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met with a proper check; for our opium-trade stands on the same ground as the slave-trade, destroying the bodies and souls of men for " filthy lucre's sake."
rich are, of course, the chief consumers; but, despite the almost universal extent of the vice, when once a man gets a character for indulging in the habit, he is looked upon with distrust, and loses his respectability.
In other parts of the East, particularly in Turkey and Egypt, opium-eating is practised to a melancholy excess. In a marketplace near the mosque of Solymania, at Constantinople, are situated the coffee-houses where many who indulge in the perniSeated on a bench outside the door, the Theriaki, or opium-eaters, await those reveries, those unnatural excitements of the imagination, which the drug produces on their minds. The dose varies from three grains to a drachm; but those who are confirmed in the practice greatly exceed the latter quantum. The effects produced are, of course, violent in proportion to the quantity taken. An ordinary dose does not take effect before two hours, but lasts for four or five.
Although many species of the Cistus produce the gum labdanum, it is the Cistus creticus, or Turkish poppy, which brings forth the largest quantities and best quality of that drug. The gum labdanum exudes from the glands of the leaves, from which it was, in ancient times, collected by a curious expedient. Goats were driven among the shrubs, when the substance adhering to their hair and beardscious habit resort. was afterwards separated from the animals and purified. Now, however, that much larger quantities are demanded for the supply of an extensive commerce, a peculiar instrument is employed for that purpose; this is a sort of rake, with a double row of long leather straps. The whole process is described by Seiber, in his "Voyage to Crete," and is nearly the same as that employed both in Hindostan and Turkey :-" It was in the heat of the day, and not a breath of wind stirring-circumstances necessary to the gathering of labdanum. Seven or eight country fellows, in their shirts and drawers, were brushing the plants with their whips, the straps whereof, by rubbing against the leaves of this shrub, licked up a sort of odoriferous glue sticking to the leaves; this is the part of the nutritious juice of the plant which sweats through the texture of those leaves like a fatty dew, in shining drops as clear as turpentine. When the whips are sufficiently laden with this grease, they take a knife, and scrape it clear off the straps, and make it up into a mass of cakes of different sizes."
A man who is diligent may gather three pounds per day, or more, for the work is rather unpleasant than laborious; because it must be done in the sultry time of the day and in the deadest calm; for the wind blows dust upon the plants, which, from the glutinous character of the gum, often entirely covers them: hence, in spite of the careful purification it afterwards undergoes, the best opium is not always entirely free from filth. When clarified and made up into cakes, it is packed in chests and exported.
Opium is transported from Benares, Batavia, (which produce the best,) and other districts of British India, in vessels built expressly for that particular service, and called clippers. They are generally about 300 tons burden, barque-rigged, and fitted up in the first style. They are often perfect models of naval architecture, are manned with Lascars, and are reputed to sail very fast. When freighted, they make their way to China in a manner characteristic of their reckless errand. Unmindful of the time of year or state of weather, obliged to "crack on" in spite of either, they are in hourly danger of losing their masts, or of running, during the night, upon some of those reefs which stretch out from the land, in the straits between the Bay of Bengal and the Yellow Sea. Unable to land their cargoes openly, the opium is transhipped from the clippers into armed receiving vessels, stationed off the coast for that purpose. From thence it is discharged, in the night-time, into native boats, called, from the number of their oars, centipedes. These many-footed smugglers have to creep and steal through the narrow channels between the forts, and fight their way, if opposed by the mandarin or government boats, which are always lurking in every corner. Desperate affrays sometimes take place; but in general the "centipedes go in a body of twenty or thirty, and brave all opposition *." Immense quantities of opium are consumed in China. The Rev. Mr. Gutzlaff says, "There is, perhaps, in the whole history of commerce, no instance of the increased consumption of any article equal to that of opium. The hundreds of chests have become as many thousands, and these, again, are becoming as many tens of thousands; and where will the quantity cease to increase, if it goes on at the same progressive rate?" The manner of consuming it is by boiling it in water, and then smoking it in peculiarly-constructed pipes, like tobacco, whilst the wretched debauchee lies down. He very soon falls asleep, and on awaking takes a cup of tea, and again has recourse to his fatal pipe. This process is repeated till the smoker loses all consciousness, and he remains in a sort of trance until the powers of the drug have been exhausted upon his system.
The habitual opium-smoker might be recognised amidst a multitude. He is a walking shadow; his eyes stare with a want of expression, as if they were always gazing on vacancy; his limbs tremble, and his gait is tottering; his whole bodily frame is deranged, and his mental powers prostrated. Few opium-smokers in China reach the age of forty. The vice is not confined to one particular class, for all who can procure the drug make use of it; neither do they scruple to employ dishonesty to obtain it. The
* "The Fan Qui iu China," by C. T. Downing, Esq. 8vo. 1839.
