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barn to swap stories or to have their first smoke. Many recent writers on the psychology of youth have paid their respects to the boy's gang. Sheldon made a searching study of boys' spontaneous organizations. He found that 1,139 boys had 934 societies. Similarly 911 organizations were found among 1,145 girls. Forbush reported 862 societies among 1022 boys and Puffer who made a study of the Lyman Industrial School for Boys found that 128 of the 146 studied belonged to gangs. The morning paper chronicling some youthful depredation is most certain to mention a gang or band to which an erring boy belonged. Often the gang becomes a predatory society, but even more often athletic clubs are organized. The writer remembers a boxing club to which he belonged. It met nightly in a back alley shanty during an entire winter. It was organized because boxing had been forbidden at school.

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Swift says "Gangs are the expression of primitive tendencies. An environment incapable of draining off these instincts into channels which make for social growth perpetuates the racial impulses of early man. The acts in which gangs engage always have a social content. A group may be large or small, but if the boys have a common purpose which binds them together for exploits and mutual protection they constitute a gang. In the case of small boys, however, the bond of union often breaks when they are caught. . The names of some of the gangs among the inmates of the Lyman School are suggestive of the aims and life of the lads. "The Eggmen' (because they robbed farmers), 'The Wharf Rats' (because their meeting place was a wharf), 'Liners,' and 'Crooks' are among those mentioned by Puffer." Sometimes the name, however, is much more terrible than the activities of the organization. The writer watched for many years "The Dirty Dozen" which consisted of a dozen boys who

Youth and the Race, pp. 246-249.

stuck together from the grammar school through high school; and now even in college and business life, about half of them still stick together. During the life of the organization the members did not smoke, swear, or commit any depredations. Every Sunday evening they went to the same church where they had fitted up a room, equipped it with cooking utensils and had their supper together, then went to the services, often appearing inattentive or irreverent, and waited for the girls at the steps. Every one later voluntarily shouldered a rifle or assumed some responsibility in the World War, two of them paying the supreme sacrifice while in the service of their country.

One of the social qualities much desired by youth and Leadership adults and admired by all, even by children, is that of leadership. It is possessed by different individuals in very different degrees. Even in childhood some possess natural qualities which mark them out as leaders-even in mischief. The great majority of human beings are really followers; which is a social trait and implies leaders and recognition of leadership. Doubtless most men might be leaders in something were the germs of leadership developed at the proper period.

Hero worship is very strong in children from ten to sixteen or eighteen, when they will do almost anything commended by leaders. Howells tells us1 that the boys in "A Boy's Town" even looked up to not only the Whig politicians of the town, but also to some "dandies, whom their splendor in dress had given a public importance," to "certain genteel loafers, young men of good families, who hung about the principal hotel, and whom the boys believed to be fighters of singular prowess." They also even admired some professional drunkards "whom the boys regarded as the keystones, if not the cornerstones, of the social edifice."

1A Boy's Town, Ch. 20.

Doll Play

Swift has shown convincingly how it is possible to utilize the gang spirit of boys, and the same could be said of girls, in developing real leadership and the finest of loyalty to the leaders and mandates of the group. Puffer1 has shown that leaders, even in the gang, excel in truthfulness, perseverance, bravery, reason, shrewdness, and independence. Mrs. Jacob A. Riis says she found that it was easy to convert the gang by first enlisting the fealty of the leader. Many a wise teacher had also discovered that disciplinary problems disappear when leaders in mischief are induced to array themselves on the side of the teacher.

