History of Europe from the Fall of Napoleon in 1815 to the Accession of Louis Napoleon in 1852

Forsideomslag
Blackwood, 1854

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Effects of the change upon the colonial empire of England
9
Still greater results of the Freetrade policy of England
10
Simultaneous and rapid contraction of the paper currency of Great Britain
11
Vast extension of the United States of America
12
Vast increase of Russia during the same period
13
Continued increase of Russia from the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
14
necessity
15
Their great frequency and extent
16
Causes of the fall of Louis Philippe
17
Calamitous effects of the Revolution of 1848 in Europe
18
Extreme violence of the Revolution in Germany
19
Successful stand against the revolutionary spirit in England and France
20
Restoration of military power in Austria
21
Restoration of military despotism in France by Louis Napoleon
22
Great increase of external dangers from the effects of the Revolution of 1848
23
Disastrous effects of this Revolution on the cause of freedom 24
26
Extraordinary change in the national mind in this respect
27
Dangers springing from the Freetrade system
28
Dangers arising from the change in our foreign policy
30
Tendency to undue influence of wealth in the later stages of society
31
Gold mines of California and Australia
32
Hopeless prospects of industry in Great Britain
37
Proof of this from statistical considerations
43
Reasons of this peculiarity in human nature
49
Great effect of the discovery of steam and electric communication
55
Great error in supposing national character depends on institutions
61
Page
69
Doubts as to the wisdom of representative institutions
72
92
91
The petitions for its repeal not unanimous 19 Necessity for its continuance 20 Abolition of the tax
104
Reflections on this subject 22 Vital considerations on the question which were overlooked at this time
106
Remission of the war Malt Tax
108
Reduced estimates formed by Government
109
Establishments ultimately voted 33 Debates on agricultural distress
115
and a loan from the Bank
121
4649 Argument of the Opposition against the continuance of the Bank Restriction Act 125127
122
Reflections on this subject
130
Extraordinary insensibility to right conclusions which then prevailed
131
General errors on the subject which then prevailed 56 Consolidation of the English and Irish Exchequers
133
Motion respecting the Holy Alliance by Mr Brougham 59 Bill for the detention of Napoleon
135
Votes for public monuments
136
Monuments to Sir T Picton and others
137
Grants to the officers and men employed in the war
138
New coinage
139
Reflections on the preceding parliamentary narrative
140
Efforts of the factious to stir up sedition ib 67 Spafield riots
142
Expedition to Algiers
143
Outrages which led to it
144
Description of Algiers
147
Lord Exmouths preparations for an attack
148
The manning and fitting out of the fleet
149
Departure of the fleet and voyage to Algiers
150
Preparations of the Algerines
151
Arrival of the fleet off Algiers
152
Commencement of the battle
153
Continuance of the action and positions taken by the ships
154
Destruction of the enemys ships and flotilla
155
The fleet moves out of the bay
156
Results of the battle and killed and wounded
157
The Algerines submit and peace is concluded
158
Honours bestowed on Lord Exmouth and the fleet
159
Reflections on this battle and the commencement of the ascendant of Christianity over Mahommedanism
161
Progressive ascendant of Christianity over Mahommedanism
162
CHAPTER III
163
Difficulties arising from the changeable disposition of the French people
164
Important effects this produced in 1815 and causes of the violence of opinion
165
Unbounded humiliation and sufferings of France at this time
166
Which occasions a universal reaction against Napoleon and his adhe rents
167
Difficulties which these feelings threw in the way of the new Govern ment
168
Difficulties of Louis XVIII in the choice of his Ministers
169
Talleyrand and Fouché are appointed to the Ministry
170
Formation of the Ministry and retirement of Chateaubriand
171
The Kings proclamation from Cambray
172
His entry into Paris
174
Violence of the Royalists and difficulties of Louis
175
Difficulty in regard to the convocation of the Chambers and debates on it
176
Ordinances regarding the Chamber of Peers
188
Settlements of the allied troops in France and their exactions
194
Persecution of the Protestants by the Roman Catholics
200
The Holy Alliance and causes which led to
217
Opening of the Chamber and speech of the King
229
Manner in which the speech was received by the Chamber
231
Difficulties at taking the Oath of Fidelity
232
Answer of the Chamber of Deputies ib 64 Law against seditious cries
233
Discussion on it in the Chambers
235
Vehement discussion on the law against seditious cries
236
Law establishing courtsmartial for political offences
237
Proposal for rendering the inferior judges removable during a year
238
Discussion on the acts in the Peers
239
Answer of M de Fontanes and M de Brissac ib 72 Argument against the law on seditious cries