Excited by the action of the drug upon the brain, the opiumeater begins to talk incoherently; his features become flushed, his eyes exhibit an unusual brilliancy, and the whole countenance assumes a wild expression. The after-debility, both moral and physical, is in proportion to this unusual excess of spirits. The appetite is soon destroyed; every fibre of the body trembles; and the nervous system is so completely disordered, that the victim is wretched until the hour arrives for taking his daily dose. When its delightful influence begins, he is all fire and animation.
Some opium-eaters compose excellent verses, and others address the bystanders with animation and eloquence. At Cairo, opium is compounded with conserves and aromatic spices, so as to produce different effects upon the taker, varying with the drugs with which it is mixed. One kind, it is said, causes the person who swallows it to manifest his pleasure by singing; another preparation will make him chatter; a third excites to dance; a fourth particularly affects the vision, in a pleasurable manner; while a fifth compound is simply sedative. The use of opium, though frequent in Egypt, is unlawful, and those who indulge in it are looked upon with the same degree of disgust as the habitual drunkard is regarded in England *.
Dr. Madden, while in Constantinople, resolved to experience the effects of the opium-dose, by taking it himself. "I commenced," says he, "with one grain. In the course of an hour and a half it produced no perceptible effect; the coffee-house keeper was very anxious to give me an additional pill of two grains, but I was contented with half a one; and in another half-hour, feeling nothing of the expected reverie, I took half a grain more— making in all two grains in the course of two hours. hours and a half from the first dose, I took two grains more; and shortly after this dose, my spirits became sensibly excited. The pleasures of the sensation seem to depend on the universal expansion of mind and matter. My faculties appeared enlarged-everything I looked on seemed increased in volume. I had no longer the same pleasure when I closed my eyes which I had when they were open; it appeared to me as if it was only external objects which were acted on by the imagination, and magnified into images of pleasure; in short, it was the faint exquisite music of a dream' in a waking moment. I made my way home as fast as possible, dreading at every step that I should commit some extravagance. In walking, I was hardly sensible of my feet touching the ground; it seemed as if I slid along in the street, impeiled by some invisible agent, and that my blood was composed of some ethereal fluid, which rendered my body lighter than air. I got to bed the moment I reached home: the most extraordinary visions filled my brain all night. In the morning I rose pale and dispirited; my head ached; my body was so debilitated, that I was obliged to remain on the sofa all the day, dearly paying for my first essay at opium-eating."
To return to China. During the year 1837, no fewer than 16,916 chests of opium were exported to Canton. Each chest containing 120 pounds, makes the gross weight of opium sold to the Chinese during that year amount to 2,029,920 lbs. ; for which were paid to the Bengal merchants two millions and a half sterling.
We perceive, from a newspaper paragraph, that it is affirmed that opium eating has increased so much in Great Britain recently, that the insurance societies are beginning to take the alarm, as the habit of opium eating has a most destructive influence on life. It is affirmed, also, that this increase of a bad habit may be traced to the spread of temperance societies. We should like to see this assertion disproved or confirmed.
* See "Lane's Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians," vol. i. p. 124; vol. ii. p. 40.
WHAT EDUCATION IS.
EDUCATION does not mean merely reading and writing, nor any degree, however considerable, of mere intellectual instruction. It is, in its largest sense, a process which extends from the commencement to the termination of existence. A child comes into the world, and at once his education begins. Often at his birth the seeds of disease or deformity are sown in his constitution; and while he hangs at his mother's breast, he is imbibing impressions which will remain with him through life. During the first period of infancy, the physical frame expands and strengthens; but its delicate structure is influenced for good or evil by all surrounding circumstances-cleanliness, light, air, food, warmth. By and by, the young being within shows itself more. The senses become quicker; the desires and affections assume a more definite shape. Every object which gives a sensation-every desire gratified or denied every act, word, or look of affection or of unkindness, has its effect--sometimes slight and imperceptible, sometimes obvious and permanent-in building up the human being; or, rather, in determining the direction in which it will shoot up and unfold itself. Through the different states of the infant, the child, the boy, the youth, the man, the development of his physical, intellectual, and moral nature goes on; the various circumstances of his condition incessantly acting upon him. The healthfulness or unhealthfulness of the air he breathes; the kind and the sufficiency of his food and clothing; the degree in which his physical powers are exerted; the freedom with which his senses are allowed or encouraged to exercise themselves upon external objects; the extent to which his faculties of remembering, comparing, reasoning, are tasked; the sounds and sights of home; the moral example of parents; the discipline of school; the nature and degree of his studies, rewards, and punishments; the personal qualities of his companions; the opinions and practices of the society, juvenile and advanced, in which he moves; and the character of the public institutions under which he lives ;—the successive operation of all these circumstances upon a human being from earliest childhood constitutes his education; an education which does not terminate with the arrival of manhood, but continues through life-which is itself, upon the concurrent testimony of revelation and reason, a state of probation or education for a subsequent and more glorious
existence. The Educator.
