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THE

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE

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LONDON GAZETTE GENERAL EVENING M.Post M. Herald Morning Chronic. Times-M. Advert, P.Ledger&Oracle Brit. Press-Day St. James's Chron. Sun-Even. Mail Star-Traveller Pilot--Statesman Packet-Lond. Chr. Albion--C. Chrou.. Courier-Globe Eng. Chron.--Inq. Cour d'Angleterre Cour. de Londres 150therWeekly P. 17 Sunday Papers Hue & Cry Police Lit. Adv. monthly Bath 3-Bristol 5 Berwick-Boston Birmingham 4 Blackb. Brighton Bury St. Edmund's

Camb.-Chath.

Carli.2--Chester 2

Chelms. Cambria.

OCTOBER, 1812.

CONTAINING

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Cornw Covent. 2
Cumberland 2
Doncaster--Derb.)
Dorchest.--Essex
Exeter 2. Glouc, 2.
Halifax-Hanst 2
Hereford, Hull 3
Ipswich 1, Kent 4
Lancast.-Leices.2
Leeds2, Liverp. 6
Maidst. Manch. 4
Newc.3.-Notts.2
Northampton

Norfolk, Norwich
N. Wales Oxford2

Reading-Salisb.

Salop-Sheffield2

Portsea-Pottery

Preston-Plym. 2

Sherborne, Sussex

Shrewsbury

Staff-Stamf. 2

Taunton-Tyne

Wakefi.-Warw.

Worc. 2-YORK 3
IRELAND 37
SCOTLAND 24

Sunday Advertise.!
Jersey 2. Guern. 2.

Epitaphs on Mrs. Mason & Lady Palmerstonibid.
Epitaph by Bishop Lowth, and on Dr. Carr? ibid,
Original Letter of Lord Foley.-Bellingham ib.
LITERARY INTELL.-Index Indicatorius... 344

Meteorological Diaries for Sept. & October 306 | Authors of the Translation of Aristoetus 343
On the late Volcanic Eruptionatst. Vincent's 507
Eruption of Souffrier Mountain described. ibid.
Specimensof Poetryin"Hawking Moralized"310
Description of the NewTheatre, Drury-lane 311
Notices respecting Sir James Ackworth 313 REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS; viz.
Goods of Englishmen dying in Poland ...ibid. Miss Seward's Letters, concluded........... 345
Proceedings against E. of Ranelagh, 1702-3.314 Tales, by the Rev. Geo. Crabbe, concluded 346
Sir T. Stafford, son of the Earl of Totness 315 Account of Ireland; by Edward Wakefield 349
Torkington's Pilgrimage toJerusalem, 1517. 316 Galt's Life, &c. of Cardinal Wolsey....... 353
Present Condition of the Unbeneficed Clergy 319 Account of the Leamington Spa Charity, &c. 357
State of Trade in Ninth and Tenth Centuries 320 Windham's Speeches, with Life by Amyot 359
Topographical Description of Wycliffe.... 321 Freeston's Enquiry into Modern Socinianism 363
Mr. Abauzit's Illustration of 1 Chron. xx. 3. 324ELECT POETRY for October 1812....365-368
Names of the Editors of the Geneva Bible 357
Passage in St. Luke's Gospel illustrated... 328
Premiums for the Study of Hebrew in Dublin 6.
MSS. of the late Emanuel Mendes da Costa 329
Jewish Bonds of the Thirteenth Century.. ibid.
Daniel's Expedition to India, concluded... 332
Observations respecting PoliciesofInsurance334
Strictures on the Corn Trade, &c........... 335
Ld. Harrowby's Bill for Provision for Curates 337
Improvements in Westminster Abbey...... 338
ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION, NO. CLXVII. 339
Inigo Jones's Designs for Whitehall........ 340

Proceedings in late Session of Parliament 369
interesting Intell.from the London Gazettes 376
Abstract of principal Foreign Occurrences $80
Country News,386 --Domestic Occurrences 383
Theatrical Register. -Gazette Promotions 389
Civil Promotions.-Ecclesiastical Prefer. ibid
Births and Marriages of eminent Persons.. 390
Menioirs of the late Rev. Lewis Dutens... 391
Obituary, with Anec. of remarkable Persons 397
Memoirs of the late Robert Hunter, esq. 404
Bill of Mortality.-Prices of the Markets 405
Prices of Stocks on each day in October 406

Embellished with a View of the Principal Front of DRURY LANE THEATRE; and with
Sketches of Monuments, Arms, &c. in WYCLIFFE CHURCH, Yorkshire.

