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Delphin Classics, 67 vols. 5047. Duke

of Norfolk.

Painter's Palace of Pleasure, 1575, 4to. 2 vols. 451. Rev. Mr. Dibdin.

Aldus's Astronomi Veteres, 1499. 16.

16s. Rev. Mr. Dibdin.

Arnold's Chron. 221. Rev. Mr. Dibdin.

Hearne's Collection of Ballads, 12mo. 121. 12s. Rev. Mr. Dibdin.

Voyage de Breydenbach, fol. 1488. 347. Lord Berners's Froissart, by Pinson, 1525.637.

Boece's Croniklis of Scotland, by Bellenden, folio, 1474. 657.

The Compleynt of Scotland, 12mo. original edition, wanting the title, 311. 10s. Thoroton's Nottinghamshire, 167. 16s. Dugdale's Monasticon, 3 vols. 671. 4s. in English,

with Steevens's Continuation, 3 vols. 491.

History of Anitent WILTSHIRE, by
Sir RICHARD COLT HOARE, Bart.
continued from Vol. LXXXI. p. 422.
Mr. URBAN,

I

Aug. 1. RESUME my remarks on this new and interesting History with the greater pleasure, as, by the subsequent publication of two fresh livraisons, the work is now rendered complete, and assumes the form of a very respectable volume.

The same perspicuous order of arrangement is maintained; the Country is divided into Stations, and the Stations into Iters, and each is illustrated with a descriptive map. The first livraison included the Stations of Stourton, Warminster, and Heytesbury; in the second we have those of Wily and Amesbury North; and in the third and last, we find those of Everley, Amesbury South, Solisbury, Fovant, and Hindon; thus comprebending, in nine Stations, the whole district of South Wiltshire.

We are well aware, that, in a work confined to so very early and unenlightened a period of our History, where description cannot borrow the enlivening aid of biography, there must be a great and constant degree of uniformity. This uniformity, however, is frequently interrupted by novelty, an ingredient not so frequently found as we could wish in the modern works of Travellers and Tourists. The true Antiquary must read, with satisfaction, the Author's account of the numerous Settlements of the Britons which he has discovered on the most elevated parts of the Wiltshire Downs; and with these the Station of

1

Wily particularly abounds. On a very elevated and conspicuous hill called Bidcomb, there are numerous vestiges of the Britons.

At page 98, I find a very interesting account of a Barrow opened by Mr. Cunnington in the year 1803 at Upton-Lovel, a little village near the river Wily, and which, from the richness of its contents, was denominated by him the Golden Barrow :

"At the depth of two feet we found a little pile of burned human bones placed in a shallow bason-like cist; and, at the distance of one foot from the bones, was a considerable quantity of ashes, intermixed with small fragments of burned bones. About two feet from the pile of bones the following articles were discovered: 1. Thirteen gold beads, made in the form of a drum, having two ends to screw off, and perforated in two places on the sides for the purpose of stringing. 2. A thin plate of the same metal, six inches in length, and nearly three in width, richly wrought, and perforated at the four corners. 3. Another ornament in form of a cone, decorated with circles and zigzags, and fitted closely to a piece of dark wood, like ebony, on which the marks of the pattern still appear impressed: the bottom part of this article is also perforated. The above are all of pure but thin gold, neatly worked, and highly burnished. The large flat plate must have been, like the cone, strengthened by a strip of wood behind; and the whole, by their several perforations, are strongly marked as forming the decorative accoutrements of some distinguished British chieftain. Besides the above, were two small articles in gold, resembling little boxes, about an inch in diameter, with a top, in the form of a cone, to take off. sides the above precious articles of gold, we discovered some large plates of amber, and above a thousand beads of the same substance, and of different sizes; also a curious little cup studded over with projecting knobs, which appear to have been first made in the form of glass stoppers to a bottle, and afterwards inserted into the circular holes of the cup, which had been previously drilled for receiving them: between these grape-like protuberances are other perforations, which still remain open."

Be

"Such was the result of our researches in the year 1803; but, not being completely satisfied, and still thinking that the primary interment had escaped our vigilance, I was anxious that a further trial should be made, which took place in July 1807, and was attended with

success;

success; for, on the same level, and within a few inches of the very spot where the golden trinkets and the amber beads had been found, we discovered two cups, the one placed within the other. The largest of these was covered with a profusion of zigzag ornaments; but on taking out was unfortunately broken to pieces. The smaller one, containing about a pint, is quite plain, and in good preservation. Still pursuing our excavations to the floor of the barrow, we there found an oblong cist, about eightteen inches deep, which contained a simple interment of burned bones, unaćcompanied with either arms or trinkets. This was certainly the primary funereal deposit: but, however rich in materials, or elegant in form, the articles found nearer the surface of the barrow may be deemed, their high antiquity cannot be disputed; for although the grape cup exceeds in beauty and novelty of design any we have as yet discovered, the other two cups of unbaked clay, and rude workmanship, bespeak the uncivilized era to which the construction of this sepulchral mound may be justly attributed."

