drawing around, picked out the accomplished, the deck was covered with passengers, who, finding" softest plank," and, with "a reeving-block" for my pillow, lay their berths too hot, preferred the wet of the deck to the heat of the cabin. In the first cabin there were about twenty passengers for Leghorn, four for Civita Vecchia, one for Malta, and two for Athens. In the second cabin there were, an Italian singer proceeding to some one of the theatres on the Adriatic, a goodnatured merry sort of fellow, who was never loth to enliven the company with a song; five Italian refugees proceeding to the Papal states for protection; two merchants of and for Leghorn; two cooks proceeding by way of Alexandria to the establishment of Lord Elphinstone in India; a very old Italian on his way to the holy sepulchre; and several attendants belonging to parties in the first cabin. We of the deck were more select. There were four German students (Burschenschaft) returning from Paris to Austria; one Fanaariote returning from London to Constantinople, and the writer. We, the deck-passengers, were soon acquainted, and amber pipes and cigars were passed from one to another; at last the store of provisions was alluded to,-we gathered round a large barrel-head and displayed our edibles. The other five had many things I could not boast of—but I had one advantage, with my brandy; one of the bottles was produced and a flask of water: our carousal-bowl was an old tin jug, our table cloth a late number of "Le National," our table a barrel-head, while the rain poured down in torrents, and we were obliged to put an umbrella over our good things; nevertheless we all made a hearty meal-the various stores were free to all, and we laughed and talked over the idea of happiness having much to do with outward things. When the repast was finished, each wrapped up his stores, and a good glass of brandy-and-water, pipes and cigars, songs and anecdotes, kept us merry, and I had almost forgotten that it rained, when the increased weight of my cloak recalled my attention; it was now ten o'clock at night, and the cloak was as wet as if it had been tossed in the sea since we left Marseilles. None of us felt much cold during the night. A gentleman and his lady slept in their carriage on deck; a second carriage was occupied by two footmen who had it in charge ;-two first-cabin and one second-cabin passengers kept the deck all night: the remainder of the passengers preferred to be stewed below. At last the morning broke, dry and brilliant; our wet clothes were hung up here and there, boots and shoes were kicked from our feet, and ere six o'clock we were as merry as crickets, sitting on the dry deck enjoying our breakfast, which we accompanied by a small glass of brandy, and a large one of good wine, a flask of which some one drew from out his havresack.
Before noon, every appearance of the former night's rain had vanished; our clothes were dry-and so, I am sorry to say, were
I imagine the night must have been a very quiet one, as, when I was awakened, I found the sun had the start of me. In a few minutes all was bustle and confusion, passengers running hither and thither, tumbling over baggage and ropes, with both of which the deck was again covered. We were off the port of Leghorn, where a great many passengers, two chaises, and an immense quantity of luggage had to be landed; although to me it seemed doubtful if passengers and luggage could be landed, and not at all doubtful that the carriages could not, on account of the heavy swell setting in from the east. It was now six in the morning, and the captain said he should remain eight hours here, but would not go into the harbour unless compelled. As soon as this determination was known, the passengers began to form themselves into parties, who elected one to make a bargain with a boatman. In less than ten minutes from the time our anchor was let go, there could not be less than thirty boats alongside, each having from four to six men. Watermen are the same all the world over, consequently there was much wrangling before a bargain was struck. The ladder was at last let down, and the first party began to descend; but it was a task sufficient to try the nerves of the most hardy, as the boat was one moment drawn from the ladder with great velocity, and the next dashed up against it. One man was rather shy of letting go his hold, and he was hauled out of the boat again after his feet had been in it, immersed up to the middle in water; and had it not been for the two sailors who manned the foot of the ladder instantly hauling him in, he would have been much hurt, if not killed, between the ladder and the boat: as it was, he appeared neither hurt nor frightened, and when the boat approached again, he leaped from the ladder at once into the bottom. After receiving the proper number of passengers, each boat dropped astern, where it held on until the luggage was lowered by ropes. In this manner, and in about two hours, all the passengers and their luggage were safely disembarked. The last boatful was an English diplomatic gentleman, his wife, and a man and maid servant. The man-servant at once got into the boat; but the maid stood on the lower step screaming at the pitch of her voice, and no entreaty could make her put her foot in the boat: at last a sailor took her in his arms, and stepping in with her, laid her safely down in the bottom of the boat, where she began to roar more lustily than ever, screeching that she was a drowned woman. The lady now appeared on the last step; a sailor handed her in, and laid her also down in the boat. I never certainly saw two women so terrified in my life-but the outward language of their fear was totally different. The servant screamed