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his benefactor, and soothed and melted by his kindness, confided to him his whole story.

The mother of the youth was the daughter of a Scotch earl, who had married a poor laird for love. The husband, anxious to maintain his proud and noble lady in the state to which she had been accustomed, wasted his small fortune in the attempt; and at last had died, leaving her with an only son, almost pennyless. The

pride of Lady Margaret was, if possible, only increased by her depressed circumstances. She would not hear of her son entering into any kind of trade; and as his pride, which was of a very different kind to that of his mother, would not suffer him to remain a burden to his relations, he had endeavoured to obtain a place under government, the only one which his mother would suffer him to accept. It was on this errand that they had come to London, furnished with letters from one of their noble kinsmen to Sir Robert Walpole; and, fed with hopes, and tortured by disappointments, they had lingered on ever since. Many times the youth had tried to prevail on his mother to return to her own relations, but the same foolish fondness which had made her accompany him to town kept her with him; and to his real troubles was added the partly imaginary one of preventing any plebeian from gazing on the failen scion of the aristocracy in her degraded state. The remainder of the story the baker did not ask, as he easily comprehended that extreme poverty, and the dread of appearing empty-handed before his mother, had driven the young man to an act his soul abhorred; and the only difficulty that presented itself

to his imagination was how to reconcile the proud Lady Margaret

to her son's union with a baker's daughter. It was, however, at length accomplished. The baker, who had long had serious thoughts of retiring from business, resigned his shop to James; and Lady Margaret, being first introduced to Mary as the mistress of an elegant villa in the neighbourhood of London, found little difficulty in giving her consent to the marriage of her son with a beautiful heiress. Mary made as excellent a wife as she had done a daughter; and during the whole of her long and happy life she had never occasion to lament the singular penchant which her mother-in-law had so long displayed for-A FRENCH ROLL.

ANCIENT GREEK ARTS, DIET, AND MEDICINE. THE smiths of the early days of Greece worked like ours in forges; but for tools they seem to have been confined to the bellows, anvil, hammer, and pincers. They were acquainted with the art of casting metals, for thus they formed tripods and caldrons of brass. The ears or handles of the tripods were riveted on, and were wrought in various decorative shapes. They also cast gold and silver cups, and were acquainted with the art of mounting the edges of the latter with gold, and of gilding them both internally and externally. Some of these cups are described as very large, massive, and beautifully chased. Nestor is said to have had a cup of silver studded with gold. The spaces between its four handles are represented as having been occupied by four golden doves feeding on vine plants-a happy emblematic picture of love nourished by wine. To these smiths the sacrificers were indebted for the gold leaves which were usually folded round the tips of the victims' horns. The more ingenious of their class dedicated their time to the formation of ladies' trinkets, such as bracelets, armlets, necklaces, chains, rings, pendants for the ears ornamented with precious stones, collars of amber beads connected by golden links, girdles, ornaments for the hair, and golden clasps for the bosom. They executed also golden clasps for the chieftains' mantles, some of which were wrought in a curious and appropriate style.

Nor were these artisans unacquainted with methods for casting statues in metal, as appears from the descriptions of Vulcan's golden handmaids, and the golden youths which stood in the hall of Alcinous, for the purpose of holding the torches that at night

illumined the chamber. There was a statue of Minerva in her temple at Troy, before its destruction, of the same material. The mantle-clasp which Penelope presented to Ulysses on his first setting out for the war was chased with the figure of a dog holding a fawn between his feet: he gaped with eagerness over his prey, while the fawn, overcome with fatigue and fear, seemed to pant on the metal. This specimen of workmanship is said to have been

universally admired for the life which was thrown into the figures of the animals. Besides the golden doves of Nestor's cup, and the various figures on the shield of Achilles, mention is made of golden dogs which "watched" in the hall of Alcinous. All these examples prove that the art of imitating the human figure, and the figures of birds and quadrupeds in metal, had already arrived at a considerable, indeed a surprising, degree of perfection.

The story which Achilles relates to Priam, of Niobe who wept in marble, seeming to waste her heart away in brooding over the sudden destruction of her twelve children, is perhaps a solitary recognition of the sculptor's power in those early ages, over that difficult and beautiful material. But the affecting manner in which it is mentioned affords a striking testimony as to the productions of the sculptor's chisel, and those too of a high order.