Two beautiful plates elucidate these curious articles, on the same scale as the originals.

From page 105 to 112, we are gratified with plans and descriptions of numerous British towns and strongholds, that are dispersed over the North and South sides of two great woods called Great Ridge and Grovely. This great tract of forest land extends sixteen miles, and is traversed by a Roman road leading from the Severn Sea to Sorbiodunum, better known by the modern name of Old Sarum. These plans are so accurately drawn, as to convey to the reader a very distinct idea of the antient and the modern modes of castrametation: the former rude and confused, the latter strong and regular. Of these particularities we may perceive a striking distinction in the plate on which the camps of Langford and Wily are engraved the former appears to be formed upon no regular plan, and to be perfectly British; but in the latter we may distinguish, in the outward ramparts, the work of a more civilized nation. Our author informs us, that these earthen works answer in a great degree the account transmitted to us by the Classical authors, of the antient towns of the Gauls and Britons. Cæsar, speaking of the capital of the

British chieftain Cassivellaunus, says, "that a town amongst the Britons is nothing more than a thick wood, fortified by a ditch and rampart;" and the Geographer Strabo, alluding to the same subject, says, "their towns are woods, where they cut down the trees, build huts, and live there toOn refergether with their herds." ring to the plans of these works, we find that nearly all of them are placed on points of hill projecting towards the vale, and backed by a thick wood. Our author concludes his account of the Wily station by enumerating the many British antiquities that accompany the boundaries of the vale of Wily on each side, tending to prove that river to have been a favourite stream, and the dilectus amnis of the Britons.

Station V. AMESBURY, North district: This station affords us a copious and most satisfactory account of the numerous researches which our author and his friends have made on the barrows over the plains adjoining to Stonehenge, in which a great variety of sepulchral urns, instruments of brass, stone, and bone, beads, and other trinkets, have been discovered; and a judicious selection has been made from amongst them for the engraver, who seems to have done jus tice to the originals. It would be tedious to describe the particularities attending each funereal deposit. I shall therefore proceed to page 128, where the account of STONEHENGE commences.

STONEHENGE. Our Author thus prefaces his account of this wonderful structure, which ever has, and ever will excite the wonder and admiration of all who behold it; and whose history will, we fear, ever remain veiled with obscurity.

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A building of such an obscure origin, and of so singular a construction, has naturally attracted the attention of the learned, and numerous have been the publications respecting it: conjectures have been equally various, and each author has formed his own. Before I venture to give any opinion on this myste-` rious subject, it will be necessary for me to lay before my readers those of preceding writers concerning it."

Our Author then recapitulates the opinions of the different writers, beginning with the fabulous traditions of

Merlin respecting Aurelius Ambrosius, as handed down to us by Giraldu Cambrensis, and Jeffrey of Monmouth: he then proceeds to those of the learned Camden, Inigo Jones, Walter Charieton, Jn. Webb, Aylett Sammes, Bishop Gibson, George Keysler, Dr. Stukeley, John Wood, architect, William Cooke, Mr. Smith, and Mr. King, the author of the Munimenta Antiqua; and concludes with some curious hypotheses from the Celtic researches of a learned Cambrian, Mr. Davies. Amongst this numerous list of authors, the place of honour and pre-eminence is given to Dr, Stukeley, who has certainly, as far as we can judge, treated the subject with more detail, perspicuity, and intelligence, than any of his literary associates. Our author pays the follow ing tribute to his merit:

"By the above list of writers, it will be seen that STONEHENGE has by no means been overlooked; but till the time of Dr. Stukeley (the space of more than a century from the date of Inigo Jones's work on the same subject) nothing was done satisfactorily; each author seems to have blindly followed his leader, and to have retailed those errors which a personal investigation and accurate admeasurement of the building would have surely prevented; but in Stukeley we find every thing we could desire or expect; great learning, sound judgment, minute investigation, and accuracy of description, added to the most enthusiastic zeal in the cause of antiquity."

"It is a melancholy consideration," adds our Author, "that at a period when the sciences are progressively advancing, and when newly-discovered manuscripts are continually drawn forth from their cloistered retreats, to throw a light on the antient records of our country; it is mortifying, I say, that the history of so celebrated a monument as STONEHENGE, should still remain veiled

in obscurity. The monks may boldly assert that Merlin, and only Merlin, was the founder of our Temple; and we cannot contradict, though we may disbelieve. The opinions of the learned have been so numerous and various, that I can hardly venture to give any of my own. I trust, however, I shall be able to correct the errors of some of my predecessors, and to throw some new light on the history of those Britons who inhabited the plains surrounding STONEHENGE, though I can neither inform my readers at what æra, or by what people, this wonderful monument was erected.