AND THE OTHER BRITISH SETTLEMENTS IN THE STRAITS OF MALACCA.
THE settlement of Singapore, and our other possessions in the Straits of Malacca, are, although their names may be familiar to the ear, comparatively but little known to any, save those who, by commercial or professional relations, have been led to pay attention to these outposts of British authority. Indeed, the immense advantages that might be derived from a more extended traffic among the countless islands of the Indian Archipelago have been much neglected, and the long-permitted monopolies of the Dutch seem almost to have paralysed the efforts of the free trader. The recent infringements by the Dutch of the treaty of 1824, to which we shall presently allude, and their undisguised attempts to check our Eastern trade as much as lies in their power, are beginning to excite considerable interest in the commercial world, from which we augur very favourable results, as likely to lead to the develop. ment of resources as yet unexplored. A very excellent Political and Statistical Account of the British Settlements in the Straits of Malacca has in good season been put forth by Mr. Newbold *. We last week extracted from it a very curious account of the Benuas, or wild tribes of the peninsula of Malacca; and we shall now avail ourselves of it to lay before our readers some particulars of the present state of Singapore, and our other Malayan posses
"The Straits of Malacca to the north," says Mr. Newbold, "and the Straits of Sunda to the south, are the two great channels of intercourse between China, the Indian Archipelago, Continental
Political and Statistical Account of the British Settlements in the Straits of Malacca-viz. Pinang, Malacca, and Singapore; with a History of the Malayan States of the Peninsula of Malacca. By T. I. Newbold, Esq., Lieut. 23d Madras Light Infantry, &c. &c.--Two Vols. 8vo.-Murray, 1839.
India, and the Western world. The Straits of Malacca immediately connect the Bay of Bengal with the China Seas, and are formed by the island of Sumatra and the Malay peninsula-the latter stretching out from the great continent of Asia in a south-by-easterly direction, and terminating within a degree and a half of the equator, constitutes the eastern limits; while the northern part of the great island of Sumatra, taking an almost parallel direction, constitutes the opposite or western boundary. Geographically speaking, these straits lie between the equator and the 9th degree of north latitude, and the 94th and 104th degrees of east longitude.
"Below the northern entrance, close to the Malayan peninsula, and nearly parallel with Achin Head, the northern point of Sumatra, lies the small island of Pinang, the site of our first set. tlement; 260 miles farther down the Straits, on the coast of the peninsula, stands our next establishment, Malacca; 120 miles below Malacca, close to the south-eastern extremity of the peninsula, and almost commanding the entrance into the China Seas, stands our latest and most thriving settlement, Singapore, on an island separated by a narrow strait from the mainland.
"With the exception of a small extent of territory on the peninsula, opposite Pinang and around Malacca, the coasts on both sides are in possession of Malay chiefs, who are generally notorious for their encouragement of piracy; and the numerous jungly inlets are the resort of professed buccaneers or needy fishermen. latitude 8° 9' N. to latitude 1° 22' N., where it terminates at "The Malayan peninsula, properly so called, extends from Point Romania,' or, more correctly speaking, Ramúnia; the most southerly land of continental Asia. To the north it is connected with the great continent of India, by the isthmus of Kraw, which, according to Forrest, in its narrowest part does not exceed ninetyseven miles across from sea to sea. He states, that by this isthmus an overland intercourse, for the conveyance of letters to and from China, might be established, which would obviate the necessity of going round Point Ramúnia, by the Straits of Malacca and Singapore; there being a navigable river on the west side, where the portage is but six hours from another river, called the Tomfóng, which falls into the Gulf of Siam, near the Larchin Islands. Natives of this part affirm that a canal might easily be made across the peninsula, connecting the Bay of Bengal with the China Seas, by joining the two rivers. This is a subject well worthy the attention of government.
"Prior to the close of the last century, Great Britain had no settlement in the Straits, beyond petty factories at Achin [Sumatra] and Quedah [on the mainland to the north of Pinang]. In July, 1786, the island of Pinang was transferred by Captain Light to the East India Company; an establishment was formed, and Captain Light judiciously placed at the head of it. At this time the Dutch were in possession of Malacca and of Rhio, on the island of Bintan, near Singapore. Malacca was occupied by the British in 1795; and, lastly, Singapore in 1818. Malacca was restored to Holland at the peace of Amiens in 1801; again taken at the recommencement of hostilities in 1807; restored after the peace in 1818, and resumed a third time in 1825 by the British, in whose possession it still remains."
The population of the Straits is of a mixed character. The Malays constitute about one-half, the Chinese one-sixth, of the whole. Settlers from continental India rank next in number; and the remainder is made up of Europeans, Siamese, Caffres (slaves), Javans, Burmese, Bugis, and Balinese, and a few Arabs, Jews, and Armenians. The total, in 1836, amounted to 153,230.
