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A Pharifee wonders, that CHRIST did not wash before Dinner. 99 fanctifying Spirit, without which our corrupt Hearts will find out a ready Sect. 109. Way to abuse the choiceft of his Providential Favours, to the Dishonour of his Holy Name, and the deeper wounding of our own miferable Souls!

Ver. 13.


Our LORD dining at the House of a Pharifee, feriously admonishes him and his Brethren of their Guilt and Danger; by which they are exasperated, rather than reformed. Luke XI. 37, to the End.

LUKE XI. 37.


him to dine with him and

he went in, and fat down to Meat.

LUKE XI. 37.


tain Pharife bet Now after our Lord had delivered these Things, Sect. 110, it happened one Day, that as he was speaking to the People about the great Concerns of their Luke XI. eternal Salvation (a), a certain Pharifee then prefent invited him to dine with him; and with whatever View he might do it, Jefus, that he might not seem morofe, or infenfible of a Civility, accepted the Offer, went in to his House, and fate down to Table.

38 And when the Phari

he had not first washed before Dinner.

And when the Pharifee, in whofe House he was, 38 fee faw it, he marvelled that far that he did not, according to the Tradition of the Elders, and the constant Custom of their Sect, first wash before Dinner, he wondered [at it,] confidering the Character he had for an extraordinary Degree of Sanctity.

39 And the Lord faid

But the Lord perceiving his Thoughts, and 39
unto knowing that in fome Circumstances a faithful
Reproof is the most valuable Token of Friendship
and Gratitude, faid to him, As I fee you are now


(a) It happened one Day, as he was fpeaking, &c.] The attentive Reader will eafily observe, that I have here omitted what occurs from the End of the 13th, to the Beginning of the 37th Verfe. That Paffage is inferted, Sect. 61,64. becaufe it is exactly parallel to Mat. xii. 22, & feq. and Mark iii. 22, & feq. I could fee no Proof, that the fame Difcourfe, with juft the very fame Circumftances, happened again here; and as this feemed improbable, in Proportion to the Variety and Refemblance of thofe Circumftances, I thought it was better thus to tranfpofe Luke's Story, than to take the Repetition for granted. The Phrase ev de Tw λanoa, while he was speaking, will, I think, fairly admit the Turn I have given it in the Paraphrafe; but if any judge otherwife, it will be eafy to turn back to the Paffage, as inferted before, Vol. i. pag. 371, & feq. and all I have faid above to introduce the Section before us will be true on that Suppofition.

N 2

(b) Ob


Luke XI. 39.

The Inward Part is more to be regarded than the Outward.

Sect. 110. offended at my neglecting the Ceremony of washing before Dinner, I cannot but plainly tell you, that you Pharifees are too much like thofe vain People, that cleanfe only the Outfide of the Cup and the Difh, while the Infide, which is of much greater Importance, is left dirty and foul; for with regard to many of you, your Inward Part, even your very Heart and Confcience, is defiled, being full of Rapine, and of all the fouleft Kinds 40 of Pollution and Wickedness.


But let me feri

ously ask you, ob ye thoughtless Creatures (b), and
let me charge you that ye afk yourselves, Did not
he that made the Outfide, make also that which is
within? Did not the fame GoD, that created the
Body, create the Soul too? and must he not in-
timately know his own Work, and difcern and
abhor all thofe fecret Abominations, which, in
Contempt of his Omniscience, you ftudy fo art-
fully to conceal from your Fellow-Creatures?
(Compare Pfal. xciv. 8, 9.)

I would therefore, from the fincerest Concern
for your true Honour and Happiness, exhort you,
not only to purge yourselves from fecret Wicked-
nefs, but to abound in the Exercise of univerfal
Goodness, and particularly to give Alms with Li-
berality in Proportion to your Substance (c); and
then, if it be done from a right Principle, behold,
GOD, the great Proprietor of all, will accept and


unto him, Now do ye Phaof the Cup and the Platter: but your inward Part is full of Ravening and Wickednefs.

rifees make clean the Outfide

40 Ye Fools, did not he

that made that which is without, make that which. is within alfo ?

41 But rather give Alms of fuch Things as you have:


(b) Oh ye thoughtless Creatures:]. As appoves is a milder Word than papo, I chose to render it thus, rather than as in our Tranflation. (See Note (1) on Mat. v. 22. Vol. i. pag. 229.) The learned Elfner (Obferv. Vol. i. p. 227.) explains the latter Part of the Verfe, as if it had been faid, There is a great deal of Difference between cleaning the Outfide, and clean"ing that which is within, and no fuch neceflary Connection between them, as you feem "to fuppofe." To juftify this, he urges 2 Sam. xix. 24. and one Paffage in Aristophanes, where we fignifies to cleanfe; but the Senfe is fo unusual, and that commonly received fo much more lively and important, that I could not perfuade myself to deviate from our Tranflation here.