The ship-builders seem to have used only brass and iron hatchets, adzes, and augers. Besides these, the house-carpenters must have had other and finer tools, though we do not find them specified. The latter used glue in forming panels for doors and wainscots. They possessed also the art of inlaying with gold, silver, and ivory, which they displayed on wainscots, couches, and precious cabinet chests. They had, however, no means for securing these chests by small locks. Portable property was, as yet, guarded only by cords, which were tied around the box that contained it; a

practice that seems to have given rise to much ingenuity in the art of knot-making. There were turners, who exhibited their skill on bed-posts, wooden drinking-cups, and other domestic utensils. There were potters, who made earthen dishes, platters, jars, bowls, and pitchers, which were baked in the sun. The Phoenicians manufactured toys for exportation, and various articles in gold, silver, brass, and ivory. Besides their skill in dyed cloths and linens, they displayed unrivalled ingenuity in most of the arts which have been enumerated particularly entitled to the epithet" elegant.'

The art of erecting wooden bridges was well known, though it does not appear to have been carried to any considerable degree of improvement. They must have been of a rude and frail description, as it was no uncommon thing to see even the best of them swept away when the rivers were flooded.

We do not recollect any description in the early literature of Greece, of meals entirely or even partially composed of fish or poultry; yet it is certain that fish diet was extensively known. We read of regular divers who went out in boats, and plunged into the sea for oysters. Other fish they caught with nets, spears, and hooks. The angler sunk his line as we do, by adding to it a small weight of lead, and he cased it above the hook with horn. There are not many domestic fowls mentioned. The eagle, the hawk, the crow, the owl, the sea-mew, and the dove, were well known. Nor were the delicious notes of the nightingale unheard during the soft summer evenings. Bees were domesticated, not less for their honey than their wax, which was used for several purposes.

It would be difficult to believe that all the commercial transactions of those times, from the sale of a ship-load of corn to that of a pound of wool, were carried on without the use of money. How could the wages of those who were called hireling servants, as distinguished from slaves, have been paid without some convenient medium? Talents and half talents of gold are often mentioned, though not in such a manner as would enable us to estimate their specific weight in metal. Frequent allusions are made to "beeves," and under circumstances which strongly favour the authority of Plutarch, who expressly says that these were coins in common use among the Athenians. They were first designed by Theseus, who, as his biographer observes, " gave his money the impression of an cx, in commemoration either of the Marathonian bull, or the Cretan general, Taurus, or for the purpose of continually remind

for the cure of wounds. These were administered through the usual medium of incantation, which, if it had the power to divert the mind of the patient from a sense of his sufferings, might, doubtless, in some cases have contributed to relieve them. very remarkable that there is scarcely any country or age in which we do not meet with impostures of this description.


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ing the people of the utility of agriculture. Hence came the expression of a thing being worth ten or a hundred "beeves," a phrase frequently to be met with in Homer. It is worthy of remark that he values a large tripod at twelve of these coins, and in the same passage estimates a female captive, expert in domestic arts, at no more than four. A new cauldron embossed with flowers is said to be worth an ox. There is reason to suppose that a fat ox was priced at a golden talent. If, therefore, we assume such a cauldron to be equal in value to a large tripod, it follows that one BOTH for travellers and voyagers it was a haven that every one talent of gold was equivalent to twelve beeves. Such an assump-liked to put into, being stored with the best beds, viands, and wine; tion seems justifiable, at least sufficiently so to enable us to form but above all, celebrated for its apple-dumplings. These palatable some general idea of the relative value of money. The proportion things acquired a delightful consistency from the method of is, at all events, clear enough to convince us that "beeves" are making them, and the length of time they were kept before they not oxen, and that, whether they consisted of metal or of leather, of a pine-apple flavour, brought from America. The core being were boiled. Each dumpling was composed of one large apple, they were such convenient representatives of property as passed scooped out, the hollow was filled up with sugar, and when enveeasily from hand to hand. loped in paste, and closely tied up in a cloth, they were hung up by dozens on a rack in an airy place, like so many cannon-balls, to dry. Here they remained for a month or more, before they were put into the pot. The notoriety of these dumplings extended as far as the West Indies, to which place vast numbers were exported.-Music and Friends.