Undoubtedly one of the earliest manifestations of the parental instinct is in doll play. At an early age both girls and boys play constantly with dolls. Boys give up this play earlier than girls because of traditional attitudes of those around them toward doll play. Sully writes that boys "not infrequently go through a stage of doll love also, and are hardly less devoted than girls." According to Miss Tanners "The love of dolls appears to reach its height in the ninth year although strong from the third year to the twelfth. Many girls play with dolls until they go into long dresses and are ridiculed for their love of it; and not a few ladies confess to the existence of the passion." Dr. Hall believes that doll play is not wholly an evidence of the parental instinct but partly due to fetishism and religion. Sir John Lubbock also says that the doll is "a hybrid between the baby and the fetish." Hall has said in his classic study of dolls: "The educational value of dolls is enormous. It educates the heart and will, even more than the intellect, and to learn how to control and apply doll play will be to discover a new instrument in education of the very highest potency. Every parent and every teacher who can deal with individ

The Boy and His Gang.

Studies of Childhood, p. 43.

The Child, His Thinking, Feeling and Doing, p. 405.

Origin of Civilization, p. 521.

Aspects of Child Life and Education, p. 194.

uals at all should study the doll habits of each child, now discouraging and repressing, now stimulating by hint or suggestion.

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Gradually the parental instinct develops and shows itself in the care for children, although in boys it appears to be almost entirely suppressed during the years when they are most influenced by the gang spirit. With the onset of adolescence the sex instinct matures with astonishing rapidity, becoming often an almost overmastering passion of the lower animal type. Sometimes gradually, sometimes almost in a flash the emotion of love for the other sex appears, and if there is fortunate choice in the object of affection the emotion becomes one of the tenderest and most altruistic in human life. King1 in referring to this characteristic as a part of the adolescent "birth of a new self," has selected an apt quotation from Margaret Deland, which is here reproduced:

"Elizabeth's long braids had been always attractive to the masculine eye; they had suggested jokes about pigtails, and much of that peculiar humor so pleasing to the young male; but the summer she 'put up her hair,' the puppies, so to speak, got their eyes open. When the boys saw those soft plaits, no longer hanging within easy reach of a rude and teasing hand, but folded around her head behind her little ears; when they saw the small curls breaking over and through the brown braids of spun silk, clustering in the nape of her neck; when David and Blair saw these things something below the artless brutality of the boys' sense of humor was touched. They took abruptly their first perilous step out of boyhood. Of course they did not know it. The significant moment came one afternoon when they all went out to the tollhouse for ice cream. . . . As they sat eating their cream together, Blair suddenly saw the sunshine sparkle in

The High School Age, p. 98.

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of Sex


Objectives in Sex Education

Elizabeth's hair and his spoon paused midway to his lips. 'Oh, say, isn't Elizabeth's hair nice?' he said. David turned and looked at it, 'I've seen lots of girls with hair like that,' he said; but he sighed and scratched his left ankle with his right foot. Blair, smiling to himself, put out a hesitating finger and touched a shimmering curl; upon which Elizabeth ducked and laughed, and dancing over to the old tin pan of a piano pounded out 'Shoo fly' with one finger. Blair, watching the lovely color in her cheek, said in honest delight, 'When your face gets red like that you are awfully good looking, Elizabeth.'

"Good looking;' that was a new idea to the four friends. Nannie gaped; Elizabeth giggled; David 'got red' on his own account and muttered under his breath. But into Blair's face had come, suddenly, a new expression; his eyes smiled vaguely; he came sidling over to Elizabeth and stood beside her, sighing deeply: 'Elizabeth, you are an awful nice girl.' Elizabeth shrieked with laughter, 'Listen to Blair, he's spoony!'

"Instantly Blair was angry; 'spooniness' vanished in a flash; he did not speak for fully five minutes." They presently started home, "but," says Mrs. Deland, with keen insight into the nature of youth, "childhood for all of them ended that afternoon."

The great objective in sex education should be parenthood and family life in its highest and holiest relations. In general the higher the sex development, judged from the standpoint of true social or altruistic traits, the more the lower sex instincts have been brought under control and removed from consciousness. Irradiation of the lower into the higher channels of love, altruism, religion, etc., are the important objectives. The attention should be drawn away from direct sex emotions by activities, physical and mental, that shall develop what appear to be unrelated to sex, but in reality are intimately related to

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