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stitutions of our country from the assaults of Infidels, Innovators, and profligate Empirics; more especially, from the insidious attempts of the canting hypocrite and the crafty knave, and (which is the østensible object of this address) gradually restore inscriptive narration to its proper use, by pointing out its objects and end, and setting forth its characteristics,equally remote from bombastic turgidness and silly conceit; having its construction simple, its purpose manifest, and, above all, its meaning free from ambiguity so that future Antiquaries may not be exposed to unnecessary labour, nor communities, corporations, and individuals, to endless quarrels and litigation. The love of truth and purity, successfully inculcated, would correct the arts as well as the manners of the times, and gradually supersede those meretricious decorations and fashionable deformities, which cannot fail to disgust every susceptible and unadulterated mind.

Yours, &c.

T. N. B. In order to prevent misconception on the subject of the inscribed tablet in front of St. Giles's Chapel, it is proper to observe, that the words "in the Fields" are not parallel with any of the others as represented in page 23, but partake of the curvature of the tablet. The difference of size between the letters forming the above words, and those of the preceding participle, and following date (" erected" and 1804") qualifies those several portions of the sentence to fill the respective spaces allotted by the sculptor, and accidentally affords the only prima facie shadow of doubt as to their strict connexion.

Mr. URBAN,

IN

N continuation of Mr. Lemoine's account of Mr. Charles Marsh in your Magazine for December last, p. 519, I beg to add, that bis Son, therein mentioned, was an extraordinary instance of hereditary temper. After being a bishop's boy at Westminster School, he was elected off to Trinity College, Cambridge, and being of superior abilities and scholarship, gained several prizes with great honour: from thence he was made a clerk in

tive and very lucrative service in this office, he retired on a pension of a thousand pounds per annum, being far advanced in life, and having realised a very considerable fortune, to a villa he purchased on the banks of the Thames at Twickenham, of which he had very little enjoyment. He died at the age of 78, in January last, (as far as has appeared) intestate, to the great surprize of his only surviving sister, and her only son, who, as next of kin, and heir at law, found themselves possessed of all his large property. He was buried in Westminster-abbey! His parsimony was extreme in every thing but books; in which his father, from a parish clerk, had risen to be a dealer. N.E.

Mr. URBAN, Birmingham, July 8. [T may be acceptable to your Cor

T

respondent B. (vol. LXXXII. page 435), to be informed that Tusser died in London, in 1580, and was buried in St. Mildred's in the Poultry, with the following Epitaph: "Here Thomas Tusser, clad in earth, doth lie,

That sometime made the Points of Husbandrie:

By him then learne thou maist, here learne we must,

When all is done, we sleepe, and turne to dust;

And yet, through Christ, to Heaven we
hope to goe;

Who reades his Bookes, shall find his
faith was so."
Yours, &c.

JOHN BLOUNT.

July 9.

NOT recollecting to have seen any

reply to the request of "An Old Correspondent," vel. LXXXI. part II. p. 357, for some account of an active writer in the controversy Benjamin Dawson, LL. D. who was excited by the publication of “The and author of various theological Confessional," above forty years ago, tracts *; I am induced to inform him that, so lately as Midsummer day last, the Doctor was, to my knowledge, still living, in very advanced age, and a state of much debility, at his rectory of Burgh, near Woodthe War-office, by the late Lord Bar- bridge, in Suffolk. He is the surrington, through the late Mr. Riviving brother of five (if no more) chard-Owen Cambridge's interest, with sous of a respectable Dissenting miwhom he quarreled long before his He also published several single ser◄ death. After many years of attennister,

mons.

nister, in his day, at or near Halifax; and it is remarkable, that of four of them, who were educated by him with a view of their entering into the same line as he was in, three became conformists to the Established Church. To mention them in the order of their birth, is beyond my ability. I have a clear recollection of Thomas Dawson's (afterwards M. D.) being either a fixed or occasional minister of the Gravel-pit meeting in Hackney, some time between the years 1750 and 1757, but do not know when he changed his profession. He was one of the Physicians to the London Hospital before, in, and after the year 1768 and I remember passing nearly a day with his still surviving brother Benjamin immediately after the latter's return from attending the funeral of Thomas, in the spring of the year 1782*; and his telling me that his recently-deceased relation never recovered the shock he sustained a few months before, by his brother Samuel's instant death in an apoplectic fit, whilst sitting at his table, during a visit to him at Hackney. This seems to be the person mentioned in the Obituary of the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. LI. p. 444, as follows: "Sept. 26 (1781) Rev. Mr. Dawson, late rector of Ightham in Kent." I had heard that he had formerly been a chaplain in the Navy.