By SYLVANUS URBAN, GENT.

Printed by NICHOLS, SON, and BENTLEY, at CICERO'S HEAD, Red Lion Passage, Fleet-str. London; where all Letters to the Editor are desired to be addressed, POST-PAID

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The average degrees of Temperature, from observations made at eight o'clock in the morning, are 53-4 100ths; those of the corresponding month in the year 1811, were 55-53 100ths; in 1810, 56-40 100ths; in 1809, 56-76 100ths; in 1808, 45-80 100ths; in 1807, 48-27 100ths; in 1806, 54-52 100ths; in 1805, 58 100ths; and in 1804, 56-32 100ths.

The quantity of Rain fallen this month is equal to 1 inch 90 100ths; that of the corresponding month in the year 1811, was 4 inches 5 100ths; in 1810, 2 inches 66 100ths; in 1809, 4 inches 16 100ths; in 1808, 4 inches 36 100ths; in 1807, 3 inches 69 100ths; in 1806, 1 inch 81 100ths; in 1805, 1 inch 59 100ths; and in 1804, 23 100ths of an inch.

METEOROLOGICAL TABLE for October, 1812. By W. CARY, Strand. Height of Fahrenheit's Thermometer.

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Height of Fahrenheit's Thermometer.

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60 64 46
44 58 52
45 62 47
47 57 50

,30 cloudy
,39 fair
,20 stormy

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,44 showery
,37 rain

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50 53 45

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THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE,

For OCTOBER, 1812.

Mr. URBAN, Stoke Newington, Oct. 3. THE THE occurrence of a very extraordinary volcanic eruption at St. Vincent's, one of the Caribbee Islands, having induced much surprise and inquiry, I transmit to you an authentic detail of particulars, drawn up by a scientific observer on the Island, and printed there. I received it from a neighbour of mine, intimately connected with the West Indies; and some of your constant Readers are anxious to see it recorded in your valuable Journal, for the information of the publick, and of posterity.

It may not be unimportant to add that additional communications, received by my neighbour, report, that all the European Settlers on the Caribbee lands of the Island, Windward or Eastward, in the vicinity of the Souffrier Mountain, suffered much, most of the estates being covered 10 or 12 inches thick, with stones and dust. One gentleman, proprietor of an estate on the opposite or SouthWest side of the Island, happened to be absent at the time of the explosion. On his return, he found the buildings and the estate completely covered with the volcanic eruption of dust, stones, &c and that 27 of his negroes were killed. Many of the estates on the land, however, will suffer but little. It is indeed thought, that they will benefit from the light coat of sand fallen upon them. In the course of a few days after the explosion, the rains that fell cleared the ground in many places, and vegetation began again to appear. The Rabacca river, that turned several mills, was completely dried up; but a hope was entertained that it would again run.

It is to be observed that the wind, between the Tropics, always blows to the Westward; and that Barbadoes, nevertheless, which is 70 miles due East of St. Vincent's, was actually

covered, two inches thick, with the volcanic dust. Day-light did not appear in Barbadoes, on the day after the explosion, till two o'clock in the afternoon; and the inhabitants were obliged to use candles in their habitations and streets, to the above period. What is still more extraordinary, but no less true, is, that vessels at sea, some 300, and others 500, miles to windward of St. Vincent's, had their decks covered with volcanic dust. In the Islands of Grenada, Tobago, and Antigua, the garrisons were, at night, put under arms, in consequence of the thundering noise they heard, which they supposed to proceed from hostile fleets in the neighbourhood.

How to account for such extraor dinary phænomena, is far beyond my power. It shall, therefore, be left to those who investigate the works of God in the natural world; and I will only express a wish, that these awful occurrences may lead us seriously to contemplate THE POWER AND MAJES TY OF THE GREAT CREATOR, and to prepare for rTHAT TREMENDOUS DAY, when the WHOLE" Earth shall tremble and quake, and the very foundation also of the hills shake, and be removed;" when "the Heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the Elements shall melt with fervent heat; the Earth also, and the works that are therein, shall be burned up ;" and when there will be heard, "as the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Hallelujah! for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth: let us be glad, and rejoice, and give honour unto hiin."