The revolution of ages frequently eluci dates history, and brings many important facts to light; but here all is darkness and uncertainty; we may admire, we may conjecture, but we are doomed to remain in ignorance and obscurity. and plan of this building are of so novel and singular a nature, that no verbal description, though drawn up by the ablest writer, can possibly convey to the reader a competent idea of it. If I talk to you of a Doric, Ionic, or Corinthian temple, you will readily form such an idea of the building in your mind, as not to be surprized on seeing it, for each of these Orders has its fixed proportions, and each its appropriate ornaments; but were I to describe to you a rude Temple, composed of four circles, one within the other, with upright stones twenty feet high, and others of an immense size placed across them like architraves, I fear my description would prove very unsatisfactory. The pen, therefore, must cail in the assistance of the pencil; for, without a reference to plans and views, specting this 'Wonder of the West. In no perfect knowledge can be gained rethe plans now presented to you, I have endeavoured to correct the errors of others;

"STONEHENGE. The construction

and, by the assistance of an able Surveyor, repeated visits, and a strict attention to accuracy, to render them as complete as the great intricacy of the subject would admit."

The engraved plates, iliustrative of STONEHENGE, are five in number. The first represents a ground-plan of the whole Temple, with the fosse around it, and the avenue issuing from it. The second gives the groundplan upon a more enlarged scale, and represents those stones that have their imposts over them, those that have fallen, and those that still remain upright in their original posi tion. In the third plate, we find copies of the plans of Stonehenge, as laid down by Inigo Jones, Dr. Stukeley, Mr. Wood, and Mr. Smith, in which we immediately perceive a striking difference. Our Author gives the preference, as far as regards correctness, to those of Dr. Stukeley and Mr. Smith; and wonders," that the very two men, who, from their profession as Architects, ought to have been the most accurate, should have been the most inaccurate." In the centre of this plate is a very simple and striking view of Stonehenge, in which the two smaller circles of stones are omitted. This plan seems

to

to have been suggested from an idea entertained by Mr. Cunnington, that the original Temple consisted only of the two circles of large stones, which are all of that species called Sarsen, and found in the neighbourhood: whereas the two smaller circles are formed with stones brought probably from the distant counties of Devonshire or Cornwall. This idea is certainly both novel and ingenious; and, from a recollection of the building, I do not hesitate in pronouncing the plan, if divested of its smaller circles, much more grand and imposing. The fourth plate represents a very exact and satisfactory view of the whole structure, as taken from the West, which does credit both to the Artist and the Engraver. The fifth illustrative plate is a large Map, in which the environs of Stonehenge, with all its appendages, are introduced; viz. the Circle, Avenue, Cursus, British Towns, Camps, and above two hundred Barrows, all of which are numbered and described. In short, on this map we see pointed out to us the whole history of the Britons who inhabited these plains; or, to use the Author's own words"You will find a striking picture of antient times. You will see the spot selected by the earliest inhabitants of our island for their residence; you will behold that stupendous monument of Antiquity, STONEHENGE, the building set apart for their civil or religious assemblies: you will perceive its connexion, by means of the AVENUE, with the CURSUS, a spot appropriated to their games and races; you will recognize also in the Camp, vulgarly attributed to the Emperor Vespasian, the strong-hold of the Britons, or the asylum for their families and herds in times of danger; at Durrington, and on Winterbourne Stoke Downs, you will see the habitations of the Britons, with the lines of communication from one village to another; and in the numerous barrows dispersed over this extensive plain, you will distinguish the simple memorials of the mighty dead. In short, you will have clearly traced to your imagination's eye a most impressive history of our antient Britons."

Our Author concludes his account of STONEHENGE with the following animated description:

"Such, indeed, is the general fascination imposed on all those who view it,

that no one can quit its precincts without feeling strong sensations of surprize and admiration. The ignorant rustick

will with a vacant stare attribute it to the giants, or the mighty arch-fiend; and the Antiquary, equally uninformed as to its origin, will regret that its hisThe Artist, or viewing these enormous tory is veiled in perpetual obscurity. masses, will wonder that Art could thus rival Nature in magnificence and picturesque effect; even the most indifferent passenger over the plain must be attracted by the solitary and magnificent appearance of these ruins; and all with one accord will exclaim, How grand! How wonderful! How incomprehensible!”