Mr. Newbold gives some particulars concerning the Chinese part of the population, which are curious. "The Chinese," he says, "it is well known, are emigrants from China. They are widely scattered over the principal islands of the Eastern Archi. pelago, and the Ultra Gangetic nations, including Siam, Tonquin, Cochin China, Cambodia, Laos, and the Malayan peninsula, where their number is estimated at nearly a million. In the British settlements in the Straits, their number is not less than 28,854. Some persons have ascribed their emigration to the influence of European protection; but this can hardly be the case, since it is known by the natives to have continued from a very remote period. The early European navigators found colonies of Chinese scattered over Java, Borneo, and other islands. They are also located in states removed from the pale of British dominion;
bad soldiers, it is said; but the experiment has not, I believe, been yet properly tried under British authority. They are capable of any crime, provided they run no direct personal risk. În small bodies, when well looked after, and ruled by the strong hand of power, they form an excellent class of subjects; but when the reins of Government are slack, they are apt to turn refractory and rebellious.
in those of Siam, Borneo, Tringanu, Pohang, and in numberless others. "Wherever money is to be acquired by the peaceful exercise of agriculture, by handicrafts, by the opening of mines of tin, iron, or gold, amidst savage hordes and wild forests, there will be found the greedy Chinese. The auri sacra fames is with them a ruling passion: the certainty of being subjected to extortion by the native chiefs, the probability of encountering robbery, and even death, "The secret fraternities in which they enrol themselves, for muhave scarcely any influence in deterring them from the eager tual protection and support, prove powerful engines for political pursuit of gain. The cause of emigration is almost invariably combinations, as the Dutch have repeatedly experienced during pecuniary want or political necessity. The dense population of their long administration in Java and in the Malayan states. In the Celestial Empire embraces a large proportion of paupers, who China itself these societies are deemed so dangerous to the goare a burden to the state. To disencumber itself of this burden, vernment, as to be interdicted under penalty of death. At Pinang, the government throws few obstacles in the way of the poorer in 1799, they set the administration at defiance, and strong meaclasses of its subjects quitting the country (a practice, however, sures were necessary to reduce them to obedience. Even in the diametrically opposite to its ancient laws); but takes care to pro- present day, the ends of justice are frequently defeated both at Pivide for the future increase of its revenue, by encouraging, as nang, Malacca, and Singapore, by bribery, false swearing, and somemuch as possible, the return to their native country of all who have times by open violence, owing to combinations of these fraternienriched themselves with the spoils of barbarian lands.' To ties formed for the purpose of screening guilty members from dethis object tends the strict inhibition of the egress of females from tection and punishment. In European settlements they are under the ports of China. Men who have left wives and children behind, the general control of an officer or headman, styled Capitan,' naturally desire to revisit their homes; while the unmarried are who receives a salary from government, and is responsible, in some induced to return, in order to take unto themselves wives from the measure, for the orderly conduct of his countrymen, whose repretiny-footed daughters of Han. All classes, too, are imbued, by sentative and official organ he is. Their interior affairs, disputes, early education, with a deep veneration for the ashes of their and private interests, are arranged by the heads of their respective ancestors, to which the tenets of their religion bind them to pay Kongsis, or fraternities." stated visits. Some few, however, of the many settlers, who live in a state of concubinage with the females of the places in which they are located, and their descendants, remain permanently fixed."
Mr. Newbold observes upon the great drainage which these active birds of passage make from the funds of the countries they visit. As an instance of the great extent to which it is carried, he quotes the statement of Capt. Low, who says, " that when Pinang contained only 3000 Chinese, the annual remittance to China from the proceeds of gambling alone was estimated at 10,000 Spanish dollars." Mr. Newbold thinks that this systematic drainage should be checked, and, if possible, the greater part of the stream turned to account in the country whence it derives its source. This we fear it would be difficult to achieve without putting a stop to the emigration altogether; and it is evident that such a course would be very disadvantageous to the interests of those who at present employ the Chinese, who are far better workmen, and infinitely more industrious than any other labourers to be found in the straits. "The wages of the three following classes," says Mr. Newbold, "for ordinary labour, will afford some idea of their relative industry and usefulness. A Chinese gets from four to six Spanish dollars a month; a Kling (Hindoo), from three to four and a half; and a Malay from two and a half to four and a half. The Panghulu, or headman, should have at least from five to seven dollars. Chinese carpenter will earn about fifteen dollars a month; a Kling, eight, and a Malay, only five. Malay women and children employed in weeding get from three to eight cents per diem.
We have allowed ourselves to occupy a greater space than we otherwise should have done with these particulars concerning the Chinese character, since all that relates to that singular people is at present possessed of peculiar interest. We shall now proceed to give a brief glance at the recent conduct of the Dutch in relation to Eastern affairs, and then touch upon the important settlement of Singapore.