240
Speech of Chateaubriand on the subject
241
Reflections on the deaths of Ney and Labedoyère ib 75 External influences exerted against the Government
242
Considerations which weighed with the Court
243
Measures of the Government to give the accused persons the means of 244 escape
244
The provincial deputies
245
His trial and condemnation
246
His death
247
Trial of Marshal Ney His treacherous conduct
249
His departure from Paris and arrest at Bossonis
250
His trial before the Chamber of Peers
251
His defence and condemnation ib 86 Appeal to the capitulation of Paris
253
He is found guilty and sentenced to death
255
His death determined on by the King ib 89 His execution
256
Reflections on this event
257
And on the Duke of Wellingtons share in the transaction
258
Trial of Lavalette
261
He escapes from prison by the aid of his wife and in her dress
262
Sir Robert Wilson Mr Hutchinson and Mr Bruce enable him to escape from France
263
Mode in which they effect his escape and their trial ib 97 Adventures of Murat after the battle of Waterloo
265
He embarks and lands in Corsica
266
His arrival at Ajaccio and descent on Naples
268
The King lands
269
Where he fails
270
And is arrested
271
He is condemned by a courtmartial
272
His death
273
Reflections on this event
274
Death of MoutonDuvernet and General Chartrand
275
A general amnesty
276
Which is coldly received by the Chamber
278
Modifications with which it is passed into a law
279
Proposals for a new law of elections
280
Vaublancs argument in favour of the ministerial project on the elections 281282
281
Project of the Royalists
283
The project of the Royalists is carried in the Deputies and rejected in the Peers
284
Ministerial plan on the subject
285
Proposition of the Chamber regarding the clergy
287
118119 Argument in favour of an endowment of the Church 288289
288
Answer of the Ministers and their counter project
290
Argument of M Bonald against the law of divorce
291
Changes in the administration
293
Conspiracy of the Liberal party
294
Outbreak headed by Didier at Grenoble
295
Exaggerations of General Donnadieu and needless severities
296
Conspiracy in Paris
297
Conspiracy at Lyons
298
129130 Speech of M Decazes in favour of a coup détat 299300
299
Adoption of these principles by the King and preparations for carrying them into execution
302
Ordinance of September 5 1816
303
Consternation of the ultraRoyalists and dismissal of Chateaubriand
304
Great effects of this ordinance
306
The whole Chambers were elected by royal ordinance
308
Reflections on the reaction of 1815 ib 137 Which was forced by the nation on the Government
309
The greatest iniquities of the period were committed by juries
310
Expedience of abolishing entirely the punishment of death in purely political offences
312
CHAPTER IV
314
Marriage of the Princess Charlotte of Wales
342
Steps of the Bank towards cash payments
347
VOL I
353
Treaty with Spain for the abolition of the slave trade
359
Death of Warren Hastings and Sir Philip Francis
365
Petition from Bristol against the too speedy resumption of cash payments
373
Decision of Parliament on the subject
391
135
401
Sir James Mackintoshs motion is carried
402
Great effect of the social passions of Europe in propelling its inhabitants
415
CHAPTER V
421
Rogers Pleasures of Memory
439
Mrs Hemans
445
Dr Brown
451
Ricardo MCulloch Senior and Mill
458
Rise of the Edinburgh Review Quarterly Review and Blackwoods Maga
464
Macaulay
470
previous prejudices of the historians of the Reformation
475
His merits and defects as a historian
476
his impartial character
478
His merits and defects
479
Napier
480
Lord Mahon
481
Miss Strickland
483
Miss Martineau
484
Lord Campbell
485
Mitford
486
Grote
487
Thirlwall
488
Arnold
489
Mill
490
The new school of novelists
491
Miss Edgeworth
492
Mr James
493
And of the discovery of the gold mines of California and Australia
494
His merits as a poet and dramatic writer
495
Disraeli
496
Dickens
497
Thackeray
498
Corresponding moving propensities in the maturity of civilisation
500
Mr Warren
501
Carlyle
502
Dr Croly
503
Hazlitt
504
Bentham ib 83 Sir John Sinclair
505
Chalmers
506
Monckton Milnes and Aytoun
507
E L Warburton and the author of Eothen ib 87 The Fine ArtsArchitecture
508
Revival of Gothic Architecture
509
Sir Thomas Lawrence
510
Turner
511
Copley Fielding Williams Thomson
512
Grant Pickersgill Swinton Eastlake and Thorburn
513
Landseer
515
Wilkie
516
Martin ib 96 Danby
517
Chantrey ib 98 Flaxman
518
Gibson
519
Marochetti ib 101 Mrs Siddons
520
John Kemble
521
Miss F Kemble
522
Miss ONeil
523
Kean ib 106 Miss Helen Faucit
524
Decline of the drama in England and its causes
525
its causes
526
Its great effect on society
527
Increasing liberalism of the higher ranks
528
Influence in society of the great Whig houses
529
causes of the difference
530
And advantage of the Whigs in this respect
531
Rise and influence of the newspaper press
532
It was nearly all on the popular side
533
Ephemeral decorations of such literature
534
Reflections arising from this ib 118 What remedy is there for these evils?