Another brother, Obadiah, was an eminent merchant at Leeds, and died, I believe, within the last twenty years.

Another was Abraham Dawson, M. A. long rector of Ringsfield, near Beccles, in Suffolk, who published, at three or four different times, a new translation from the original Hebrew of several chapters of the book of Genesis, with notes, critical and explanatory; if I am not mistaken, he was living at a later period than the year 1800, but I do not find the decease of either of the two last mentioned recorded in the Obituaries of the Gentleman's Magazine. It was understood, many years ago, that Abraham and Benjamin were indebted for their preferment in the church to the interest of the very respectable family of BARNE, of Sotterley, Suffolk.

* Dr. Thomas Dawson remained a Dissenter till his death.

I feel restrained from touching upon some other circumstances, by a fear of being betrayed, through a fickle memory, into what might be inconsistent with the signature of * A FRIEND TO ACCURACY.

MR. URBAN,

July 2.

BEING much confined to the city for six days of the week, I generally take a ramble into the country on the Sabbath, and make it a constant practice to attend divine worship at some church in the vicinity of the metropolis: it is a duty I began in early life, and have continued for near half a century; and I hope I am the better for it in every sense of the word; but, Mr. Urban, my reason for troubling you with this letter is to make two or three observations upon the place set apart for the interment of the dead; which probably, however, have been made by some of your Correspondents before; however, I am ignorant of it if any one has, and it is a subject that will bear repetition until the evil is done away.

Sometimes, before the service begins, I amuse myself, and often receive instruction, by reading the inscriptions upon the stones or wooden rails, often indeed,

"With uncouth rhymes and shapeless sculpture deck'd,"

but still impressing some moral or religious sentiment upon the heart. I have frequently seen, and seen with regret, animals of various descrip- tions, as a horse, a cow, an ass, and sometimes pigs, trampling over, and tearing up the graves, and destroying the little mound of earth that Piety and Religion have raised: this certainly is wrong; and I should think no being, that has a spark of charity within him, but would condemn it.

After a poor man has trained a few briars, perhaps all he could do, over the grave of a good Wife, or an affectionate Child, it is mortifying in the extreme, and harrowing up the finest feelings of Nature, that the next time he comes to shed the tear of affection, or breathe the pious sigh of resignation over a beloved relation, he shall find all his labour in vain, the grave trampled down, and an animal browzing over it: the sorrows and affections of the poor should be held as sacred as the sorrows of the rich; for,

"Ev'n from the tomb the voice of Na

ture cries,"

and Nature is the same in all, whether we be carried to our last home in an escutcheon'd hearse and six, or borne on the shoulders of our sor

rowing neighbours. And uncharitable, cold, and flinty indeed must that heart be, which does not feel for the afflictions of the poor.-Savages, in all parts of the world, hold the repositories of their dead in veneration, and the Morais of the Southern Islanders are held sacred: let it not be said that the English Clergy pay less respect to their departed brethren than the untutored savages! The remedy is easy: the herbage of a church-yard (if I am not misinformed) belongs to the Rector, Vicar, or Curate of the parish, no matter which ; if to the latter, I would by no means wish to deprive any inferior Son of the Church of his little emolument, well knowing how scantily he in general is rewarded in this world for his labours; and that the feed for his cow or his horse may be of consequence to him. What I propose is, to let the church-warden allow the

party entitled a certain sum annually (which might be agreed upon at a vestry) out of the church-rate, in lieu of it; and, considering how very trifling the church-rate is in most pavishes, that man must be the worst of churls who would refuse his assent to it and let the sexton take care, as is his duty, that the graves and rails are not trodden down, but kept

elean and neat.

In some cemeteries remote from the capital there is great neatness, and an appearance of religious veneration; and it would be thought as bad as sacrilege to deface or mutilate any memorial of the dead, however humble it might be. CIVIS.

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experiments, according to Dugdale, in April 1633; Jones being then surveyor of his Majesty's works (Charles I.)