In the year 1824 a treaty was concluded with the Dutch, by which England, in her eagerness to obtain one desired object-the consolidation of her Eastern dominions-bound herself, perhaps inconsiderately, in too strict conditions. The Dutch were in possession of the twice-conquered Malacca, and of some decayed factories on the continent of India; we had settlements on the rich island of Sumatra, and everything seemed to favour the extension of our influence over many other places among the southern archipelago, now shut out from our colonisation, which would have gone far to upset Dutch monopolies. Prospective advantages, however, appear to have given place entirely, in 1824, to immediate convenience; and as the price of Malacca, and the Dutch Indian factories, together with the gracious permission of his Dutch Majesty to occupy Singapore, of which we were already in full and free possession, under a treaty with the native owners, we surrendered all our settlements on Sumatra, and entered into an agreement that for the future no British settlement should be formed on that island; that no treaty should be concluded by British authority with any native prince, chief, or state therein; that no British establishment should be made on the Carimon islands, or on the islands of Battam, Bintan, Lingin, or any of the other by British authority with the chiefs of those islands. This sweeping clause politically shuts us out from the richest part of Borneo, the tin mines of Banca, the islands of Billiton, Madura, Bali, Bombah, Sumbawa, Flores, and nearly the whole of the Celebes, in addition to the loss of Achin and the rest of Sumatra. The Dutch still retain Java and the Spice islands; and until the odious monopoly of the very valuable produce of these islands be abolished, free trade can hardly be expected to exist in the archipelago.
"The emigrants in the Straits are chiefly from Canton and Fokien, and from Macao. They follow the occupations of agricultu-islands south of the straits of Singapore, nor any treaty concluded rists, pepper and spice planters, shoemakers, goldsmiths, blacksmiths, gunsmiths, carpenters, bakers, or miners. A few, in most instances natives of Fokien, rise to be merchants, in which capacity they exhibit a strong propensity to speculate largely a spirit probably identical with that of gambling so commonly evinced. The Canton emigrants are the best miners and artisans."
Mr. Newbold gives the following character of the Chinese, which we have good reason for believing to be a very fair estimate of that singular nation. The secret fraternities which he refers to, bear a strong resemblance to those trade associations which are common with us, by whose means the mechanic who "seeks to better himself" may traverse the kingdom armed with his Secretary's pass,' or by whatever other name the mystic symbol of initiation may be known, certain of a "fraternal" reception wherever he may wander.
By the provisions of the treaty it was mutually stipulated by the contracting powers that their subjects should be reciprocally admitted to trade with each other on the footing of the most favoured nations, and that the duty charged should in no case exceed double the amount levied upon the subjects of the power imposing the duty. The Dutch have, within these few years, grossly infringed these conditions, and have almost undisguisedly shown their desire to exclude us entirely from any participation in the benefit of traffic with the Southern Archipelago. Their conduct in some respects resembles that of the dog in the manger, for so far from themselves seeking fully to develope the resources of these islands, they do all in their power to discourage the
"The character of the Chinese," says Mr. Newbold, " may be summed up in a few words. They are active, industrious, persevering, intelligent, educated sufficiently to read, write, and to use the swampan or reckoning-board. They are entirely free from prejudices of caste and superstition, which are grand stumblingblocks to the natives of India. On the other hand, they are selfish, sensual, ardent lovers of money, though not misers, invete-natives from any further exertion than just suits their own purposes, rate gamblers, and often addicted to smoking opium. The Chinese will expose himself to all dangers for the sake of gain, though he would not stir a finger to save a drowning comrade. They make
and instead of seeking to extend the blessings of civilization, they look upon it as inimical to the monopoly they would fain establish. These observations may appear very harsh, but they are
fully borne out by the account of the state of many of these islands given in the " voyage of the Himmaleh" noticed in the 19th Number of the LONDON SATURDAY JOURNAL.