(c) In Proportion to your Substance.] Thus Grotius understands it. The learned Bos (Exercit. pag. 26.) has, I think, abundantly proved, the Words Ta vora (for nala Ta evorla,) will very juftly admit this Senfe, and are thus ufed by fome of the best Greek Gloffies. No other feems to agree fo well with the Connection; not even that ingenious Turn of Raphelius, (Annot. ex Xen. pag. 93,96.) who explains Ta evorla, by To los to wolper was ons @ago fidos, Mat. xxiii. 26. or that which is within the Cup and Dish, as if it had been faid, "Give Meat to the Hungry, and Drink to the Thirfty, and make a liberal Diftribution "of thofe Things that are within the Cup and Dish." But the laft View in which to cowy had been mentioned, was, as expreffing the Temper of the Heart, (ver. 40.) which is a strong Objection againft this great Man's Interpretation.

(d) Ob

Woes are denounced against the Pharifees as Hypocrites.

clean unto you.



and behold, all Things are blefs you; and tho' you should not be fo exact in Sect. 110. this outward Wafhing, all Things are pure to you, Luke XI. fo that you may use them with Comfort; whereas now you do, as it were, pollute and profane every Thing you touch, and all the Water in the World cannot wash away the Stain. (See Tit. i. 15.)

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But alas, you feem little difpofed to attend to 42
this kind and faithful Advice, and therefore my
Character obliges me folemnly to warn you of
thofe approaching Judgments, which, if speedy
Repentance does not prevent, will shortly overtake
your whole Sect, numerous and honoured as it is.
Woe therefore unto you Pharifees; for, to gain the
Admiration of the Priests and the People, you most
fcrupulously pay the Tithe of Mint, and Rue, and
every [other] trifling Herb that grows in your Gar-
dens, and expect to recommend yourselves to the.
Divine Acceptance by fuch Kind of Obfervances;
but at the fame Time you fhamefully pass by, and
carelessly neglect the Practice of righteous Judg
ment to your Fellow-Creatures, and of the Love of
GOD your Creator, as if they were Matters of
but little Importance; whereas indeed these are.
the Duties, that you more especially ought to have.
done; and yet I own, you ought not to neglect the
other, as even the leaft of God's Commands are.
to be revered and obeyed. (See Mat. v. 19.)


Woe unto you Pharifees, on Account of your 43
Pride, which appears on every Occafion, and in
every Affair of Life; for you love the uppermost
Seats in all Affemblies, even in the very Synagogues,
where you
meet to humble yourselves before GOD
and mightily affect Salutations in the Markets, and
other publick Places, by Titles of diftinguished
Refpect, as the Guides and Fathers of the People,
the Oracles of Truth, and the Standards of Holi-
nefs. (Compare Mat. xxiii. 6,-10. Sect. 157.)
you, ye

Woe unto ob Scribes and Pharifees alfo, 44
on Account of your Deceit, as under all thofe Ap-
pearances of the ftricteft Sanctity, you are the-
moft egregious Hypocrites of the Age (d); for I


(d) Oh ye Scribes and Pharifees, Hypocrites.] Tho' fome Copies want thefe Words, and Grotius and Dr. Mill give them up, I think Dr. Whitby is right in retaining them; espe-. cially because they fo much illuftrate ver. 45. See Whitb. Exam. Mill. pag. 46.

(e) Are


for ye are as Graves which appear not, and the Men

A Woe is likewife added to the Lawyers. Sect. 110. may truly fay, that you are like concealed Graves (e), which being overgrown with Grafs, Men walk over, and are not aware of [them,] till they ftumble at them, and are hurt, or at leaft defiled by the Touch of them.

Luke XI. 44.



And one of the Doctors of the Law (f), who happened to be present, obferving that in this laft Woe Jefus mentioned the Scribes, who were a Body of Men, to whom he and his Brethren belonged, anfwered and faid unto him, Mafter, in Saying thefe Things, thou reproacheft not only the Sect of the Pharifees, but us too, in a Manner unbecoming the Dignity of our holy Profeffion, as the Depofitaries of the Sacred Oracles.

But Jefus was fo far from palliating the Matter to ingratiate himself with them, that be plainly and couragiously faid, Nay, it is a righteous Rebuke, and I intend it for you, and therefore particularly repeat it for your Admonition: Woe unto you alfo, ye profeffed Interpreters of the Law; for by your rigorous Decifions on the Ceremonial Parts of it, and the human Traditions which you have added to it, you load other Men with infupportable Burthens, and unmercifully lay them on, while you yourfelves will not touch the Burthens with one of your Fingers (g), but fuffer your Lives to con


that walk over them, are not aware of them.