Arithmetic was probably not practised among the early Greeks upon the refined and complicated scale which we possess. They seem, however, to have counted with facility from a unit to thousands, and to have been perfectly acquainted with the common rules of multiplying and dividing numbers. They measured distances by the foot and cubit, and knew enough of the principles of geometry to draw squares, triangles, and circles, and to strike perpendiculars. They divided the year, as we do, into four seasons. The year was denominated from the usual apparent return of the sun to the same point of the horizon, after making a complete circle round the earth, and was divided into months, which were measured by the revolutions of the moon. A sort of weekly division of the month appears to have been marked by the new appearance, the increase, the fulness, and the decline of that orb; although the more accurate division of it seems to have been into thirty days. The time of the day was estimated from the progress of the sun as it rose, approached, and attained its midway course, passed downward, and hastened to disappear from the horizon, to sleep during the night, as the poets imagined, in the bosom of the ocean.

The cloudless skies of Greece afforded its inhabitants the most favourable opportunities for observing the stars. They seem to have been particularly sensible to the heart-cheering influence of a fine night, when the moon and stars shone in all their radiance, the winds were stilled, the forests, the mountain tops, and headland heights stood revealed, and not a vapour streaked the blue and boundless firmament. The knowledge, however, of the laws by which the greater and the lesser lights were regulated, does not appear to have been as yet cultivated by the Greeks upon any settled principles. They observed, indeed, the more remarkable of those stars which are classed amongst our constellations, but they attended to nothing more than their positions in the heavens, and their periodical rising and setting. Their astronomy was never separated from the business of agriculture and navigation; it was cultivated as an object of actual experience, not of science, and, being entirely in the hands of the husbandman and mariner, it was limited to the ordinary circle of their ideas.

A few simple herbs constituted their whole store of medicine. These were often administered to the poor by some intelligent princess, whose leisure and superior sources of information enabled her to accompany them with words of consolation and advice. Plague, consumption, fever, apoplexy, and other diseases, seem to have been well known, though the temperate habits of the age, aided by attention to cleanliness, appear to have guarded the Greeks from frequent or extraordinary visitations of sickness. Their surgical skill was very limited. It was usual in treating arrow wounds to suck out the blood, immediately after the barbed weapon was cut out with a knife, lest the arrow point should have been poisoned. They then washed the wound with warm water, and inserted in it a bitter root, which is said to have had the effect of stopping the flow of blood, assuaging the pain, and drying up the part lacerated. A healing ointment was then spread over it. There were several men famous for their experience in this art, though there were none who devoted themselves to it exclusively as a profession. Great faith was reposed in the efficacy of charms

INTELLECTUALITY OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. THE Rev. Cæsar Otway, of Dublin, is certainly one of the most remarkable and peculiar men of the Irish metropolis. We introduced him on a former occasion (No. 26) to the readers of the LONDON SATURDAY JOURNAL, briefly stating what he had done for Ireland, as a sketcher and describer of his native country; and we now propose to exhibit him in another character-that of a scientific lecturer. Thoroughly to understand this, our readers must have seen the man; and certainly once seen, the outline of the Irish giant will linger long in the memory. Those of our readers who may feel any anxiety on the subject, may refer to the number for October last of the DUBLIN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE, which contains his "veritable effigy ; " and we can only add, that having had the honour and the pleasure of being intimately acquainted with him, we are glad to learn that the C. O. of former years is still hale and hearty, and still willing to gratify, instruct, and amuse, by the out-pourings of his thoughtful, witty, benevolent, and observant mind.

What we are going to give is extracted from the last number (the number for May) of the "DUBLIN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE,” which, though it is a party periodical-that is, one which takes strong views of certain political matters-is, at the same time, able and amusing, and justly merits the title given to it by the Spectator newspaper, of being the Blackwood of Ireland.

From an introductory editorial notice, we learn that the lecture was delivered on the 27th of February last, before the Dublin Zoological Society. It thus commences :

"I am about to say what I am able on the habits and intellectuality of animals. I allude to two qualities-habits, or in other words, instinct-intellectuality, or in other words, understanding. I confine myself, in order to keep within bounds, to domestic animals. We all must allow that animals have instincts that distinguish one species from another-those of a sheep, for instance, as differing from those of a dog. Well, supposing I identify habits with instinct, should I not define what instinct is? Perhaps I am not able-I stand not here as a philosopher-but this I know, that one who has given the subject more consideration than I can, has said that no one can define properly what instinct is, until he has spent some time in the head of a brute, without being a brute himself. But the same author ventures to give what may stand for a definition, and it is this those faculties that God has implanted in animals, whereby, independent of instruction, observation, or experience, and without knowing the end in view, they are impelled to the performance of certain actions conducive to their own well-being, and the preservation of

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their species.' But will those at all acquainted with animals be content with ascribing to them such a limited quality as this? Do not we find an adaptation of plans to circumstances, and an exercise of individual judgment, reflection, induction, and memory? I must insist, then, that the creature has personal and independent mental powers; and if you will not call it reason, confess that it is akin to it, and call it intellectuality.