"In the commencement of 1834," says Mr. Newbold, "the Batavian government took upon itself to increase the duty of 35 per cent. (also illegal), imposed since February, 1824, upon all imported cotton and woollen goods of British manufacture from Singapore, to the exorbitant height of 70 per cent. And, not satisfied with this, towards the close of the same year, it actually passed a resolution, dated 14th November, prohibiting in effect the importation from Singapore of these articles into any of the Dutch possessions and dependencies in the Eastern Archipelago, saving only the three principal ports of Batavia, Samarang, and Surabaya, in the island of Java, by enacting that importations should not take place into any other than the said three ports, unless the goods were accompanied by a certificate from the Comptroller of Customs at Batavia, Samarang, or Surabaya, that they had first been imported into and exported from one of these ports. This act has not only blighted the profitable commerce of Singapore in these articles with all the ports of Sumatra, Banca, and the vast islands of Borneo and Celebes, which are under the control of the Dutch, but has driven away much of the native craft that used to frequent the harbour of Singapore into Dutch ports; thus infringing also the 4th article of the same treaty, which stipulates that nothing shall be done to impede a free communication of the natives of the Eastern Archipelago with the ports of the two governments respectively, or of the subjects of the two governments with the ports belonging to native powers." A petition to Council has been forwarded from Singapore, setting forth the conduct of the Dutch, but nothing, or at least nothing effectual, has yet been done to remedy the evil; and by the latest advices from Singapore, we learn that the Dutch still adhere to their unjust policy, and not content with their other infringements of the treaty, are actively engaged in pushing their conquests in Sumatra, with the avowed purpose of excluding us from the trade, yet more effectually, by their occupation of ports hitherto in the hands of natives, and consequently open to us. It is surely time that a lesson upon the law of nations should be read to these monopolists, and since Captain Dalgetty's favourite maxim, "Fides et fiducia sunt relativa," is on all hands allowed to be strictly applicable to commercial treaties, they will have "no just cause to blame us," if we consider this obnoxious treaty as virtually annulled. Until this shall be declared to be the case, the islands of the Archipelago will never emerge from barbarism; it is Dutch policy to perpetuate ignorance, and not until British capital and intelligence have free play will these rich and fertile countries enjoy the benefits of moral or physical culture.
Quitting this disagreeable subject, let us turn to Singapore, a most remarkable example of the effects of a liberal and enlightened policy (we quote from Mr. Newbold's book). "Singapore, or, more properly speaking, Singhapura, is an island situated near Point Ramúnia, or Romania, the southern limit of continental Asia, at the extremity of the Malayan Peninsula, from which it is divided by a narrow strait, in many parts not exceeding half a mile in breadth. This channel was formerly used by navigators sailing between India and China. The average length east and west of the island is twenty-five miles, by eleven in breadth, giving an area of 275 square miles. About nine miles south of the island runs a chain of islets, under British sway, frequented by fishermen and pirates; the whole within a circumference of about 100 miles. The channel flowing between them and the island just described, forms the present strait of Singapore-the great thoroughfare of Indian, European, and Chinese traffic. A narrow passage, called New Harbour, has lately been discovered to the west of Singapore, through which vessels can pass and avoid the circuitous route by St. John's.
not having such regular alternations of the land and sea breezes, it is said to be much hotter, and not so healthy. The thermometer, Fahrenheit, ranges from 71° to 89°. Singapore being nearer the equator than Pinang and Malacca, the influence of the monsoons is even less felt there than at either of those settlements. The island is kept in a state of perpetual verdure by frequent tropical showers. "There appears to be little doubt that the alluvial soil of Singapore, lying as it does on the face of a country in most parts well supplied with the requisite temperature and moisture, provided it be of sufficient depth, is fully capable of producing, with profit to the cultivator, nutmegs, pepper, sugar, cotton, coffee, and gambier *. Cloves have been attempted, but the trees have generally died away at the age of five or six years. Nutmegs have succeeded, as well as coffee and pepper. The latest accounts state, that so confident are the Chinese of success in this article (coffee), that they are everywhere extending their plantations, and there are now several with 2000 to 3000 young plants coming up. The produce of the Chinese pepper-gardens, in 1836, is estimated at 10,000 piculs. Speculations in the cultivation of cotton have been entered into by several European public-spirited individuals with every prospect of success. For rice, the staff of life in the East, Singapore is dependent on Java, Bengal, and Sumatra for fruits, pigs, poultry, and cattle, in great measure on Malacca. The coral reefs and shoals, in the vicinity of Singapore, furnish that delicate fern-like sea-weed, called by the Malays aggar-aggar (the Fucus saccharinus), in abundance. It forms an article of considerable export to China. The Chinese use it in their glues and varnishes. It is made into a very fine jelly by Europeans and native Portuguese. The average produce annually is 6000 piculs, at three dollars a picul."
The British flag was first hoisted at Singapore in 1819. When Malacca was given up to the Dutch in the preceding year, the want of another British settlement in the States was very forcibly felt, and it was at first proposed to occupy the isle of Rhio, about sixty miles from Singapore, where the Dutch had formerly had an establishment, which they had abandoned. But when the British Commissioners (Sir Stamford Raffles, with Colonel Farqubar and Captain Ross,) reached the Straits, they found the Dutch had been beforehand with them, and had again obtained possession of Rhio. "Nothing, therefore," says Mr. Newbold," was left for the Commissioners but the occupation of some eligible island in the vicinity. Singapore was the island wisely selected. Thus Rhio has been the means of giving birth to a rival who has not only absorbed most of her trade, but who has totally annihilated the ambitious dreams entertained by Holland of monopolising the rich commerce of the Eastern seas. cannot exist a stronger contrast than that presented by these two ports, the benefits of free trade on one side, and the deleterious effects of taxation on the other. The Dutch latterly, finding their harbour almost deserted, have either taken off or reduced very materially the heavy taxations.