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(e) Are like concealed Graves.] The Difcourfe against the Pharifees, which is recorded Mat. xxiii. (Sect. 157, 158.) was plainly delivered at another Time, and in very different Circumftances. Our Lord there compares them to whited Sepulchres, ver. 27. adorned on the Outfide, but defiled within; but here to Graves overgrown with Grafs, which might often happen to be by the Way-Side, (compare Gen. xxxv. 19.) and fo might occafion fuch Accidents as are here referred to.

(f) One of the Doctors of the Law.] I apprehend that vounos may well be rendered a Doctor, or Interpreter of the Law; which I generally chufe, rather than the Word Lawyer, because that naturally fuggefts to us, a modern Idea of an Office, which did not exift among the Jews at this Time, and has ftrangely mifled fome Interpreters. Thefe Jewish Lawyers, (as our Tranflation calls them,) were the moft confiderable Species of Scribes, who applied themfelves peculiarly to ftudy and explain the Law. Probably many of them were Pharifees; but it was no ways effential to their Office, that they fhould be fo. What touched the Perfon here fpeaking was, that our Lord in his laft Woe, ver. 44. had joined the Scribes with the Pharifees.

(g) Will not touch the Burthens with one of your Fingers.] Perhaps their Confciences might charge them with fome private Contempt of the Injunctions, they moft rigorously impofed upon others, in Ceremonial Precepts, as well as Morals; or it may refer to the Want of a due Tenderness for the Comfort of Men's Lives, which they imbittered by fuch Rigour. This feems to prove against Trigland, (de Karæis, pag. 58, & feq.) that thefe Lawyers were not Karaites; for thefe added not Traditionary Burthens to the Law.

(b) And

They approved of their Fathers killing the Prophets.

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tradict your Precepts, even in fome of the moft Sect. 110. important Inftances.

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I also folemnly denounce a Woe unto you all, for Luke XI.
the Malignity and Cruelty of your Tempers under 47·
this Mafk of Piety and Devotion; for at a great
Expence you build and adorn the Sepulchres of the
Prophets, as if you had a mighty Veneration and
Affection for them, tho' your Fathers flew them.
But as you imitate your Fathers in your Conduct, 48
and are regardless of the Inftructions that the Pro-
phets gave, you do indeed bear Witness to your Fa-
thers, rather than against them, and in effect ap-
prove and vindicate the Works of your Fathers (b);
for as they indeed flew them, and you build their
Sepulchres, one would imagine that you erected
those Monuments, not fo much in Honour of the
flaughtered Prophets, as of the Perfecutors by
whom they were fo wickedly deftroyed. (Compare
Mat. xxiii. 29,-32. Sect. 158.)

Therefore also the Wisdom of GOD hath faid (i), 49
and I am in his Name commiffioned to declare it
as his determinate Purpofe, I will yet fend them
other Prophets and extraordinary Meffengers, par-
ticularly the Apostles, who fhall declare my Gof-
pel to them, as the laft Expedient for their Reco-
very and Salvation; but fuch I know to be the
Hardness of their Hearts, that they will generally
defpife and reject them; nay, [fome] of them they
will kill, and will perfecute the reft:
So that 50
they will bring fuch a terrible Destruction upon
themselves, that the Blood of all the Prophets and


(b) And in effect approve and vindicate the Works of your Fathers.] Archbishop Tillotson: (Vol. ii. pag. 195, 196.) has fet this Text in a moft ftrong and beautiful Light, and hinted. the Turn which I have given it in the Paraphrafe.

(i) Therefore alfo the Wisdom of GOD hath faid.] Dr. Guyfe (with Markius, Exerc. pag. 669.) paraphrafes this Claufe as the Words of the Hiftorian, and fuppofes him here to apply this Character to Christ, and to declare, that Chrift the Wisdom of GOD farther faid,, I will fend them Prophets, &c.I doubt not but Chrift might with great Propriety be fpoken of by that Phrafe; but with all due Respect to that learned and pious Interpreter, I cannot apprehend it to be the Senfe of this Paffage; not only because the Phrafeology is unexampled in the Evangelifts, but chiefly because our Lord does not fay, I fend to you, but to them. Yet I fee no Řeafon to conclude, (with Mr. Whifton, in his Effay for restoring the Old, Teftament, pag. 228.) that this is a Quotation from any antient Writer. Chrift was impow ered, without any fuch Voucher, to declare what the Counfels of Divine Wifdom had determined; and this Manner of fpeaking strongly intimates, that he was fo; in which View it has, on this Interpretation, a peculiar Beauty and Propriety,

(k) The

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