Station VI. EVERLEY. After traversing the interesting district around Stonehenge, every region must appear dull; but the Antiquary will find ample food for investigation in every part of this station, which appears to contain more than the usual allotment of British villages, and boundary ditches. Tumuli also are very numerous in the vale between Amesbury and Everley. The heights and ridges produce many interesting views; amongst these, Chidbary Hill, on which is a strong fortress, stands eminently conspicuous. Our Author prosecuted his subterraneous searches on a groupe of barrows to the North of Chidbury Hi, in the year 1805; and one of these sepulchrak mounds produced so very interesting an interment, that I am sure your readers will be gratified with his account of it, No. 17, p. 183:

re

"In opening this barrow, the first object that attracted our attention was the skeleton of a small dog deposited in the soil three feet from the surface; and at the depth of 8 feet 10 inches we came to the bottom of the barrow, and discovered the following very perfect interment collected on a level floor. The body of the deceased had been burned, and the bones and ashes piled up in a small heap, which was surrounded by a circular wreath of horns of the red deer, within which, and amidst the ashes, were five beautiful arrow-heads, cut out of flint, and a small red pebble. Thus we most clearly see the profession of the Briton here interred. In the flint arrow-heads we recognize his fatal implements of destruction; in the stag's horns we see the victims of his skill as a hunter; and the bones of a dog deposited in the same grave, and above those of his master, commemorate his faithful

at

attendant in the chace, and perhaps his unfortunate victim in death. Can the language either of History or Poetry speak more forcibly to our feelings than these mute and inanimate memorials of the British Hunter? and may not the following beautiful lines of Pope be applied with equal truth to the Briton as to the Indian?

'Lo the poor Briton, whose untutor'd mind [wind; Sees God in clouds, and hears him in the His soul proud Science never taught to stray

Far as the solar walk, or milky way: Yet simple Nature to his hope hath giv'n, Behind the cloud-topt hill an humbler heav'n.

To Be, contents his natural desire, He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire;

But thinks, admitted to that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company."

At page 186 we have an account of some curious banks and ditches that intersect the Roman road leading from Venta Belgarum, or Winchester, to the station of Cunetio, on the river Kennet, near Marlborough: and on referring to the map of this slation, we are struck with its very circuitous line, so unusual with the Roman engineers, which our Author accounts for, by a deep valley interfering with its course. At page 188 we find a plan and description of a fine earthen work called Haydon-hill Camp; and the remaining pages allotted to this station are filled up with the Author's researches on tumuli, and his discoveries of British Settlements, of which he says, "that in no part of our county there is a greater assemblage of this species of Antiquity."

At page 197 we are again conducted back to Amesbury, and its Southern district. Varieties of opinion have been formed respecting the origin of its name: some Antiquaries have derived it from the British Chieftain Aurelius Ambrosius; but our Author thinks it originated from the Maen Ambre, i. e. Petra Ambrosia, or the Holy Stones. This station is rich in barrows; and their contents, if we may be allowed to judge from the descriptive plates, amply repaid the labours of the investigators. At page 199 we find an engraving of a beautiful little grape cup, similar to the one before noticed in the Golden Burrow at Upton. It would

be tiresome to extract accounts of all the interesting discoveries that have been brought to light again by the exertions of our Antiquary's spade: but one of these barrows proved too rich and novel in its contents to be omitted and passed over in silence.

"Page 202, No. 158. Though Dr. Stukeley has given an engraving of this tumulus, under the title of Bush Bar row, it does not appear that he ever attempted to open it. It was formerly fenced round, and planted with trees; and its exterior at present bears a very rough appearance, from being covered with furze and heath. The first at tempts made by Mr. Cunnington on this barrow proved unsuccessful; as also those of some farmers, who tried their skill in digging into it. Our researches were renewed in September 1803, and we were amply repaid for our perseve rance and former disappointment. On covered the skeleton of a stout and tall reaching the floor of the barrow, we disman, lying from South to North; the extreme length of his thigh-bone was 20 inches. About 18 inches South of the head, we found several brass rivets intermixed with wood, and some thin bits of brass nearly decomposed. These articles covered a space of 12 inches or more; it is probable, therefore, that they were the mouldered remains of a shield. Near the shoulders lay the fine Celt [Plate 26], the lower end of which owes its great preservation to having been originally inserted within a handle of wood. Near the right arm was a large dagger of brass, and a spear head of the same metal, full 13 inches long, and the largest we have ever found, though not so neat in its pattern as some others of an inferior size, which have been engraved in our Work. These were accompanied by a curious article of gold, which I conceive had originally decorated the case of a dagger. The handle of wood belonging to this instrument exceeds any thing we have yet seen, both in design and execution; and could not be surpassed (if, indeed, equalled) by the most able workmen of

modern times.

By the annexed engraving you will immediately recognize the British Zigzag, or the modern Vandyke pattern, which was formed with a labour and exactness almost unaccountable, by thousands of gold rivets, smaller than the smallest pin. The head of the handle, though exhibiting no variety of pattern, was also formed by the same kind of studding. So very minute, indeed, were these pins, that our labourers

had

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