"It is this opinion of individual capability, beyond that of mere instinct, that induces us to educate in the limited way we do our domestic animals; this induces us to caress them when they do well, and punish if disobedient; as, for instance, is there any lady here who has a pet dog? Now you fondle him, and by and by you scold him; don't you find the animal reflecting and reasoning upon your conduct? and supposing Pompey has a few minutes before done wrong, and you call him to you, and you have the leg of a chicken, which you hold out to him with your left hand, and you have your riding-whip in your right, which you hold behind your back, see how Pompey hesitates between instinct and intellectuality! Instinct tells him that a chicken's leg is a savoury bit, but intellectuality says, I have done wrong; my mistress is angry; why is the hand that used to feed me held back and hid ;-and reflection infers, I am certainly deserving of correction. I won't, then, decides the dog, go near the chicken's leg, because at the same time I will come within the range of the armed hand.

"Here the dog is certainly a better reasoner than many a puppy on two legs, who gratifies every appetite, follows every tempting evil, without memory, reflection, or foresight; and rushes upon disease, ruin, and damnation.

"Animals, then, have instinctive habits belonging to their species; they also have faculties of a higher order, in which families and individuals may excel others of the same order. I think I may show you an instance of instinct in the case of a dog, who, in spite of education and his own intellectuality, yet follows the habit of his race, by attempting in your parlour, and on a boarded floor (which it is impossible to penetrate), to hide a portion of his food that he has not appetite to finish; and you may observe him in this case using all the acts of secreting, as if he were penetrating soft ground, and could therein hide what he intended should be kept in future for his own use. An instance of that adaptation to circumstances, the work of reflection and judgment, which I would call intellectuality, came lately within my knowlege, in Erris. A considerable landed proprietor has a large tract of sandhills within the Mullet, which tract (open as it is to all the Atlantic storms) has been greatly injured by the introduction of rabbits, who, by burrowing and disturbing the bent grass, gave facilities to the wind to operate and so the sandhills were year after year changing their position and encroaching on the cultivated ground. To remedy this he determined to destroy the rabbits, and, in their place, introduce hares, that he knew, or thought he knew, would not burrow; but here he was mistaken, for the animal soon found that it must either leave the district, or change its habits, for if in a winter's night it attempted to sit in its accustomed open FORM, it would find itself buried perhaps twenty feet in the morning under the blowing sand, as under a snow-wreath. Accordingly the hares have here burrowed; they chose out a thin and high sandhill, which stands something like a solidified wave of the sea; through this puss perforates an horizontal hole from east to west, with a double opening, and seating herself at the mouth of the windward orifice, she there awaits the storm, and as fast as her hill wastes away, she draws back, ready at all times to make a start, in case the storm rages so as to carry off her hill altogether. My friend, Mr. Clibborn of the Royal Irish Academy, has furnished me with the following anecdote illustrative of a sagacity in swallows that also, in my opinion, goes beyond instinct. When resident in the city of Cincinnati, on the River Ohio, a small species of swallow, very numerous in that state, set about, in the proper season, to build their nests against the wall of a barrack near the town. Their mud edifices not proving very sightly additions to the building, the officer in command, being of course inimical to what was not bright and tight, ordered the poor swal