"The population of the island of Singapore, in 1819, amounted to about 150 fishermen and pirates, living in a few miserable huts: about thirty of these were Chinese, the remainder Malays. It rapidly increased in less than one year to nearly 5000, principally Chinese; and, in November, 1822, we are informed by Sir Stamford Raffles, that the population of the town of Singapore amounted to at least 10,000 inhabitants of all nations, actually engaged in profitable commercial pursuits, and land rapidly increasing in value. In 1836-7, its population amounted to 29,984.
"The junks from China bring annually a large number of Chinese settlers. The censuses include neither the military, their followers, nor the convicts—the number of whom may be estimated at about 1200,-and the Europeans and Chinese constitute the wealthier classes. The Europeans are for the most part merchants, shopkeepers, and agents for mercantile houses in Europe. Most of the artisans, labourers, agriculturists, and shopkeepers, are Chinese. The Malays subsist chiefly by fishing, collecting seaweed, and cutting timber: numbers are employed as boatmen and sailors, a mode of life peculiarly congenial to Malay habits. The Bugis are almost invariably engaged in commerce, and
Singapore, and most of the islets in the vicinity, are covered with luxuriant jungle to the water's edge, presenting to the eye of the voyager a scene that has repeatedly excited the most rapturous admiration. The surface of the island of Singapore is low and undulating, in some parts rising into rounded hills covered with jungle; the intervening flats, and some low tracts near the coast, are swampy. The soil of the flats is generally blackish, from the great proportion of the decayed vegetable matter it contains; while that on the hills is red of various shades. The climate resembles that of Malacca; though, from the circumstance of its of the nations of the East with their betel, and by the Chinese for tanning
The climate of Malacca is justly celebrated for its salubrity; though, as is the case with the climates of all countries near the equator, it is found fault with, not unreasonably, on account of its moistness and occasional closeness.
The inspissated juice of the Nauclea Gambir: it is used largely by most leather. It is used in Europe under the names of Terra Japonica, or Catechu. as an astringent medicine.
† Convicts are sent from the Continent of India to Pinang, Malacca, and Singapore.
the natives of India as petty shopkeepers, boatmen, servants, &c."
An Anglo-Chinese college is established at Malacca, of which we have the following account :-"Its objects are mainly the reciprocal cultivation of Chinese and European literature, and the diffusion of Christianity. European tutors are appointed to instruct the Europeans in Chinese; and to instruct the Chinese, with other ultra-Gangetic nations reading Chinese, in European literature. There are also two native Chinese teachers. Provision is made for instruction in the Malay language and in ultra-Gangetic literature, but as subordinate objects. To European students, the Chinese language is taught, either for religious, literary, or commercial purposes; and to the Native students, geography, history, moral philosophy, and Christianity. The resources of this institution are fees paid by European and native students who are able to maintain themselves, and voluntary contributions. Students eligible for admission are persons from any nation in Europe, or from America; persons of any Christian communion, bringing with them proper testimonials of their moral habits, and of the objects they have in view; persons from European or other universities, having travelling fellowships; persons belonging to commercial companies; and persons attached to the establishment of official representatives of foreign nations. Also native youths, belonging to China and its tributary kingdoms, or to any of the islands and countries around, who either support themselves, or are supported by Christian societies, or by private gentlemen, who wish to serve them by giving them the means of obtaining a knowledge of the elements of English literature." Attached to the college is an English, Chinese, and Malay press, and also a library.
A similar institution, to which it was proposed to remove the Malacca establishment, was projected at Singapore, and 15,000 dollars were expended on the erection of suitable buildings, which still remain unfinished; but, "from causes too long for detail," says Mr. Newbold, "the scheme fell through, and the unfinished building has been fast going to ruin, though lately, I understand, it has undergone some repair. The Company liberally bestowed a donation of 4000 Spanish dollars, and a monthly allowance of 300 Spanish dollars, upon the Chinese and Malayan schools. The Singapore institution, as it exists at present, consists of three schools, English, Malay and Tamul. It receives the support of Government to the amount of 200 rupees per mensem, but is principally supported by subscriptions. The number of scholars amounts to upwards of seventy. A Chinese school on a large scale is contemplated when the building is ready for its reception. A number of Chinese youths are to be admitted as students to reside at the institution and to receive instruction in both English and Chinese for a term of four or five years."
