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given. He should be left free and uninterrupted to express in his own way all that he has learned, and not be checked in his recital, even though he should introduce error or omit some essential item. At the conclusion of his narration, the class may rectify errors and supply omissions. This review is of great importance, for it cannot be maintained that the child has understood the subject unless he is able to express the acquired knowledge in his own words. Its value is fully recognized by modern educators, and has been advocated by them as an indispensable factor in the process of teaching. "No impression without corresponding expression has become a maxim in both physiology and psychology. Inner life implies self-expression in external activities. The stream of impressions pouring in upon us hourly from our environment must have means of expression if development is to follow. We cannot be passive recipients, but must be active participants in the educational process.'' The teacher should, therefore, insist upon this review and never allow it to be omitted or crowded out; neither should any set form of words be required from the pupil, lest this review become a mere matter of memory and fail completely in its chief purpose of apperception.

These two steps-preparation and presentation-complete the process of apperception. The remaining three steps make up the second process in the acquisition of knowledge-the process of abstraction. The success of this second process depends upon the perfect carrying out of the two steps of the first process. The result of preparation and presentation is a knowledge of a single object from which the child must be led onward to general laws and truths, which can be arrived at through the matter just studied. This work is begun by the third step in Herbart's process-association, "which regulates in three ways the formation of general concepts: first, by comparison of things similar and related; secondly, by comparison of contrasts; thirdly, by changes of sequence. '72 Care should be taken that only things clearly related and closely connected should be put together in the minds of the pupils, a remote resemblance is not sufficient for association. A careful comparison of objects will bring to light the differences as well as the similarities, and thus the contrasts found to exist between two objects will help to es

71 Betts, The Mind and Its Education, p. 246. New York, 1907.

tablish a more complete knowledge of each. The third way, changes of sequence, can be used with great profit particularly in mathematics, though it is not without its advantages in other subjects also.

The fourth step is recapitulation, called by Herbart "system." By this is meant "arranging the acquired concepts in the series and groups which their nature necessitates, so that the pupil may gradually see them as an ordered whole."" The purpose of this step is to group concepts, general truths, laws, in a systematic order, so that they can be applied readily by the pupils when occasion presents itself. The pupil should in this phase become master of the knowledge acquired, gain complete control over it, be rendered capable of using it skilfully and profitably at each new experience with which he meets. It is the final adjusting, the finishing touch, as it were, to all the knowledge acquired on the particular subject in hand. It makes it as serviceable to the pupil "as a well-arranged library in which a book can be instantly found.""74

The final step in Herbart's process of teaching is application, termed by him "method." Method is here not to be understood in that general sense in which it is commonly used and which would cover the whole process. Method as used in this last step by Herbart means "how to utilize practically the acquired concepts, rules, laws, etc.'"75 It is the practical application of the new knowledge to every circumstance, every observation, every further perception that comes within the experience of the pupil. This is the real test of the thorough assimilation of the subject; for it cannot be considered thoroughly assimilated if merely retained by the mind as an item of knowledge; it must become an active power, a fecund truth, i. e. it must be made functional in the subsequent mental activity.

Such then are the steps set forth by Herbart for the process of teaching. It is evident that a lesson given in accordance with this plan cannot fail to bring about the desired result, viz. a complete understanding, thorough assimilation, and a functional knowledge of the subject. "This methodical procedure proposes to secure to the scholar a natural and thorough appropriation of the material of instruction." Herbart realized,

73 Felkin, Op. cit., p. 115.

74 Ibid., p. 115.

75 Ibid., p. 116.

however, that all of these five steps cannot be used with younger pupils, whose mental powers are not yet sufficiently developed to carry out the third, fourth, and fifth steps, which make up the process of abstraction. The teacher's work with such children must necessarily be limited to the process of apperception, with the addition in some instances of a slight beginning of grouping or association, according to the capacity of the pupils. Herbart emphatically warns the teacher against a premature attempt to generalize. "Generalization must not be premature; it must always come out as ripe fruit from a fulness of similar concrete experiences. It is not to be developed artificially, if it is not to remain an empty word, a plant without roots. It should not appear until the richness of the material of instruction and the very variety of what is learned compel the combination and arrangement of the essential elements in a generalization. The pupil in the lower grades must accordingly be spared the effort of abstraction.'”