lows to be ejected, and so all their work was promptly demolished. They then, after much chattering, fixed on a wooden barn as the new site for their nests; and against the upright planks of this building they began to plaster their mud. But here their science was at fault; for when their nests were finished, and began to dry in the sun, there was not sufficient cohesion between the mud and the timber, and so, one hot day, their whole structure came down with a crash; and now, what was to be done?- -we shall see. It chanced that Mrs. Bullock, the wife of the famous museum collector, was then resident in an adjacent villa, that had, as is common in that warm climate, a long verandah in front, supported by wooden pillars; hither the swallows, after holding another sub-committee of building, all came in a body, for they had no time to lose, and they set about the nidification; and here, having one would think the fear of the martinet officer before their eyes, they actually contrived to make their nests ornamental, by forming circular capitals to the pillar, like the volutes of the Ionic order; and Mrs. Bullock was not a little proud of her little colony. But, alas! selfishness is not confined to the human race, and combination can be got up and brought to bear against interlopers in the feathered race, as well as amongst the most determined Billy Welters in the city of Dublin. A tribe of martins, seeing that the new colony of swallows would be likely to diminish their supply of flies, determined to slate* the swallows, and drive away the intruders that interfered with their monopoly. Now, the American martin is five times as large as a swallow, and is almost as big as a thrush. So they not only hunted the poor swallows, but also, with all their force of flight, would make a dash at their nests, and so knock them down, while yet unfinished. But here Mrs. Bullock proved a friend in need; and taking the side of the weaker, she stationed men during the day, who, with long poles, struck at the martins whenever they made a charge at the nests; and the swallows soon observing what the meaning of the friendly interference was, without at all minding the men or their poles, went on with the construction of their nests, and soon had them finished, and so hard-built, that the martins found it useless any more to batter at them. And now they begin to incubate, and the eggs are laid; but their troubles are not over, for the cruel martins, then come and, taking a dirty advantage of the poor little swallows, fasten themselves on the sides of the nests, they drive the swallows off, and then put in their beaks and break the eggs. Poor things! what was now to be done?-we shall see. For a day or so, nothing could equal the chattering and collogueing, as an Irishman would say, in the air; and then they fell to work, and constructed long necks to their respective nests, which, under Mrs. Bullock's protection, they were allowed to do in peace. By this means they effectually avoided the intrusion of the martins ; and without further molestation, brought out their young. I would ask, are not wondrously displayed here the resources of intellect, rather than fixed and unvarying characteristics of instinct?

"Dr. Arnaud d'Antilli, one day talking with the Duke de Liancourt upon the new philosophy of M. Descartes, maintained that beasts were mere machines; that they had no sort of reason to direct them; and that when they cried or made a noise, it was only one of the wheels of the clock or machine that made it. The duke, who was of a different opinion, replied, 'I have now in my kitchen two turnspits, which take their turn regularly every other day to get into the wheel; one of them not liking his appointment, hid himself on the day he should have wrought, so that his companion was forced to mount the wheel in his stead; when released, by crying and wagging his tail, he made a sign for those in attendance to follow him. He immediately conducted them to a garret. where he dislodged the idle dog, and bit him severely.'

"I assume, then, that animals, as well as men, have both intellectuality and instinct; for who will deny that man has instinctor what makes the child at once seek for sustenance from his

Billy Welter and to slate are cant phrases in Dublin, used amongst workmen who have combined to effect certain purposes, and who use violence. A Billy Welter is a ruffian, and slating is the term for assault; derived, perhaps, from knocking the hat, or tile, over the eyes of the sufferer.

that such treatment is not only natural to the animal, but that it
deserves it.

"An English parson goes upon a quite different theory from that of the French Jesuit. and he takes ground which he assumes to be consistent, reasonable, worthy of God, and agreeable to holy Scripture. He maintains that animals have reasoning powers, and if so, they have souls, and if souls, that they are immortal. He holds that they were all originally happy, and when Heaven had pronounced all to be very good, they were endowed with every perfection that their nature and rank in the scale of being required; but that when man fell, the link was broken that connected the lower animals with the Deity; that the divine light and life no longer flowed downwards through the free channel of unfallen human nature, and therefore the whole system of visible creation sympathises and suffers with their rebellious lord; and that, therefore, it now groans and travails in pain,' and the creature is made subject to vanity, not willingly (that is by no fault of its own) but by reason (on the account of-by the sin) of him who hath subjected the same in hope,'-that is Adam. As thus in human sovereignty, when an attainder is passed on a subject, the sentence not only affects the individual, but his children and domestics—so

