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fiaftical orders and appellations. The title of Anonymous. mufti is the only one that I recollect, which raifes the perfon bearing it to confiderable eminence.These matters are external. Look now at the infide of things. The moment you do fo, you will perceive the Mahometan religion to be arrogant and intolerant beyond measure. But you will alfo perceive, after due reflection, that it is on these very accounts that it fo well befits the government of a defpot; and fo readily affimilates with laws administered by one calling himself "the shadow "of God, and the difpofer of all earthly crowns."

With regard to the church government, and the religious principles now prevailing in all the dominions of the catholic king, it must be acknowledged, that they are highly confentaneous to the fabric, and to the genius, of the civil system according to which thofe dominions are regulated.-The gradation of ranks and of titles among the clergy of Spain, correfponds with wonderful exactnefs to that of the ranks and titles poffeffed by the laity. Her ecclefiaftical establishment, too, is not unlike her civil-either in the largenefs of its revenues, or in the purposes to which they are applied. The church, as well as the government, is fond of fplendour-and both are very fplendid. You will find them to be so, whether you witness the ordinary rites at the altar, and then the ufual ceremo-. nies at court; whether you join in the observance of an hallowed feftival, and then in the celebration



of a royal marriage; or whether you partake of the triumphant ecftafies of a facred jubilee, and then of the unbounded rejoicings of a long defired coronation.-As, by the minifters of religion, appeals are often made to the fenfes of men, but feldom to their understandings; fo, by the minifters of state, the eye and the ear are frequently gratified, while the judgment is commanded to stand aloof. At the head of their church the Spaniards have a pontiff deemed by them infallible: and, because this is the cafe, their rulers have attempted, on more occafions than one, to give currency and credit to an opinion of their king's being likewife exempt from fallibility. Yes; and many of the Spaniards have believed, while almoft the whole of them have acted as if they believed, that, in the propagation of fuch an opinion, there can be no fraud-having abandoned enquiry, in political matters, to fuch a degree, as to admit, in all its parts, the flavish doctrine of paffive obedience. The fchemes of their church have, for ages, tallied admirably with the arbitrary measures and the ambitious views of their government. Allowing of perfecution for the fake of opinion, their religion has never impeded the progrefs of conqueft, by raifing either the ftern voice of juftice, or the mild accents of humanity.-In a word, the external frame of the ecclefiaftical establishment of the Spaniards, is very well fuited to that of their civil eftablishment, and their religious principles; to the proportion of knowledge, and to the habits of


thinking, and of acting, which their statesmen wish Anonymous, the great body of the people to poffefs. Aided by fuch a religion, they may for a confiderable time retain fuch a government; and fuch a government will always have an high interest in protecting fuch a religion.

The Romish religion is divided into popery and catholicifin. The former inclines eternally towards unlimited power; but the latter is, by one large degree, more tolerant and rational than the former. As to proteftant epifcopacy, it is in all refpects more liberal, and more conformable to reason, than catholicifm. Popery would admit of a defpot ecclefiaftical, as well as civil; catholicifm would recognise only the civil defpot; while proteftant epifcopacy would promptly and difdainfully reject both. Proteftant epifcopacy, however, would defire to have a monarch: but then, fhe would infift upon feeing his authority duly circumfcribed by the laws.

Oliver Cromwell, well aware of all these things, refolved to exterminate even proteftant epifcopacy. He himself preferred no religion, merely as fuch, before any other. He profeffed prefbytery, but he practifed hypocrify. Indeed, it was not neceffary for him to attach himself entirely to any particular fect. It was enough for him to be a fectary, and But an enemy to the epifcopal establishment. he was more than a fectary, and an enemy to the epifcopal establishment. He was an advocate for those natural rights of man," which the pitiful fpeculators of thefe times with to fubftitute

Anonymous. fubftitute for the rights of Englishmen. He was a friend alfo to that "perfect equality of citizens," which is to be produced, it feems, not by lifting the needy out of the dunghill, and fetting him among princes; but by conftraining princes to defcend from their palaces, that they may live with beggars upon dunghills. In co-operation, therefore, with the fupporters of his ufurpation (all of whom were meek diffenters) Oliver completely fubverted both the hierarchy and the monarchy ;thus making room for forms of government, in church and in flate, admirably accommodated to the temporal interefts of himself and his friends, and abundantly congenial to the fpirit of their divers religions.-Thefe dreadful effects would, at any preceding period, have followed from fimilar causes. Such effects would refult from fuch causes at this day. Grant an afcendancy, all over the kingdom, to the power of any one of the fects that have lately endeavoured to ftrike at the conftitution through the medium of the corporation and test acts-and farewel at once to epifcopacy and monarchy!"< Privy conspiracy, fedition, and re

bellion," have always been, and always will be, the early, vigorous offspring of "falfe doctrine, "herefy, and fchifm."

Why should one take the trouble of enlarging upon this topic? Is not the influence of religion upon government, and of ecclefiaftical upon civil establishments, well known to every ftatefman, and to every fcholar? Have not the Dutch continued for ages to be republicans, chiefly becaufe


they have been calvinists? And are not the Gene- Anonymous. vans greatly indebted, for their prefent conftitution,

to their calviniftical doctrines?

But the Scotch are calvinists; and they live, as we do, under a king. True: yet it is not owing to their religious tenets that they fwear allegiance to a monarch. They constitute a part of the British nation; and, as the fame perfons who legislate for Englishmen legiflate for them, they know that they can have no law of which their more powerful neighbours difapprove. Befides, the chief of the nobility and of the gentry of Scotland (as the diffenters have justly obferved) are either epifcopalians by principle, or occafional conformists to the episcopal church, in confequence of their refiding fo much in the fouthern part of the island, and of their being fubject to the operation of the test laws in whatever part of it they refide. Now, if to these confiderations be added, that of the Scotch enjoying a religion which is established and protected by law; that of their having, as a people, a great deal more to lose, and much less to gain, by a revobution in the ftate, than the English fectaries have; and alfo, that of thofe among them who lead in the walks either of literature or of politics, being far more peaceable and loyal than our Paines, &c.; it will not be difficult to difcover, why they continue to live, like the majority of ourselves, contentedly and happily under a monarchical form of government. While the union between England and Scotland remains in force, and while the cor


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