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Yours, &c.

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G. G. Description of the Eruption of the SOUFFRIER MOUNTAIN, on Thursday Night the 30th April, 1812, in the Island of ST. VINCENT.

"The Souffrier Mountain, the most Northerly of the lofty cham running through the centre of this Island, and

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the highest of the whole, as computed by the most accurate survey that has yet been taken, had for some time past indicated much disquietude; and from the extraordinary frequency and violence of earthquakes, which are calculated to, have exceeded 200 within the last year, portended some great movement, or eruption. The apprehension, however, was not so immediate, as to restrain curiosity, or to prevent repeated visits to the crater, which of late had been more nun e, ous than at any former period, even up to Sunday last, the 26th of April, when some gentlemen as ended it, and remained there for some time. Nothing unusual was then remarked, or any external difference observed, except rather a stronger emission of smoke from the interstices of the conical hill at the .bottom of the crater. To those who chave not visised this romantic and wonderful spot, a slight description of it, as it lately stood, is previously necessary, and indispensable, to form any conception of it, and to the better understanding the account which followsfor no one living can expect to see it again in the perfection and beauty in which it was on Sunday the 26th inst.

"About 2000 feet from the 'evel of the sea (calculating from conjecture), on the South side of the mountain, and rather more than two thirds of its height, 'opens a circular chasm, somewhat exceeding half a mile in diameter, and between 4 and 500 feet in depth: exactly in the centre of this capacious bowl rose - a conical hill, about 260 or 300 feet in height, and about 200 in diameter, rich ly covered and variegated with shrubs, brushwood, and vines, above half-way up, and for the remainder, powdered over with, virgin sulphur to the top. From the fissures in the cone and interstices of the rocks, a thin white smoke' was constantly emitted, occasionally tinged with a slight bluish flame. The precipitous sides of this magnificent amphitheatre were fringed with various evergreens, and aromatic shrubs, flowers, and many Alpine plants. On the North and South sides of the base of the cone, were two pieces of water, one perfectly pure and tasteless; the other strongly impregnated with sulphur and alum. This lonely and beautiful spot was rendered more enchanting by the singularly melodious notes of a bird, an inhabitant of these upper solitudes, and altogether unknown to the other parts of the Island, hence fancifully called, or supposed to be, invisible, though it certainly has been seen, and is a species of the Merle.

"A century had now elapsed since the last convulsion of the mountain, or

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since any other elements had disturbed the serenity of this wilderness than those which are common to the Tropical tempest. It apparently slumbered in primæval solitude and tranquillity; and from the luxuriant vegetation and growth of the forest, which covered its sides from the base nearly to the summit, seemed to discountenance the fact, and falsify the records of the antient Volcano. Such was the majestic and peaceful Souffrier on April the 27th; but we trod ignem repositum cineri doloso, and our imaginary safety was soon to be confounded by the sudden danger of devastation. Just as the plantation bells rang 12 at noon on Monday the 27th, an abrupt and dreadful crash from the Mountain, with a severe concussion of the earth, and tremulous moise in the air, alarmed all around it. The resurrection of this fiery furnace was proclaimed in a moment, by a vast column of thick, black, ropey smoke, like that of an immense glass-house, bursting forth at once, and mounting to the sky showering down sand, with gritty calcined particles of earth and favilla mixed, on all below. This, driven before the wind towards Wallibou and Morne Ronde, darkened the air like a cataract of rain, and covered the ridges, woods, and cane pieces, with light gray-coloured ashes, resembling snow when slightly covered by dust. As the eruption increased, this continual shower expanded, destroying every appearance of vegetation. At night a very considerable degree of ignition was observed on the lips of the crater, but it is not asserted that there was as yet any visible ascension of flame. The same awful scene presented itself on Tuesday; the fail of favilla and calcined pebbles still increasing, and the compact pitchy column from the crater, rising perpendicularly to an immense height, with a noise at intervals like the muttering of distant thunder. On Wednesday the 29th, all these menacing symptoms of horror and combustion still gathered more thick and terrific, for miles around the dismal and half-obscured Mountain. The prodigious column shot up with quicker motion, dilating as it rose, like a balloon. The sun appeared in total eclipse, and shed a meridian twilight over us, that aggravated the wintry gloom of the scene, now completely powdered over with falling particles. It was evident that the crisis was as yet to come; that the burning fluid was struggling for a vent, and labouring to throw off the superincumbent strata and obstructions, which suppressed the ignivomous torrent. At night it was manifest that it

had

had greatly disengaged itself from its burthen, by the appearance of fire flashing now and then above the mouth of the

crater.