mother's bosom? The difference to a certain extent here is, that
man has more intellect than instinct, and it is the reverse with
brutes. But it may be said, why then deny that they have souls ?
and, if souls, why deny immortality? This truly is a puz-
zling subject, and a great deal of discussion has taken place about
it. Some, seeing the difficulties, determined to oppose it at the
threshold, by asserting that animals were mere machines. I
believe Descartes, the French philosopher, was of that opinion.
"He might maintain such a paradox for argument sake, but the
man could not look in his dog's face and believe it. But besides
this refutation, I think the Frenchman would be drawn into the
vortex of an absurdity by his dogma, and in that case should
make machines of the men who hunted the dogs and rode after
them; they discovering not half so much intellect, or so much
honesty, as the horse they rode on, or the hound they kept in view.
I think the opinion of the French Jesuit, Father Beaugeant, if
not more satisfactory, is at least more amusing, who maintained
that the habits and faculties of brutes were entirely owing to the
operation of evil spirits. This astounding truth was enough to
alarm half the world. Only think of a French Seigneur, who most
orthodoxically went to mass every Sunday, and every other day
followed the hounds; and he now, under the authority of a clergy-man, by his transgression, devoted his dependants to degradation,
man, must believe that the pack of beagles he has heretofore
hunted, are a pack of devils! or of Mademoiselle Julia, who has
been lavishing caresses on her lap-dog, and now she finds she has
been wantonly dallying with a demon! The Jesuit's argument is
this experience and reason convince us that brutes have a
thinking faculty-if so, then a soul; for if not a soul, you must
allow that matter can think; and if you allow a soul, the beasts
only differ from man by degrees of plus and minus.' Oh but,
concludes the Jesuit, 'this position would demolish the very foun-
dation of religion.' Well, how does he save the rationality of his
brutes, and keep himself from the censures of his church? Why,
by asserting that the souls of animals are devils, who, though for
their first sin are doomed to hell, yet God, in order not to suffer so
many legions of reprobates to be of no use, has, until the day of
doom, distributed them over our lower world, there as animals to
serve his designs and make his omnipotence appear; some, it is
true, continue in their original state, and busy themselves in
tempting man, as is shown in the book of Job; others are made,
however unwillingly, to serve the uses of man, and fill the visible
universe. Thus, as the Jesuit states, he can conceive how devils
still tempt, and brutes think; and this without at all offending
the doctrines of the Catholic faith.' And certainly this tenet of
the reverend father places the devils in a very unpleasant predica
ment; for it must be a great humiliation to them, to see themselves
reduced to such a low condition. This degradation is the first
effect of divine vengeance-it is their anticipated hell.

"But I am disposed to think that the witty Jesuit did not reflect upon the consequence of his theory, and he ought to have paused before he gave it to the public, even supposing he were convinced of the truth himself; it were better he had coincided with him who said, that had he his handful of truths, he would hold his fist tight, rather than scatter his unappreciated commodities. For though there may be some plausibility in the theory, as accounting for the Almighty's giving a privilege to man to treat as he does the inferior creatures, and so torture, abuse, and destroy millions of animals; yet see the consequences of making man, as he would be, the scourger of demons. How would it aggravate existing cruelty? How would it load the lash already held in the hands of the hard-hearted, and make him strike home with the malignity of an enemy and avenger? Suppose a Donnybrook jaunting carman—the fellow is on fire with whiskey-see his poor horse's breast, and back all lacerated, see him driven beyond his breath and speed, bleeding from both nostrils, see his knees torn bare to the bone, as he falls under the merciless blows of the avaricious and cruel man-why, give the fellow the Jesuit's conviction, that he is only a meritorious instrument of punishment, commissioned by his God, and he improves on the abominable complacency of the cook when skinning her eels alive, for he holds

