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sex attraction and survival. The development of athletic prowess, bravery, chivalry, pride in dress, adornment, care of young, pride in family, skill in music and art, care for the weak or unfortunate, missionary zeal, religion, all are part of the psychic urge to develop and perpetuate one's own idealized life. They are all direct outgrowths of the parental instinct which in turn is directly related to

sex.

Parental
Instinct to
Altruism
and Religion

John Fiske1 has called attention to the fact the parental Relation of instinct is the basis of all morality. With the increased length of human infancy due to the helplessness of human young, parental care and solicitude became necessary. Even among the higher animals "the period of infancy is correlated with the feelings of parental affection, sometimes confined to the mother, but often shared by the father, as in the case of animals which mate. Where, as among the lower animals, there is no infancy, there is no parental affection. Where the infancy is very short, the parental feeling, though intense while it lasts, presently disappears and the offspring cease to be distinguished from strangers of the same species. The prolonged help

lessness of the offspring must keep the parents together for longer and longer periods in successive epochs; and when at last the association is so long kept up that the older children are growing mature while the younger ones need protection, the family relations begin to become permanent." Out of this germinal social consciousness there gradually develop sympathy, love, and altruism extending beyond the family to the tribe or clan, to the village, city, state, nation-all humanity.

In addition to the belief in and reverence for a supreme being and wonder regarding origins and ends, religion is fundamentally social. It involves a love for one's fellows and a desire to be of service to them. Religious awakening is not characteristic of the little child. The child 'Cosmic Philosophy, Vol. II, p. 343.

The Religious Instinct

and Its Ex

pression

Educational Suggestions

Feeling of
Joint

Ownership

is ego-centric. His love is more apparent than real. He may be affectionate for the purpose of receiving something in return. We know the traditional story of the little boy "so very good, just before Christmas!"

But with the onset of adolescence the germs of true religious life evidence an awakening. Starbuck1 has shown by a survey of thousands of cases that the great majority of religious conversions take place during the ages from fourteen to twenty. A few occur earlier and a few later but adolescence is the great birthday of religious emotions. These find expression not only in various forms of worship, including song, prayer, ceremony but also in the expression of love toward other persons, missionary zeal, and altruism toward all mankind. If not then exercised they are liable to become stunted and dwarfed. If properly encouraged in the normal individual there is the succession of "first the blade, then the ear, then the full corn in the ear." It is well to teach the young to "Remember thy Creator in the days of thy youth."

To prepare for the responsibilities of adult citizenship the child and the youth must have opportunity to learn through actual participation in some of the activities of citizenship. These should not be make-believe activities nor exercises devised as practice courses. They should be natural activities arising out of every-day situations in connection with the youth's world. There are all sorts of real work that occur in connection with the home, the school, the church, and civic enterprises. The most important of these in which group action can be employed are obviously in the school.

The most fundamental fact the child can be taught in the school-more important than arithmetic, Latin or book-keeping—is that he is a part owner of the school and that he is not only to share in its benefits and privileges, but more significant, in its responsibilities. He must be

Psychology of Religion.

led to a feeling of responsibility through being given an opportunity to exercise his instinct for ownership through participation. The machinery of student government is unimportant, sometimes even a hindrance the spirit, the attitude is everything. The opportunity for participation should include coöperation in the management of the school paper, the various forms of athletic organizations, the literary society, the school play, the debating club, school parties and picnics and numerous other forms of recreation and amusement. These are forms of cooperative organization into which the pupils easily enter and participate. They pertain directly to youthful interests and enterprises. But these should be only the beginning. Through these they may be enlisted in group participation in activities more directly related to the welfare of the school. Out of the development thus secured and the training in coöperation gained they will have acquired confidence and strength for wider enterprises. They need to be helped to understand their relations to an organization in which the personal benefits are not quite so readily understood. This is the next step toward understanding their relation to the city, State nation-the world.

Dewey has exemplified this in his exposition of the idea that "Education is life!" He deplores school activities arranged purely as school exercises. Every activity in the school should have real significance in the child's own life.1

Coöperation
Alone Not

Ethical

While group activity should be encouraged a caution. should be suggested. Many pupils become helpless Necessarily because others stand ready to do all their thinking for them. Some become lazy because they find they can shift all their work to others who readily shoulder all responsibilities. It is just as in adult communities and organizations; the few who can and will do the work and

1See his School and Society and Schools of To-Morrow.

Utilize the

shoulder responsibility are allowed to do it. Still others use the group as a crutch to lean on. They become dependent and never tackle a thing independently and vigorously. To be able to work in solitude without props or crutches for the purpose of mastery and for the ultimate welfare of the group is just as important in adult society as is group participation. The good citizen must learn to do his part whether it be destroying weeds in his own fence corners or participation in a plumed parade where the multitudes will applaud. Is there not a serious lack in citizenship of this very quality of keeping one's own back yard clear of weeds? Neumann says, "Coöperation in itself is not necessarily ethical. Everything depends upon its objectives. School life should be organized around the idea, not that each student is to do his utmost to get a better mark than his neighbor, but that all are expected to make a free offering of their best to the progress of the class and the school as a whole and, through these, of the larger community." Bearing this in mind, let us consider a few typical instances of the resources at our command.

2

Judge Lindsay has succeeded to a wonderful degree in Gang Spirit utilizing the gang spirit in the development of better citizenship in the youth of the slums. He says, “In a certain suburb of Denver, where the smelters are located and there are a great many cheap saloons selling bad liquor and tobacco to children, two celebrated gangs brought to the juvenile court for dangerous forms of rowdyism and lawlessness not only completely suppressed every serious objectionable feature among themselves, but also went after the men who were selling liquor and tobacco to boys. They prosecuted and sent several to jail, and did more to stop the use of tobacco and liquor among boys in that neighborhood than the police department or civil authorities had done in the history of the

1Education for Moral Growth, p. 204.

2The Problem of the Children, Report of the Juvenile Court of Denver, 1904, p. 107.

town." Swift adds: "The members of the same gangs also prosecuted men for selling firearms to children, for purchasing stolen property, and for circulating obscene literature. Yet these were the lads who had been making the trouble in that neighborhood, who had been stealing the property which the junk dealers bought, and who were among the customers for the firearms and immoral literature.

If a gang can be made to suppress its own lawlessness and become the protectors of those upon whom it has been preying, what limit is there to the utilization of its enthusiasm and its spirit? This suppression of lawlessness, however, was not accomplished by violating the ethics of the gang, but rather by giving to these impulses a more universal social outlet. And this, after all, is what constitutes moral training. The gang is a close social corporation. The action of its members toward one another is often exemplary. Kindness, truthfulness, and helpfulness would leave little to be desired, if these virtues were not so narrowly restricted in their application. But outsiders are not included among the beneficiaries. Now, it is the extension of the point of view of the gangthe enlargement of its membership to include the greater social group which has been shut out and classed among its enemies that is the first task of those engaged in training boys. When this is accomplished a large proportion of the school troubles disappear because they have originated in the traditional opposition of the schoolmaster to the impulses which have all the sanction of racial passion."

In one public school in New York, the pupils contribute their help in the following ways:2

"Do all kinds of clerical work: mimeographing, multigraphing, typing reports, act as secretaries to grade advisers and chairmen. Serve as messengers. Do

1Youth and the Race, pp. 272-274.

2See Annual Reports of the Superintendent of Schools, 1920-22, "High Schools," Board of Education, New York, p. 16.

Illustrations
From School
Activities

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