We are sorry that our limits do not permit us to go into details upon the subject of the trade carried on at Singapore, or the state of Pinang and Malacca, for which ample materials are furnished by Mr. Newbold; but we are warned to conclude, and will do so with the following brief view of the rapid progress of Singapore, which, be it recollected, is to be regarded more as an emporium of the productions of other places than as trading in its own commodities:
"The first free port of modern times, in which the principles of free trade have been carried into practice, is Singapore. In little more than a twelvemonth after the adoption of them, its harbour presented a pleasing prospect of future prosperity; besides ships, brigs, prows, &c., we are informed by Colonel Farquhar, the then resident, that upwards of twenty junks, three from China, two from Cochin China, and the rest from Siam and other quarters, were lying at anchor. Merchants of all descriptions were congregating so fast, that nothing was heard of in the shape of complaint, but the want of more ground to build upon. According to Sir Stamford Raffles, its exports and imports by native boats alone exceeded four millions of dollars in the year; and during the first two years and a half, no less than 2889 vessels entered and cleared from the port, of which 383 were owned and commanded by Europeans, and 1526 by Natives, their united tonnage amounting to 161,000 tons, giving a total amount of about eight millions of dollars as the capital turned. In the year 1822, the tonnage amounted to 130,689 tons, and the total value of exports and imports to upwards of eight millions of dollars; in 1824, to more than thirteen millions; and in 1835-6, to upwards of fourteen millions."
This institution owes much to the exertions of the late Dr. Morrison, who gave 1,000l. towards the erection of the college, and endowed it with 1007. annually for the next five years.
IMPORTANCE OF THE ARTS.
THIS is, indeed, not more a display of the triumph of the fine arts, than of the deep interest which the most distinguished classes of the community take in their progress; and well they may! Of those pursuits, what has not been said, what panegyrics not pronounced, hundreds, almost thousands, of years ago, by the most eloquent of tongues! That they are the ornament of prosperous fortune and the solace of adverse-give a zest to our daily toil, and watch with us through the sleepless night-enliven the solitude of the country, and tranquillise the bustle and turmoil of the town,all this is true, but it is not the whole truth. All this they do, and much more. The fine arts are great improvers of mankind; they are living sources of refinement-the offspring, indeed, of civilization; but, like her of Greece whose piety they have so often commemorated, nourishing the parent from whom their existence was derived-softening and humanising the characters of menassuaging the fierceness of the wilder passions; substituting calm and harmless enjoyment for more perilous excitement-maintaining the innocent intercourse of nations, and affording one more pledge of peace, their great patroness and protectress, as she is of all that is most precious and most excellent among men. It becomes us all, then, most diligently to foster them. It is the duty of the Government, it is the interest of the country. No station is so exalted, no fortune so splendid, as not to derive lustre from bestowing such patronage-no lot so obscure as not to participate in the benefits they diffuse.-Lord Brougham.
TREASURE-FINDING IN THE REIGN OF QUEEN ELIZABETH.
THE following letter, addressed to the great Lord Burleigh, is a curious specimen of the superstition still prevalent in the days of "good Queen Bess."
Leave your lordship to understand that there is a castell in the parish of Skemfryth, in the countie of Montgomery, your lordship graunt full authoritie unto mine own selfe, I am a poore subject of the queen's, if there be any treasure there, your lordship shall know it, for by the voice of the countrey there is treasure. No man in remembrance was ever sene to open it, and great warrs hath been at it; and there was a place not farr from it whose name is Gamdon, that is as much as to say the game is down. Pray you, good my lord, your letter to the castle, craving your lordship's free authority to open, and if treasure be there, I will use it as it ought to be, and I will stand to your lordship's to give me what you please. For the countrey saith there is great treasure. The voice of the countrey goeth there is a dyvell and his dame, one sits upon a hogshed of gold, the other upon a hogshed of silver; yet, neverthelesse, with your lordship's full power and authoritie, they shall be removed, by the grace of God, without any charge to the quene and your lordship. If that treasure be there, then I will look for something at your hands. So praying your lordship's answer for the present despatche, so I bid your lordship farewell. From the Tower of London, this 28th of April, 1589. Your lordship's to commande,
"Your lordship's owne hand write the Lord Treasurer underneath this petition, as for example"THE LORD TREASURER."
-Queen Elizabeth and Her Times.
PREROGATIVES OF ENGLISH WOMEN.
PETER HEYLIN, in his " Cosmographie," 1652, says "The women of England, generally more handsome than in other places, are sufficiently endowed with natural beauties, without the addition of adulterate sophistications. In an absolute woman, say the Italians, are required the parts of a Dutch woman from the girdle downwards; of a French woman, from the girdle to the shoulders; over which must be placed an English face. As their beauties, so also their prerogatives are greater than any nation; neither so servilely submissive as the French, nor so jealously guarded as the Italian; but keeping so true a decorum, that, as England is termed the Purgatory of Servants and the Hell of Horses, so is it acknow. ledged the Paradise of Women. It is a common by-word among the Italians, that if there were a bridge built across the narrow seas, all the women in Europe would run into England: for here they have the upper hand in the streets, the upper place at the table, the thirds of their husbands' estates, and their equal share of all lands-privileges with which other women are not acquainted."