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in the United States
A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Pennsylvania in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
CHAPTER II—CONDITIONS WHICH LED TO THE INTRODUC-
TION OF MANUAL TRAINING; OBSTACLES WHICH RE-
CHAPTER III-EFFECT OF THE INTRODUCTION OF MANUAL
TRAINING UPON AMERICAN EDUCATION.
It is the purpose of this thesis to trace out the development of Manual Training in the United States; to state the causes which were responsible for its introduction; to suggest the benefits derived; and to give some idea of the present trend of educational thought in regard to the subject. Much has been written in recent years about Vocational Education, Industrial Training, Technical Training, Mechanic Arts, and Trade Schools. Discussion of these forms of training does not lie within the scope of this paper, except when they are so interrelated with Manual Training that it is practically impossible to divorce them.
Domestic Science is not treated under a separate heading, but is discussed in its relation to Manual Training. Much that is said concerning Manual Training is true, also, of Domestic Science. What Manual Training is to the boys, Domestic Science is to the girls.
Much confusion has arisen among the uninitiated because of the different terms used, hence, it is of prime importance that the distinction between Manual Training and the other forms of training be made perfectly clear.
A Manual Training course, as outlined at the present time, consists of a graded course in wood, iron, and machinists' work; systematic and continued instruction in free-hand and mechanical drawing, combined with academic studies as co-ordinated departments. It is not the purpose of Manual Training to teach trades, but rather to make the boy familiar with the use of tools. It is disciplinary in that it endeavors to train the hand for the purpose of securing at the same time the training of the mind, through the senses of touch and perception. At the same time the eye is being trained to accurate observation. This training first found a place in the curriculum of the high