West Front. (See Hollar's invaluable views in Dugdale.) First story: the old design obliterated; in lieu thereof, an extensive Corinthian portico of seven divisions was set up, with two columns and one pilaster combined, to make out the angles: a balustrade over the entablature; Corinthian doorways to the centre and side ailes. Second story: Carries on the said Order intermixed with some of the barbarisms of the preceding reign; where in the centre are three windows, pilasters on each side supporting pedestals, obelisks,

with attached monstrous scrolls. At the angles of this story, octangular cupolas, resting on square bases. In the gable of the roof, circular openings or windows; all the grounds in the upright rusticated. From this specimen of rustics, a sort of decoration contrived by chamfering off the four edges of the several courses of stone, we may set down the first general practice thereof, a practice still in high estimation among us, but with many variations; some of them tooled plain on their faces (Somerset-place), others cut like rock-work (Burlington-house gateway, Piccadilly), others merely indented to shew the chamfers (Bank).

North Side. Modernized Corin

thian-wise, from the return of the West front, including the North tran sept; pilasters topped with ball finishings. This spherical decoration may likewise be looked upon as one of the first instances of the kind, and, like rustics, has held its sway down to our own times (Chesterfield-house, &c. &c.) Windows with scrolls, consoles, &c. Transept innovated in the like fashion, with accompanying pilasters, obelisks, monstrous scrolls, &c. All the grounds rusticated.

South Side. Touched upon (including the transept), from a similar principle; but the transept made more modernly preposterous, if possible, than any of the other innovated lines of the devoted pile.

To what impulse must we attribute the different feelings of men at diffe rent periods? Is it interest, or is it fashion, that guides the mass of mankind on these occasions? Jones and his pa

trons

trons certainly beheld the Old Church with the utmost contempt, or he would not have been suffered to mask the lines in the cruel and reprehensible manner he did. We, and, it is to be hoped, not a few who gaze on the vestiges of the Eastern part of the church as given to us in all their pristine shew of sublime beauty, by our common venerated friend Hollar, conceive far otherwise; we admire them, and at the same time regret that to Sir C. Wren was given the opportunity of carrying on the reformation (as he terms it) of the whole building; but the great Fire of London, and his ready hand, too soon doomed all its glories to one certain and final destruction. But more of this in the due order of our progress. Jones's school, thus set forth on such an extensive scale, was soon followed in every part of the country; and each degree of building, both ecclesiastical and civil, that had known a prior creation to his day, began to shrink from the hateful model; and, as an illustrative consequence of such turn in our architecture, take

KIRBY HOUSE, Northamptonshire, (surveyed 1783). From various dates dispersed about the walls, it is evident they were first raised in Elizabeth's time, and it is said by Lord Chancellor Hatton, and those alterations since wrought thereon are clearly of the new school; indeed, tradition gives strong assurance in this respect, as it is the owner's pride to avow his having in possession such a choice treasure of Jones's skill, the improvements being done from his immediate designs, and under his own immediate eye.

Plan. A large square of four fronts. inclosing a court, or quadrangle.

West front, by Inigo Jones. The line breaks but in a very small degree in the centre, and at each end, giving three principal objects, that in the centre being the most conspicuous. The face of the upright, regular. First story: In the centre break, a portico with an archway and niches on each side. On the spaces right and left between the breaks, four windows, with flat arched beads, and plain kneed architraves. Side breaks, a ditto window. Second story: one arch-headed window, with plain architraves and key-stones, and balconies supported by consoles to each of the

three breaks. The spaces right and left, four windows, plain architraves and entablatures. Rustics to the three breaks. Third story centre break, three windows with plain architraves. Side breaks, circular windows, the surrounding grounds finishing with scrolls, pediments, balls, &c. The centre break finishes with two tier of turrets, each having balustrades. The finish of the side spaces are with balustrades, a centrical circular dormer window, its head circular, bound by scrolls, balls, &c. Inferior dormer windows likewise occur. note these dormers, as some of the early productions of the Jones's school, and carried on through a succession of years to our present convenient part of mansion arrangement; as to their architectural beauty, the least said the better. The other three fronts existing in their primæval Elizabethan forms, need not be described.