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misery, and death. But no violent execution was permitted to be
made on them, except in the way of sacrifice; none were to be put
to death but by God's own appointment, as the types of the great
propitiatory sacrifice of the Lamb of God, slain from the foundation
of the world, for the salvation and redemption of a lost world.
No power was given man to abuse, or even to kill and eat, until
the world, still more deteriorated after the flood, left the vegetable
products of the earth less capable of nourishing, and then the
much abused liberty to hunt, to kill, and eat. The fear of you,
and the dread of you, shall now be upon every beast of the earth,
and upon every fowl of the air, and upon all fishes of the sea: into
your hand they are delivered: every moving thing that liveth, to
you it shall be for meat; even as the green herb have I given you
all things.' Such has been the state of the brute creation since
the fall, very different, indeed, from its former condition; but
still both reason and revelation represent them as guiltless suf-
ferers for our transgressions, and, therefore, peculiar objects of
our care and compassion; and it is not only a sin against mercy,
but against justice, to abuse or oppress them. How strong on this
point is holy Scripture. Thus the wise man, in the twelfth
chapter of Proverbs, makes kindness to domestic animals an act
of righteousness-the righteous man regardeth the life of his beast,
but the tender mercies of the wicked are cruel.' Thus, in the
fourth commandment, the rest of God's own day is declared to be
for the care of cattle, as well as their owners; and not only does
God's law protect animals as part of his property, and connected
with his selfishness, but it enjoins mercy to the cattle of our ene-
mies. If thou meet,' says the sacred lawgiver, in the fourth and
fifth verses of the 23d chapter of Exodus, thine enemy's ox or
ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring him back to him again;
if thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under his burden,
and wouldst forbear to help him, thou shalt surely help him.'
The blessed Saviour himself enjoins us to look after the wants of
animals-to lead them to water-if they fall into a pit, to draw
them out, even supposing it were on the Sabbath-day; and how
tenderly does the Almighty declare his mercy to the brute creation,
when he announces to the querulous prophet, that he withholds
the execution of his sentence against a wicked city, because of its
animals and irresponsible human beings-'Shall I not spare
Nineveh, that great city, in which are more than sixty thousand
people that cannot discern betwixt their right hand and their left,
and also much cattle.'

"The author whose arguments I am using supposes that our
domestic animals are less poisoned with the general malignity dif-
fused over the whole system than others; and that, perhaps, they
are not now very different from what they were in their original
state; and he further expatiates in fields of fancy, and supposes
that as each species of animal might before the fall represent some

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specific virtue or power of humanity, and thus exhibit emblems and unisons in the universal harmony; so now, in their present degeneracy, they show forth, and that but faintly, some specific fault or corruption in ourselves, and are but shadows of what is silly and vicious or disgusting in mankind; as, for instance, you look at a monkey; it is a ridiculous, a mischievous creature; may he not be a type of some absurd and idle coxcomb, that struts and frets and chatters amongst fine people? And I am sure there is many a poor dog on four legs, acting agreeably to his nature, not half so despicable as the said dog, with all pretension to rationality, religion, and gentility, who is every day guilty of social crimes, that if his brother brute committed he would be driven out of town with a kettle to his tail. The swine wallows in the mire, it is an ugly thing; so is it also swilling its food in a trough; but is it half so contemptible an animal as the gourmand who over-eats himself, and whose life's happiness depends upon his palate, and 'whose god is his belly?' and lo, the ferocity of wolves, the cunning of foxes, the treachery of cats-but what are they to the And cruelty, and unfaithfulness, and barbarity of mankind? there are faults of which No type can be found amongst the lower order of animals-ingratitude and insincerity are but of HUMAN growth. And, oh, how many stories could I tell you of the dog, the elephant, or even the tiger, that would put to shame the unfaithful servant, the false friend, the cruel slanderer. Need we, then, be surprised, if some, sick of their experience of human life, and smarting under wrongs committed, or fearful of treachery and evil to come, have fled from human to brute nature, and expended that love on the dog, or even the cat, they feared to lavish Fie, madam,' says Captain on one of their own species. O'Doherty to a lady caressing her lap-dog, and to whom he was paying his addresses, but whose wealth was greater than her beauty, fie, to lavish all your fondness upon a dumb brute, when you can find a man whose happiness depends upon the condescension of your smile.' 'Ah! sir,' says the fearful lady (and wealth enjoyed by the unmarried female often carries this forfeit), I am quite sure that Fido, my dog, loves me for myself, and therefore I can return his affection; but I have yet to find that you. or any other of your sex, love me rather than my money; and, therefore, with all the suspicion of the miller, while I fondle my dog

'I care for no man, no, not I,
Since no man cares for me." "

have just been using, "The learned man whose arguments having stated, as his premise, that animals think, reason, and will, draws the conclusion that they have souls, and, if souls, that these souls must be immortal; for God gave them the benediction of immortality when he pronounced them all very good; and though he allows that there are difficulties in the way of deciding on the immortality of their souls, he holds that there are greater connected with the utter extinction of their being after death. He allows, however, that in a future state each will retain its specific dignity and quality-the spirit of a man going upwards, and the spirit of a beast going downwards, each assuming their proper rank; but with this difference, that beasts will not be liable to punishment, because they transgressed not any command, they The apostle were not disobedient to the will of their Creator. Paul declares they were made subject to vanity, not willingly, not by any fault of their own, but by reason of (that is, on account of him, that is man) who had subjected them to it in hope.