535
CHAPTER VI
537
Democratic basis on which the elective franchise was founded
538
The elections of 1815 and measures taken to secure them
539
Efforts of the Royalists and Liberals
540
Internal government after the coup détat of 5th September
541
Great distress in France in the winter of 181617
543
Opening of the Chambers
544
Centre and Left
545
Law of elections of 5th February 1817
546
1213 Argument of the Ministers in support of the measure
547
1416 Answer by the Royalists 548550
548
It is passed
551
Reflections on this law ib 19 Laws on personal freedom and the liberty of the press
552
Projects of laws regarding the liberty of the press and personal freedom
553
2122 Argument against the law on the liberty of the press by the Opposi tion
554
2324 Answer of the Ministerialists
555
Extreme scarcity and measures of Government in consequence
556
More liberal system in the army
557
Concordat with Rome
558
Extreme difficulty regarding the finances
559
Efforts of the Emperor Alexander and the Duke of Wellington to obviate these difficulties
560
occupation
562
The Budget of 1817
564
Law regarding bequests to the Church
565
3637 Answer of the Ministerialists
568
Result of the debate
569
Modification of the Ministry
570
Biography and character of Count Molé ib 41 Gouvion de St Cyr
571
The elections of 1817
572
State of public opinion
574
The Orléanists
575
the law of recruiting
576
The law of recruiting proposed by Government
577
4850 Argument in support of the project by Ministers 578580
578
5153 Argument on the other side by the Royalists 580582
580
The bill is passed into a law
582
Law regarding the liberty of the press
583
Expiry of the laws against personal freedom and the Prévôtal Courts
584
Failure of the law for establishing the new concordat
585
The Budget
586
Conclusion of an arrangement regarding the indemnities
587
AixlaChapelle and its concourse of illustrious foreigners
589
Ambassadors there and instructions of Louis to the Duke de Richelieu
590
Brilliant concourse of strangers at AixlaChapelle
591
Conversation of Alexander with Richelieu ib 64 Conclusion of the treaty of AixlaChapelle
592
Secret treaty with the Allies
593
Answer of Louis XVIII
594
Secret military Protocol
595
Secret Royalist Memoir presented to the Allied Sovereigns at Aixla Chapelle
597
Evacuation of the French territory by the Allies
598
Noble conduct of the Duke of Wellington on this occasion
599
Attempted assassination of the Duke of Wellington
601
Visit of Alexander to Louis XVIII at Paris
602
Elections of 1818
603
Financial crisis
605
Difficulties of the Duke de Richelieu
606
Divisions in the Cabinet and breakup of the Ministry
607
Formation of the new Ministry
610
Measures of the new Ministers
611
General promotion of the Liberals in the civil service
612
Movement against the Electoral Law in the Peers
613
Answer on the part of the Ministerialists
614
The proposition is carried and vast sensation throughout France
615
Measures of the Cabinet and the Liberals in the Chamber of Deputies ib 8891 Argument in support of M Barthélémys proposal 616618
616
9294 Argument of the Ministers on the other side 619620
619
Adoption of M Barthélémys proposition and defeat of Ministers on the fixing of the financial year
621
Measures of the Government
622
136
623
Great and lasting results of the changes already made in France ib 99 Repeated coups détat in France since the Restoration
624
The coups détat were all on the popular side
625
Causes of this peculiarity
626

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