A prominent factor of Herbart's pedagogy, which should be kept in view during the entire process of teaching, is interest. Compayré makes the following comment upon this point in Herbart's doctrine: "The essential condition of fruitful instruction is that it excites 'interest' and attracts it. A pedagogical theorist may be allowed to be dull (and it must be acknowledged that Herbart sometimes permits himself this), but the practical teacher, the schoolmaster, commits a fatal sin if he is dull; the first duty of a master is to be interesting. '78 "Interest as Herbart understood it," he continues, "is at once the characteristic of things which captivates the attention, and a feeling of curiosity, of alertness and activity of intellect, manifested in the mind. The term interest, then, is two-faced; it belongs at the same time to the object which arouses the taste and the subject in whom the taste is aroused. It is interest which is the spring of mental activity, the principle of intellectual life. It keeps the attention of the class centred on the lips of a skillful master, and likewise fixes it and holds it to the observation of things that please them, or to carrying out attractive pieces of work to the end.""79 Interest was deemed so necessary by Herbart that he considered it the secondary aim of instruction, and looked upon that instruction as missing its end which failed to arouse

77 Lange, Op. cit., p. 233.

78 Compayre, Herbart, p. 47.

interest, because it thereby also failed to generate volition. "The final aim of instruction is morality. But the nearer aim which instruction in particular must set before itself in order to reach the final one, is many-sidedness of interest.''80

In this consideration of interest as conceived by Herbart it must be carefully noted that he makes an important distinction between interest as a means of instruction and interest as an aim of instruction. A teacher may arouse interest in order to impress the material upon the mind of the child; in this case interest is a means, while the acquisition of knowledge is the aim. Or a teacher may make interest the aim of instruction and use apperception as a means; this interest, not used as a means, is considered by Herbart of educative value, for it alone tends to strengthen the will, and encourages to new effort, thereby developing character. Hence its important place as a secondary aim of education. In Herbart's own words, "interest means in general that species of mental activity which instruction must create, but which has no place in mere knowledge. For we conceive of the latter as a store which the man may entirely dispense with, and yet be no other than with it. He who, on the contrary, holds his knowledge firmly and seeks to extend it, is interested in it.


Many-sided interest which is pointed out by Herbart as an aim of instruction is then an interest in the manifold. Not that one can be expected to reach out and master a great variety of subjects, but that one should have the desire to extend his knowledge of things as far as circumstances permit. It is opposed to one-sidedness-acquaintance with a small sphere of knowledge, with no desire to reach out beyond this little world of thought into other regions. "Interest," says Herbart, "arises from interesting objects and occupations. Many-sided interest originates in the wealth of these. To create and develop this interest is the task of instruction.' '82

Many-sided interest is divided by Herbart into two main classes, according to the fundamental sources from which interest springs. These are 1) interest arising from knowledge, and 2) interest arising from sympathy. These again he subdivides, each into three kinds. Interest arising from knowledge is either empirical, speculative, or aesthetic. Empirical interest

80 Felkin, Op. cit., p. 90.

82 Herbart, Science of Education, p. 120.

grows out of experience and observation, the knowledge thus acquired pleases the mind and awakens a desire to see more of Nature's wonderful creations. Speculative interest grows out of the child's reflections on the objects seen, creating a desire to know the reasons for things, their final causes. Aesthetic interest arises from the contemplation of beauty in nature, art, and human conduct, without reference to the number and variety of objects, nor to their origin. It excites a pure delight in the sight of the beautiful wherever it is to be found.

Interest arising from sympathy is either personal, social, or religious. Personal sympathetic interest is the result of intercourse, and is felt by the child when it shares the joy or grief of those persons with whom it comes in contact. Social interest reaches out beyond the narrow sphere of home and school to which personal interest is confined. It embraces the larger relationships of society, concerns itself with the good of mankind in general. Religious interest is that which grows out of the knowledge that the order and beauty of the world is the work of a Divine Being who is the "Father of mankind."

All six forms of interest must be developed if the purpose of instruction is to be accomplished. The neglect of any one would rob interest of its epithet many sided. Furthermore, not only must all six forms be developed but they must be cultivated equally, their growth must go on simultaneously, and in equal measures; in Herbart's words "many-sided, far-reaching, immediate interest must be also harmonious, proportioned, balanced.'' The perfection of morality, which is Herbart's ultimate aim of instruction, can be reached only through the exercise of all equally. A pupil who is more inclined to individual than to religious or social interests, and who fosters the first to the neglect of the other two, will not acquire an all-round, well-balanced character; likewise one who does not value equally a knowledge of the origin of things as well as of their variety and beauty, falls short of the perfection of morality. Nor can the pupil who cultivates the three sorts of interest arising from knowledge to the neglect of those arising from sympathy, or vice versa, attain to Herbart's ideal of morality.

Herbart was the first to recognize the value and power of interest as a factor in education, and it is unfortunate that our modern system of education has not derived more profit from

83 Felkin, Op. cit., p. 101.

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