Let us

Quadrangle. West side by I. Jones: First story; divided into an arcade of seven arches; at each end of this side, small breaks for windows. On the piers between each arch, which arch bas piers and archivaults, are pedestals bearing Ionic pilasters; the two centre pedestals and shafts filled with foliage, candelabras, and figures, while the other pedestals are left plain, and the shafts of the pilasters fluted. The capitals square faced, volutes plain,the ovolos between them having the egg and anchor ornament, and the die of the capital, laid with foliage. The entablature in the architrave and frieze is confined to the outline of the pilaster; the cornice which meets the parapet of the second story, runs through its line. Within the arcade are niches, enriched with pedestals, kneed architraves, scrolls, and pediments. Windows in side breaks, plain kneed architraves, and flat arched heads. A general ornamented string is seen. Second story: Over each arch of the arcade a window; that in the centre an arched head, with a keystone, accompanied with pilasters, architrave, consoles, and circular broken pediment, inclosing a fine busto after the Apollo, made of composition: the sweeping foot on which it stands bears the date 1638. The window opens into a balcony supported by consoles. The other windows square, headed, with plain kneed architraves, pilasters,

pilasters, and consoles; in their friezes a tablet, blockings; they have pediments also, two of them circular. In two of the tablets to these windows, this date, 1640, is repeated. A general parapet next takes place, into which rise the pediments of the said windows. Circular-headed windows, with plain architraves and compartments over them, in side breaks. Over the entablature to each pilaster, small pedestals, they making out the decorative part of the parapet, each finishing with a ball, and a sort of vase ornament. Third story rising in the centre of the upright, two square-headed windows, plain architraves, with entablatures and pediments; between them a clock dial. On each side of this story large sweeping scroll compartments. This story finishes with a balustrade, topped with an urn aud balls. Fourth story; still carrying up the centrical portion of the design, contains two small windows similar to those in the third story. A second balustrade ensues, with balls, &c. A plain arched and scroll-headed bell-turret gives the concluding lines of the elevation.

North side of the quadrangle. It consists of two stories, each story has six large mullioned windows; these, with the walls, or faces of the upright, and chimneys of detached Ionic pilasters, shew in part the first features of the house in Elizabeth's reign. Inigo has introduced three pedestals and pilasters corresponding with those on his West side, and four door-ways, each made out by square heads, pedestals, Ionic fluted pilas ters, entablatures, &c. Friezes cnriched. Ornamented string entablature, and parapet run in continuation with the like decorations on the West side, though plainer in the ornamental detail.

South side of the quadrangle similar.

East side of the quadrangle. Eight large original mullioned windows, extending the height of the elevation; between them, pedestals, Ionic fluted pilasters, entablature, and parapet, being in continuation of Jones's work on the other three sides of the quadrangle. In the centre of the line a frontispiece breaks forward in three stories; the two first in Inigo's best manner, and the third story in the best manner of Elizabeth's reigu,

To account for this third story being left untampered with, we must suppose the lordly master in Jones's time had some political qualms of conscience, by reflecting on the means, perhaps, whereby such a noble house at first was bade to rise. First story, an arched entrance: on each side, pedestals, and double fluted Ionic pilasters; enriched frieze in the entablature. Second story, arched window, opening into a balcony, which is supported by double consoles. This window has pilasters, consoles, key-stone, circular pediment, broke in the centre, enclosing a sweeping foot for a busto (the busto lost), with the date 1638. On each side of the window high enriched consoles, by way of pedestals, support double Corinthian pilasters; the entablature of this story ornamented in the friezes, and broke into by the circular head of the centre window. Third story a continued pedestal, with compartments, containing a motto and date: "JE SERAY LOYAL." Scrolls at each extremity of the pedestal. On the said pedestal stand eight consoles for the support of eight composite pilasters, with an enriched entablature. On the grounds between each pilaster, high-laboured Mosaic ornaments. The entablature crowned by a sweeping compartment, filled with a candelabrum, pateræ, and other ornaments. Small pedestals on the crown, and on each end of the entablature, finishing with balls and ornaments. At each extremity of the upright is a corre sponding union of pilasters, grounds, sweeping crowns, and balls with ornaments. The chimneys are like those mentioned on the other elevations. In the right portion of this Eastern side is situated the Hall, or one large room. The several chambers range in a regular line round the quadrangle; but they are of no very remarkable interest, therefore not particularised. The material, stone.

1572.

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