"On Thursday the memorable 30th of April, the reflexion of the rising sun on this majestic body of curling vapour was sublime beyond imagination-any comparison of the Glaciers, of the Andes, or Cordilleras with it, can but feebly convey an idea of the fleecy whiteness and brilliancy of this awful column of intermingled and wreathed smoke and clouds. It afterwards assumed a more sulphureous cast, like what we call thunder-clouds, and in the course of the day a ferruginous and sanguine appearance, with much livelier action in the ascent, and a more extensive dilation, as if almost freed from every obstruction. In the afternoon the noise was incessant, and resembled the approach of thunder still nearer and nearer, with a vibration, that affected the feelings and hearing.As yet there was no convulsive motion, or sensible earthquake. Terror and consternation now seized all beholders. The Charaibs settled at Morne Ronde, at the foot of the Souffrier, abandoned their houses, with their live stock and every thing they possessed, and fled precipitately towards town. The negroes became confused, forsook their work, looked up to the mountain, and, as it shook, trembled, with the dread of what they could neither understand or describe. The birds fell to the ground, overpowered with showers of favilla, unable to keep themselves on the wing; the cattle were starving for want of food, as not a blade of grass or a leaf was now to be found. The sea was much discoloured, but in no wise uncommonly agitated; and it is remarkable, that throughout the whole of this violent disturbance of the earth, it continued quite passive, and did not at any time sympathize with the agitation of the land. About four o'clock P. M. the noise became more alarming, and just before sun-set the (clouds reflected a bright copper colour, suffused with fire. Scarcely had the day closed, when the fiame burst at length pyramidically from the crater, through the mass of smoke; the rolling of the thunder became more awful and deafening. Electric flashes quickly succeeded, attended with loud claps; and now indeed the hurlyburly began. Those only who have witnessed such a sight, can form any idea of the magnificence and variety of the lightning and electric flashes; some forked zig-zag playing across the perpendicular column from the crater- others shooting upwards from the mouth like rockets of the most

dazzling lustre-others like shells with their trailing fuzes flying in different parabolas, with the most vivid scintillations from the dark sanguine column, which now seemed inflexible, and immoveable by the wind. Shortly after seven P. M. the mighty cauldron was seen to simmer, and the ebullition of lava to break out on the N. W. side, This, immediately after boiling over the orifice and flowing a short way, was opposed by the acclivity of a higher point of land, over which it was impelled by the immense tide of liquified fire that drove it on, forming the figure V in grand illumination. Sometimes, when the ebullition slackened, or was insufficient to urge it over the obstructing hill, it recoiled back, like a refluent billow from the rock, and then again rushed forward, impelled by fresh supplies, and scaling every obstacle, carrying rocks and woods together in its course down the slope of the mountain, until it precipitated itself down some vast ravine, concealed from our sight by the intervening ridges of Morne Ronde. Vast globular bodies of fire were seen projected from the fiery furnace, and bursting, fell back into it, or over it, on the surrounding bushes, which were in, stantly set in flames. About four hours from the lava boiling over the crater, it reached the sea, as we could observe from the reflection of the fire, and the electric flashes attending it. About half past one another stream of lava was seen descending to the Eastward towards Rabacca: the thundering noise of the mountain, and the vibration of sound that had been so formidable hitherto, now mingled with the sullen monotonous roar of the rolling lava, became so terrible, that dismay was almost turned into despair: at this time the first earthquake was felt; this was followed by showers of cinders, that fell with the hissing noise of hail during two hours. At three o'clock a rolling on the roofs of the houses indicated a fall of stones, which soon thickened, and at length descended in a rain of intermingled fire, that threatened at once the fate of Pompei, or Herculaneum. The crackling and coruscations from the crater, at this period, exceeded all that had yet passed. The eyes were struck with momentary blindness, and the cars stunned with the glomeration of sounds. People sought shelter in cellars, under rocks, or any where for every where was nearly the same; and the miserable negroes flying from their huts, were knocked down or wounded,and many killed in the open air. Several houses were set on fire. The estates situated in the immediate vici

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