"I am sorry that I cannot follow out further the arguments of this ingenious and very pious divine, who has been joined in his belief of the immortality of animals by many able and religious


Oh! but some may reply to the theorist whose arguments I adduce, there is such a monstrous difference between a man and a brute! Yes, and so there is between a man and an angel; and who can determine the lowest degree of human intelligence, and the highest pitch of brutal knowledge? I have a story before me of John Clod, the farmer, who went every night to the ale-house, his dog attending him. Clod generally came home drunk; the dog was a teetotaller; Clod made himself worse than a beast, and would roll in the ditch, were it not for the dog, who showed his

unimpaired rationality by holding his master by the coat, and
dragging him home safe from the ditches, ponds, and pits he
otherwise would have tumbled into.

"Understanding, then, according to my author, is but in
degree; and, therefore, if slowness of apprehension, narrowness of
understanding were an exclusion from the other world, what would
become of a large portion of the human race? Why, our species
should tremble for the consequence. So many honest fellows
turned to grass, degraded to the measure of an ass, and left to
browse on thistles. Take, for instance, out of Squire Brown's
head, his dog, his horse, and his whiskey-punch, and what would
remain but a vacuum, that his own pointer would be ashamed
of? Take from Lord Very Soft the aids of his tailor, his hair-
dresser, and his perfumer—what would he be ?—a butterfly would
be his superior; and I have in my eye a group of solemn, sallow,
lank-haired saturnine half-thinkers, and therefore they call them-
selves free-thinkers, and they decide they are free from all prejudices,
because they are full of their own sufficiency, and they know as
much about logic as a horse does about logarithms. I wish I had
power to confine them to a room, with a sufficiency of pens, ink,
and paper-still keeping from them Paine's Age of Reason, and
Owen's Social Bible, and a certain string of stale jokes out of
the Parson's Hornbook, about priestcraft and superstition-and
what would they be? Why, the elephant I have read of, who
saw a piece of bread so far beyond the bars of his enclosure that
he could not reach it with his proboscis, and therefore blew it
against an opposite wall so as to cause it, by the force of his breath,
to rebound and come within his reach, was a better arguer and a
sounder philosopher than a whole band of such Socialists.

"It is now time, after perhaps too tediously laying down the opinion of others, to state my own; and it is, that I see nothing in the structure, or instincts, or intellectual capacities of any animal but man, that has a tendency to the renewal of life in another world; observing, as I do, various intellectual powers, capable of promoting their own well-being and of contributing to the welfare of man, still I find no power of accumulating knowledge. The elephant is now no wiser than he was in the days of Alexander; the dog has not learned anything from his forefathers--he has not taken advantage of their mistakes or attainments; the ant advances not in the polity of her republic; the bee was as good a mathematician a thousand years ago. There is no progression-no power Give animals of combination; and this is as it should be; it is the means of upholding God's original grant of dominion to man. but a sense of power, and a capability of combination, and the brute or the insect creation could and would drive man from the face of the earth. But what is of still more consequence, I find no development whatsoever of the religious principle-not a spark of the expectation of another life. With man we see in the lowest of his species an expansiveness in the intellectual and moral structure that produces longings for immortality; and within the most darkened of the human race you can light up the aspirations, the hopes and fears, connected with another world. Compare in this way the lowest of the human family-the Bushmen of South Africa, whom Captain Harris in a recent work describes as follows:- They usually reside in holes and crannies in rocks; they possess neither flocks nor herds; they are unacquainted with agriculture; they live almost entirely on bulbous roots, locusts, reptiles, and the larvae of ants; their only dress is a piece of leather round their waist; and their speech resembles rather the chattering of monkeys than the language of human beings.' Now there is little or nothing here better than what is found amongst many of the inferior animals. But let us take a young Bushman, and put his mind under a right educational process, and we shall soon excite in him what we must ever fail to do in the young monkey, or dog, or elephant. We can communicate to him the expansiveness that belongs to an heir of immortality; within him are the germs of faith, hope, and religious love, which do not exist in inferior animals.

"Still I hold to my thesis that there are intellectual qualities belonging to animals which call for our observation, demand our

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